Page images

We have little pyramids built by the san. terrace You will notice that I am stating my truth we should be as far as ever from the solution of above terrace from base to apex, forming is a strongly, as at the beginning we agreed it should the problem, “How are these physical processes series of steps, resembling those up which the be stated. But I must go still further, and connected with the facts of consciousness ?” The Egyptian traveller is dragged by his guides. The affirm that in the eye of science the animal chasm between the two classes of phenomena human mind is as little disposed to look at these body is just as much the product of molecular would still remain intellectually impassable. Let pyramidal salt-crystals without further question, force as the stalk and ear of corn, or as the the consciousness of love, for example, be assoas to look at the nids of Egypt without in- crystal or salt of sugar. Many of its parts are ciated with a right-handed spiral motion of the quiring whence they came. How, then, are those obviously mechanical. Take the human heart, for molecules of the brain, and the consciousness of salt-pyramids built up? Guided by analogy, you examplo, with its exquisite system of valves, or hate with a left-handed spiral motion. We should may sappose that, swarming among the constituent take the eye, or the hand. Animal heat, more-then know when we love that the motion is in one molecules, of the salt, there is an invisible popu- over, is the same in kind as the heat of a fire, direction, and when we hate that the motion is in lation, guided and coerced by some invisible master, being produced by the same chemical process. the other; but tho "why?” would still remain and placing the atomic blocks in their positions. Animal motion, too, is as directly derived from unanswered. This, however, is not the scientific idea, nor do I the food of the animal as the motion of Treve In affirming that the growth of the body is think your good sense will accept it as a likely thyck's walking-engine from the fuel in its fur- mechanical, and that thought, as exercised by us, one. The scientific idea is that the molecules act nace. As regards matter, the animal body has its correlative in the physics of the brain, I upon one another without the intervention of slave creates nothing; as regards force, it creates no- think the position of the materialist " is stated labour ; that they attract each other and repel each thing. Which of you by taking thought can as far as that position is a tenable one. I think other at certain definite points, and in certain add one cubit to his stature? All that has been the materialist will be able finally to maintain definite directions; and that the pyramidal form said regarding the plant may be re-stated with this position against all attacks; but I do not is the result of this play of attraction and repul- regard to the animal. Every particle that enters think, as the human mind is at present constision. While, then, the blocks of Egypt were laid into the composition of a muscle, a nerve, or a tuted, that he can pass beyond it. I do not think down by a power external to themselves, these bone, has been placed in its position by mole-ho is entitled to say that his molecular groupings molecular blocks of salt are self-posited, being cular force. And unless the existence of law in and his molecular motions explain everything. In fixed in their places by the forces with which they these matters be denied, and the element of reality they explain nothing. The utmost be can act upon each other.

caprice introduced, we'must conclude that, given affirm is the association of two classes of phenoBut passing from what we are accustomed to thê relation of any molecule of the body to its mena, of whose real bond of union he is in absoregard as a dead mineral to a living grain of corn. environment, its position in the body might be luto ignorance. The problem of the connection When it is examined by polarized light, chromatic predicted. Our difficulty is not with the quality of body and soul is as insoluble in its modern form phenomena similar to those noticed in crystals are of the problem, but with its complexity; and as it was in the prescientific ages. Phosphorus observed : and why? Because the architecture of this difficulty might be met by the simple ex- is known to enter into the composition of the the grain resembles in some degree the archi-pansion of the faculties which man now possesses. human brain, and a courageous writer has extecture of the crystal. In the corn the molecules Given this expansion, and given the necessary claimed, in his trenchant German, “Ohne phosphor are also set in definite positions, from which they molecular data, and the chick might be deduced kein Gedanko." That may or may not be the act upon the light. But what has built together as rigorously and as logically from the egg as caso ; but even if we knew it to be the case, the the molecules of the corn? I have already said the existence of Neptune was deduced from the knowledge would not lighten our darkness. On regarding crystalline architecture that you may, disturbances of Uranus, or as conical refraction both sides of the zone here assigned to the mateif you please, consider the atoms and mole-was deduced from the undulatory theory of rialist he is equally helpless. If you ask him cules to be placed in position by a power external light. You see I am not mincing matters, but whence is this a matter” of which we have been to themselves. The same hypothesis is open to avowing nakedly what many scientific thinkers discoursing, who or what divided it into moleculos, you now. But if, in the case of crystals, you have more or less distinctly believe. The formation who or what impressed upon them this necessity rejected this notion of an external architect, I of a crystal, a plant, or an animal, is in their of running into organic forms, he has no answer. think you are bound to reject it now, and to con- eyes a purely mechanical problem, 'which differs Science also is mute in reply to these questions. clude that the molecules of the corn are self-posited from the problems of ordinary mechanics in the But if the materialist is confounded and science by the forces with which they act upon each other. smallness of the masses and the complexity of rendered dumb, who else is entitled to answer ? It would be poor philosophy to invoke an external the processes involved. Here you have one-half To whom has the secret been revealed? Let us agent in the one case and to reject it in the other. of our dual truth_let us now glance at the other lower our heads and acknowledge our ignorance Instead of cutting our grain of corn into thin slices half.

one and all. Perhaps the mystery may resolve and subjecting it to the action of polarized light, Associated with this wonderful mechanism of itself into knowledge at some future day. The let us place it in the earth and subject it to a cer- the animal body we have phenomena no less process of things upon this earth has been one of tain degree of warmth. In other words, let the certain than those of physics, but between which amelioration. It is a long way from the Iguamolecules, both of the corn and of the surrounding and the mechanism we discern no necessary nodon and his contemporaries to the president and earth, be kept in a state of agitation ; for warmth, connection. A man, for example, can say I feel, members of the British Association. And whether as most of you know, is, in the eye of science, I think, I love; but how does consciousness in- we regard the improvement from the scientific or tremulous molecular motion. Under these circum- fuse itself into the problem? The human brain from the theological point of view, as the result of stances, the grain and the substances which sur- is said to be the organ of thought and feeling; progressive development, or as the result of succesround it interact, and a molecular architecture is when we are hurt the brain feels it, when we

sive exhibitions of creative energy, neither view the result of this interaction. A bud is formed; ponder it is the brain that chinks, when our entitles us to assume that man's present faculties this bud reaches the surface, where it is exposed passions or affections are excited it is through ends the series—that the process of amelioration

to the sun's rays, which are also to be regarded as a the instrumentality of the brain. Let us en- stops at him. A time may, therefore, come when --kind of vibratory motion. And as the common deavour to be a little more precise here. I

this ultra-scientific region by which we are now motion of heat with which the grain and the sub- hardly imagine that any profound seiontific enfolded may offer itself to terrestrial, if not to stances surrounding it were srst erudoved enabled thinker who has reflected upon the subject exists

human investigation. Two-thirds of the rays the grain and these substances to coalesce, so the who would not admit the extremo probability emitted by the sun fail to arouse in the eye the specifio motion of the sun's rays now enables the of the hypothesis, that for every fact of conscious- sense of vision. The rays exist, but the visual green bud to feed upon the carbonic acid and the ness, whether in the domain of sense, of thought, organ requisito for their translation into light does aqueous vapour of the air, appropriating those con- or of emotion, a certain definite molecular con- not exist. And so from this region of darkness stituents of both for which the blade has an elective dition is set up in the brain ; that this relation and mystery which surrounds us, rays may now attraction, and permitting the other constituent to cf physics to consciousness is invariable, so that, be darting which require but the development of resume its place in the air. Thus forces are active givon the state of the brain, the corresponding into knowledge as far surpassing ours as ours does at the root, forces are active in the blade, the mat- thought or feeling might be inferred; or, given ter of the earth and the matter of the atmosphere the thought or feeling, the corresponding state of that of the wallowing reptilos which once held are drawn towards the plant, and the plant aug- the brain might be inferred. But how inferred? possession of this planet. Meanwhile the mystery ments in size. We have in succession tho bud, the It is at bottom not a case of logical inference at

is not without its uses. It certainly may be made stalk, the ear, the full corn in the ear. For the all, but of empirical association. You may reply

a power in the human soul; but it is a power forces here at play act in a cycle which is com- that many of the inferences of science are of this which has feeling, not knowledge, for its base. It pleted by the production of grains similar to that character; the inference, for example, that an may be and will be, and we hope is, turned to with which the process began. Now, there is electric current of a given direction will deflect a account, both in steadying and strengthening the nothing in this process which necessarily eludes magnetic needle in a definite way; but the cases intellect, and in rescuing man from that littleness the power of mind as we know it. An intellect the differ in this, that the passage from the current to to which, in the struggle for existence, or for presame in kind as our own would, if only sufficiently the needle, if not demonstrable, is thinkable, and cedence in the world, he is continually prone. expanded, be able to follow the whole process from that we entertain no doubt as to the final beginning to end. entirely new intellectual mechanical solution of the problem ; but the pass

SECTION B.-CHEMICAL SCIENCE. faculty would be needed for this purpose. The age from the physics of the brain to the corre- PRESIDENT—Professor Frankland, F.R.S. Vice-preduly expanded mind would see in the process and sponding facts of consciousness is unthinkable.sidents—Professor W. A. Miller, D.C.L. ; Warren its consummation an instance of the play of mole-Granted that a definite thought and a definite De la Rue, F.R.S. ; Professor Odling, F.R.S. ;

Procular force. It would see every molecule placed in molecular action in the brain simul- fessor Roscoe, F.R.S.; Professor Williamson, F.R.S.; its position by the specific attractions and repul- tanoously ; we do not possess the intellectual Sir B. Brodio, Bart., F.R.S.; Dr. Gladstone, F.R.S.; sions exerted between it and other molecules. organ, nor apparently any rudiment of the organ, and Professor Liveing. Secretaries-Dr. Crum Nay, given the grain and its environment, an in- which would enablê us to pass by a process of Brown, F.R.S.E., F.C.S.; Dr. Russell, F.C.S. ; and F. tellect the same in kind as our own, but sufficiently reasoning from the one phenomenon to the other. Sutton, F.C.S. expanded, might traco out a priori every step of Thoy appear together, but we do not know At the opening of the proceedings the President the process, and by the application of mechanical why. Wero our minds and senses so expindod, addressed the members of the section, noticing the principles would be able to demonstrate that the strengthened, and illuminated as to enable us to lack of Government assistance in providing suitcycle of action must ond, as it is seen to end, in see and feel the very molecules of the brain ; were ablo buildings for instruction in chemistry, and the reproduction of forms like that with which we capable of following all their motions, all their contrasting this country with Germany and the operation began. A similar necessity rules groupings, all their electric discharges, if such Switzerland. He also successively reviewed the here to that which rules the planets in their cir- there be ; and were we intimately acquainted with important results of chemical research during the cuits round the sun.

the corresponding states of thought and feeling, I past year.




The President remarked that the chemical- further north than Norwich. Although the con

physical observations were what chemistry in the fines of the neighbouring lands are not well known, BY MR. W. H. PERKIN, F.R.S.

future would have to look more into than it had there is no doubt that the crag always occupied a MR. PERKIN's paper was on the chlorido of methy- done in the past.

low level. At the same time, we have no evidence lene, found by the action of nascent hydrogen on

whatever that the crag sea extended as far as the

CHEMISTRY AS A BRANCH OF EDUCATION. chloroform. The essayist stated there could be

Wash. In connection with the denudation of Norno doubt that this question was one of considerable


folk, there was a problem he would like to see importance, because if isomerism exists in the The author divided his subject into two parts: settled. This was the existence of a layer of flints monocarbon series, in all probability it would be first, chemistry, as teaching facts useful to be lying on the solid chalk, to be seen in various parts found also to exist in the derivatives of all other known; and, second, as an instrument of general of the county. At Coltishall, he had found the polyatomic elements. Those considerations had and practical education. Under the first part of flints actually cropping out of the chalk in which induced him to commence a fresh examination of his subject he showed that chemistry might be their lower portions were embedded and passing some of the monocarbon derivatives, hoping that studied by boys from the age of six years, simple into this layer. It was in this identical stratum an experimental comparison of their properties and interesting truths being imparted to them, that the mammalian bones and teeth were most might in some degree help to the solution of this whilst elder youths might be taught facts which abundantly found. He then referred to the diffiproblem. He gave a description of the experi- they would retain in their minds from a previous culties attending any explanation, more particuments ho had made upon the chloride of methy- knowledge of arithmetic. Under the latter the larly that which regarded this layer as an old land lene, obtained from chloroform by the action of lecturer argued that chemistry had never been surface where the bones had accumulated. nascent hydrogen. Chloride of methylene obtained properly taught in schools as a means of educa Passing from this subject, Mr. Fisher next rein that manner, possessed the same (or nearly so) tion. It should be taught in lectures, which were viewed the order in which the crags succeeded each boiling point as that obtained by Buthrom from very different from lessons, for in the latter ques- other, recanting a former opinion of his own that the chloride prepared from the iodide of methylene tions should be put and answered, whilst in the the Chillingford crag was older than the Norwich, from iodoform. Chloride of methylene was but former it should be the aim of the master to illus- and declaring that the Aldeby and Easton Bavent little acted upon by sodium.

trato his facts by experiments. All large schools Crags were identical with the Upper Norwich Crag The President remarked he was sure that every should have a science teacher, and during six of Mr. J. E. Taylor. He thought that the relations chemist would regard with satisfaction the results months three days should be set apart in each between the Forest Bed and the Crags had not yet obtained by such a chemist as Mr. Perkin. It was wook for youths to spend their time in the labo- been sufficiently worked out, and stated his reason quite time that their views upon the subject ratory, when it would be ascertained which had for believing that the Chillesford clays woro older should be settled one way or another. It certainly any talent for the cultivation of science. At pre- than the former, as mastodon teeth and. Fortebræ differed from the ordinary brodine of methylene, sent there was not much encouragement for the of whales, similar to those characterising the Forest and they were almost compelled to come to the study of the sciences in the universities, because Bed, had been found at Chillesford. it was posconclusion that two methylones existed, and the nearly all the endowments were lavished on mathe-sible that the Chillesford clays were actually experiments made by Mr. Perkins went far to matics and classics, and little or nothing on natural a continuation or connection of the Forest Bed. establish this point. science.

He then went into an elaborate explanation of the SULPHOCYANIDE OF AMMONIUM.

An interesting discussion ensued, in the course physical geography under which the entire series of which Mr. Catton said at Rugby chemistry was was deposited. Although subærial denudation

taught by a senior wrangler, and there were also must have been going on during the period of the DR. PHIPSON alluded to the presence of this salt masters in the other natural sciences. Dr. Balfour Forest Bed, all traces of its effects are necessarily in largo quantities in some kinds of sulphate of was opposed to teaching chemistry by lecturing, lost. Mr. Serles Wood had done good service in ammonia of commerce, and to a method of esti- and he thought it would be useless to carry out mapping out and classifying the glacial series. In mating the amount of this compound, as the whole scientific instruction on the extensive scale sug- the formation of this deposit, two agencies had of its nitrogen is not available for agricultural gested.

been in operation-coast ice and icebergs. Mr. purposes. This method consists in determining

Fisher then traced the circumstances attending the the sulphocyanogen as an insoluble salt of copper


physical geography of the Lower Drift beds. duct at 100deg. C. The next point considered

Owing to the contiguity of land, these had taken was connected with the properties of sulpho- PRESIDENT—R. A. C. Godwin-Austen, F.R.S., more or less the form of coast boulder clay. Recyanide of ammonia. In dissolving in water the F.G.S. Vice-Presidents—Professor Huxley, F.R.S. ; garding the peculiar contortions belonging to this salt produces a greater degree of cold than any Professor Harkness, F.R.S. ; Sir Charles Lyell, deposit, he showed how they could be produced by other, though in crystallizing it gives out heat, Bart., F.R.S.; John Evans, Esq., F.R.S.; Professor icebergs. Masses of ice stranding on soft, yielding which causes the surface and interior of the liquid Phillips, F.R.S. ; _Warington Smyth, F.R.S. ; and beds would displace them, and cause them to to take curious motions. The alcoholic solution R. J. Fitch, Esq., F.G.S. Secretaries—W. Pengelly, "creep" and take this peculiar form. When the of the salt shows the peculiar phenomena of super- F.R.S. ; and Rov. H. H. Winwood, M.A., F.G.S. ice melted, the strata would remain in their consaturation to a very limited degree. Finally, the In his opening address, the President of the torted state. This was Mr. Joshua Trimmer's author gave his analysis of superoyonogen, which Section, Mr. R. A. C. Godwin-Austen, B.A., F.R.S., idea, formed many years ago. showed it to be, as Volkel stated, C8, H2, N4, S8, 0, after reverting to the physical changes which the With regard to the altered chalk rubble, or marl and not that admitted by the French chemists. North Sea had undergone within recent geological as it was sometimes called, which some geologists The salt could be purchased in London for from times, remarked that Suffolk and Norfolk formed believed had been produced about this period, if he £10 to £13 per ton. The sulphocyanide and sul- one region both geologically and ethnologically, and were to go by a section at Eton, shown to him by phate of ammonia were mixed in about equal pro- were the western slope of the North Sea Basin. Mr. Taylor, he thought that simple alteration by portions, and had lately entered very largely into He then mentioned its principal hydrographical percolating water would be sufficient to produce the manufacture of artificial manures.

features, and gave at considerable length a geolo-it. Mr. Serles Wood and others had held the idea Dr. Tomlinson, F.R.S., then lectured upon "The gical summary of the above district, concluding in that this disturbed chalk was the effect of land Action of Nuclei in Inducing Crystallization.” He the following words :—These subjects havo engaged glaciation. During the Middle Drift period, the said that when using glass vessels in his experiments many speculative and ingenious minds, from solid cu must have been greatly denuded, inason solutions of salts he had them made chemically the middle of last century, down to those now much as the strata are greatly composed of the clean, and found that the nuclei would not act as actively at work here--such as Arderen, William derived materials. The Upper Drift, or Boulder a nucleus for crystallization, but that when he ad-Smith, the father of geology; the Taylors, Robberds, Clay, first so called by Mr. Wood, plainly showed mitted the air into his vessels, crystallization com- the Woodwards (of whom four generations), Clarke, effects of marine denudation, as well as subwrial. menced. If he used a glass rod which was not Mitchells, Trimmer, Gunn, Osmond Fisher. But Sea action, by wearing away the cliffs, might cause chemically clean, even when all air was carefully I should be wanting to the place in which we are the drainage of a water-shed to be considerably excluded, the action of the crystals was immediate. now met, wholly unworthy to fill this chair, want- altered. Marine denudation, he believed, was much

The President would like Mr. Tomlinson to de- ing to the great subject which assembles so many more rapid than was usually supposed. Inland fine what he meant by chemical cleanliness, and here, wholly forgetful of my own obligations, if I escapements, however, should not be regarded as what he considered chemical impurity-whether it were not mindful that Norwich may claim with old sea cliffs. Submarine currents, acting on soft was a production of floating germs in the atmo- Cambridge joint ownership in the Woodwardian beds, might give the initiative to valley formation. sphere. He thought that was a point in connection Professor—the Rev. Canon Sedgwick.

He then went into the subject of “ Trail,” the dewith which there ought to be further investigation.


posit nearly always found resting superficially on Dr. J. H. Gladstone said that if a glass rod were

the rest, and referred its age to no less recent a rubbed through the hand it would be considered

date than 110,000 years. The Mundesley River impure, but if rubbed with black lead, which AFTER a short preface, Mr. Fisher referred to the bod he classed among the older valloy deposits, would appear more dirty, it would not be impure. material being wasted on land, especially that and perhaps the marine beds of the valley of the

Dr. Tomlinson said the air itself was not impure. which happened to be under the plough, and car- Nar were nearly of the same age. The Norfolk The impurity simply arose from the organic mat-ried by rivers into the sea. The tendency of the Broads, he believed, were simply those portions of ter floating in it, and from experiments he had sea, therefore, is always to reduce the land to a valloys which had not been filled up. Generally made he thought it clear that air was not a nucleus. general level. In instances where the coast is low, speaking, these lie in the broader parts of existing There was nothing better than the illustration given we have sand hills, or “marrams," formed, which ) valleys. The reason why they were peculiar to by Dr. Gladstone, that if a glass rod be passed to some degree protect it. Mr. Fisher then showed Norfolk was, perhaps, because the valleys were through the hand it would be impure, from the how the deposits formed in the sea followed more filled with ice longer than those of the West of greasy organic matter that would adhere to it, and or less the contour of the coast line, shifting as the England, and so were therefore hindered from thus render it dirty.

latter shifted. The inequalities of the sea bottom, being filled up with abraded material. Dr. J. H. Gladstone then delivered a short lecture he thought, were caused originally by the depres Professor Phillips expressed himself as being upon “ Reiraction Equivalents and Chemical sion of the area taking place faster than deposition exceedingly glad to find that the late geological Theories." He said the refraction equivalent could fill it up, or else by an unequal elevation. deposits excited so much enthusiasm and attracof an element was a number that represents its Norfolk, more especially, has received its present tion. Although there was a variety of phenomena power of bending the rays of light, and accom- surface contour through denudation. From these of a most interesting character connecting the propanies it in its combination. It was shown that a gene remarks on the subject of denudation, sent with the earlier geological epochs, he thought consideration of these equivalents had some bear- Mr. Fisher branched off into the relations of sea they proved still more the upward and downward ing on the grouping of elements, on the condition and land, and of the fauna of the crag period. The motions which had attended them. He held that all of a body in its compounds, on the phenomena of sea bottom, at that time, consisted mainly of hard the phenomena of the Drift period in their relation isomerism, and on the fixing of atomic weights. chalk, and the crag sea certainly extended much I to time, was most important. Notwithstanding



[ocr errors]


Mr. Fisher's elaborate and definite classification, been moved by representations made to them to

DREDGING AMONGST THE SHETLAND ISLANDS. he believed that the zeal of observers, situated at a have the sea bottom throughout that extent caredistance from each other, would always lead them fully examined, for the purpose of finding out to differ about the various smaller points. The whether there were any impediments to the safe Mr. JEFFREYs' annual report on dredging amongst

the Shetland Islands stated that, in spite of the latest deposits, which anybody might imagine lodgment of the cable at the bottom of the sea. were the easiest to be understood, were in reality Very various opinions were held on the subject, weather, which was this year unusually cold and the most difficult, and required no small degree of and many persons maintained that there were great boisterous, some further results were obtained. A toil and investigation. He could not help seizing rocks which would catch or cut the cable. The fine species of Pleurotoma (P. carinata, Philippi),

was added to the British fauna, having been first the opportunity of thanking that veteran geo-Admiralty despatched the “Bulldog" steam vessel, logist, Sir Charles Lyell, for his classification of under the command of Captain Dayman, who was discovered as a Sicilian fossil, and since recorded Tertiary Geology. Professor Phillips then referred supplied with an ingenious apparatus, by means of as inhabiting the coasts of Upper Norway. Several and others on the Norfolk 'Drift beds, and to could be brought bodily up from any depth at zoology would be reported on by Messrs. Norman to the labours of Trimmer, Prestwich, Wood, which larger or smaller portions of the sea bottom of the rarer species peculiar to the Zetlandic seas,

Other departments of marino the singular substantiation which the viows of which soundings could be made. Captain Dayman and Walker and Drs. Gunther and M'Intosh, the former had received at the hands of modern made his soundings, and brought back his speci: Mr. Jeffreys then compared the mollusca of our geologists. Ho remembered that, when he read, mens of the sea bottom, and the Admiralty sont many years ago, Mr. Trimmer's paper on the the whole of the soundings to him (Professor Hux- North Son with those from the Mediterranean and Norfolk Drift, he thought that it would requiro ley) for examination. They were extremely inte-Adriatic, which he had carefully investigated, as no small pains for him to prove his points. resting, as they for the first time supplied the well by his own dredgings in the Gulf of Spezia The researches means of ascertaining what the precise nature

as by the examination of nearly all the public and of the Rev. John Gunn, also, in this department, of the mud which covered the bottom of the sea of the northern and southern parts of the Euro

private collections. Although the littoral species had thrown no little light upon it. Mr. Gunn He should speak only of the soundings brought had plainly shown the distribution of mammalian from a depth of from 1,000 to 2,400 or 2,500 pean seas exhibit a considerable difference, there

is a remarkablo identity between those which informs. Races of elephant, stag, &c., had become fathoms, or from 6,000ft. to 15,000ft. The depth extinct, and their places had been filled by other of the Atlantic was such, that in the deepest part

habit deeper waters. Out of 317 Zetlandic species species. Old forms had died out, and new ones of it, if Mont Blanc was sunk, the top would be no less than 244 are found living south of the speak, its own fauna, and the entire series from that depth. It became his business to report on different names having been applied to the same supplanted them. In fact, every stage had, so to covered, and he had specimens of the bottom from Bay of Biscay, 283 being found north of the

This concordance partly arises from the crag upwards was but one grand whole.

Sir Charles Lyell stated that there were so many he stated in his report that the deposits consisted species by British and foreign writers on the points of controversy started, that he could only of minute round bodies, to all appearance consist- subject. A summary of the results from all the look at one or two. Ho then went on to do- ing of several concretic layers, surrounding a clear dredgings by the author in Shetland was given scribe his utter despair when, fifty years ago, he centre. As these bodies were rapidly dissolved by under several heads, including the comparative first saw the Norfolk cliffs, of ever being able dilute acids he thought at that time that they could size of specimens of the same specios from the to explain their phenomena. Had anybody then not bo organic. That, however, he found, on more the colour of shells from deep water, the geo

northern and southern parts of the European seas, called in iceberg action, people would have set minute and careful investigation, to be an imperfect him down as “daft." But he had himself seen statement of the facts of the case. The largest of graphical and bathymetrical distribution of species, icebergs laden with stones and mud stranding them was the 16-100th of an inch in diameter, and the identity of certain fossil and recent shells, the He thought it was rash to call in astronomical he had not examined them at first with a sufficient devolution of species, and the course of the Gulf causes to account for greater cold, when these power.

Stream with respect to the oceanic mollusca. must have operated alike upon both sides of the

OYSTERS. Three or four years afterwards, Dr. Warwick equator. He thought the greater cold might be

MR. FRANK BUCKLAND delivered an extempoexplained by different relations of land and printed his “ Notes on the Existence of Organic water, as well as by oceanic currents. It should covered what he called cocospheros, which he tion in England.

He dis- raneous address on the progress of salmon cultivaBodies at Great Depths in the Sea."

He said that the measures be recollected, when we are calling in ice agency, thought looke extremely like as if they were

already adopted had led to a considerable inthat within a few thousand miles this was now made up of a number of what he (Professor crease in the quantity of salmon brought into the actually operating. Sir Charles then referred to Huxley) had called cocolites set side by side in a London market during the last few years, and he the immensa area of the Mississippi delta, and kind of mosaic. In 1861, Dr. Warwick published hoped that a still greater increase would be the showed how he had accounted for its various up- another paper, in which he stated that the coco- result of further improvements. He promised the heavals and contortions of mud by agency similar lites were identical with minute bodies which had English public salmon at a shilling a pound, or in principle to that mentioned by Mr. Fisher- been discovered in chalk by Mr. Swaby, who was

even less; but added that if they allowed their that of unequal pressure. He was exceedingly the first person to point out this interesting cir- rivers to be polluted they might expect to pay glad to hear Mr. Trimmer's theory thus confirmed, cumstance. In the same year, Mr. Swaby got a

two shillings, and serve them right.” He conas he had always deemed it to be a most excellent step further, and found that these bodies which cluded by some remarks on oyster culture, in explanation. He also thought marine denudation he (Professor Huxley) had called cocolites, from which he ridiculed the popular notion of overa tion of valleys was attributed to it; but he thought round, no easy matter with so minute an object favourite bivalve, had been osaggerated, especially when the format their being concretionary, if they were turned dredging as the cause of the late failure in the

Oysters, he said, had bred that it was possible to carry the theory of subærial denudation too far. Instead of wondering of a hollow sphere of glass; that they were, in -were concave-such things as might be cut out this year, and there was every prospect in five

or six years of their being saleable at id. each. that marine denudation should have been so great, fact, like thick watch glasses; and he showed that the difficulty with him was that it had not been they could not be concretious—that is, that they greater. Considering the slowness of upheaval, it could not be of animal nature. He (Professor

SECTION E.-GEOGRAPHY AND was surprising, when the natiddy_deposits of the Huxloy) re-examined the specimens of deep sea

ETHNOLOGY. sea-bottom were upheaved, that they were not soundings, by applying to them a much higher PRESIDENT—Captain Richards, F.R.S., Hydroeaten away and scattered by marine currents. This he illustrated by the Doggor bank, a sories of might mention that all persons who had been con- Henry Rawlinson, Bart., F.R.S.; Sir Arthur

magnifying power than he had used before. He grapher to the Royal Navy. Vice-presidents—Sir soft sands, being olovated at, say, 3ft. in a concerned in bringing up Atlantic mud spoke of it Phayre ; Sir Charles Nicholson, Bart. ; Admiral tury. It would be surprising indeed if the marine currents did not keep pace with the upheaval by stance. He found it to contain an immense num- Elliot.

as being a wonderfully tenacious and sticky sub-Ommaney; Sir F. L. M'Clintock ; Sir Walter cutting it down as it appeared. It would hardly ber of minute sholls, and of an enormous number Secretary of Geographical Society ; Clements R.

Secretaries-H. W. Bates, Assistantbe admitted that when the ocean bod was uplifted of little, irregular pellets of jelly, dotted all over. Markham, F.R.G.S.; and Thomas Wright, M.A. so as to form dry land, that it would appear as a It was to the dottod pellets he desired to draw perfectly level and unhollowed plane. attention. On applying a power of 1,200 diameters,

THE PRESIDENT'S ADDRESS. they could be analyzed and resolved pretty well! CAPTAIN RICHARDS opened the proceedings by In each of the pollets would be found a great num-giving an address on the present and future of

ber of granules scattered about, each being the geography, the past, including full details of SECTION D.-BIOLOGY.

40,000th to the 20,000th of an inch. These he geographical discovery during the past year, PRESIDENT—The Rev. J. M. Berkeley, M.A., F.R.S. found were all organic particles, yielding, as they having, as he said, been already given by the PreVice-Presidents—W. H. Flower, F.R.S.; E. B. did, to all the changes to which organic bodies sident of the Geographical Society in his address Tylor, F.R.S.; Professor Balfour, F.R.S. ; Profossor yielded when the proper materials wero applied in May last. The science of geography, as it was Rolleston, F.R.S.; Professor Turner, F.R.S. ; Pro- to them. The average diameter of each heap of accepted in its ordinary and overy-day sense, was fessor Humphrey, F.R.S.; Professor Newton; G. granules was the 12-100th of an inch, and each within very easy range of all. It required no Busk, Esq., F.R.S. Secretaries-Dr. M. Foster; represented a mass actually living at the depth of profound knowledge, and as it was one of the most H. L. Stainton, F.R.S.; Rev. H. B. Tristram, M.A., the sea, and developed in its slime. So that, inter- popular subjects it was no wonder that in its serF.R.S.; Dr. E. Perceval Wright, F.L.S.; Professor mixed amongst tho shell, there was an immense vice men were ready to sacrifice their ease, and Lawson; and Mr. Firth.

body of jelly, which contained the bodies of the even their lives, in pursuit of any geographical

simplest kinds of organisms, each representing a venture which may appear to offer a possible ORGANISMS AT Tue BOTTOM OF THE ATLANTIC. kind of spicula of primitive organism. Tho fact chance of fame. Maritime exploration has always

that those bodies existed at the depths he had been the precursor of other goographical discovery

stated was beyond dispute, so that the depths of -as soon as the coasts of a country are defined on PROFESSOR Huxley read a paper on some organ- the sea contained those living organisms from maps, then according to various circumstances of isms which live at the bottom of the North At- which old philosophers held that all things pro- climate and other physical conditions with the lantic, in depths of 6,000ft. to 15,000ft. . He said ceeded. And some persons were coming round geography of its interior be developed with greater he had no doubt they were all acquainted with the to that opinion again. For his part ho expressed or loss rapidity. The close connoction of goo. subject of the Atlantic cable, which lay over 1,700 no opinion as to whether they were plants or graphy with hydrography, and the physical miles of sea bottom, extending from the west coast animals. They wero, perhaps, the simplest re- geography of the ocean, was then pointed out. of Ireland to Newfoundland. In 1857 a plan for presentatives of that common ground between This last was, he said, become of such vast inalaying that cable was first taking a thoroughly plants and animals, as to which so much was said portance in all practical points of view, that fresh practical shape. Our government had at that time in the present day.

demands are met with the proportionate readiness



of science to further these researches. The work ing trade between the East and Europe entirely groat impulse to the movement generally. That which has been already done in this department, into the hands of the United States. Mr. Wad- there was already a large number of skilled workand which had enabled us to lay the submarine dington proposed that a railway should be made men in this country might be seen in the interestcables, was then detailed, including the record of entirely through British territory, to start from ing volume recently published by the men sent to the soundings of the North Atlantic, and the Ottawa, the legislative capital of Canada, and pro- the Paris Exhibition by the Society of Arts. Upon Mediterranean, the South Atlantic from Cape ceod to Fort Garry, a distance of 1,105 miles; the whole, it would soom as if the action of the of Good Hope to the Equator, and the ocean thonse to Jasper's House, at the foot of the Rocky Government would be best exerted by extending between Bombay and the Red Sea, and the Mountains, a distance of 1,100 miles ; and then, grants in aid of local subscriptions, by appointing time foreshadowed as not distant when as the from Jasper's House, by the Yellow Head Pass, to lecturers, or by aiding new school buildings, result of all these soundings lines of cable might the head of Bute Inlet, opposite Vancouver's while a system of endowments would probably be laid from Gibraltar to Malta, Alexandria, and Island, a distance of 620 miles. The entire length produce satisfactory results. Upon the question India ; thence to China and to Australia, and New of the line would be 2,885 miles. The cost of of labour and capital, it really appeared as if some Zealand. The results of these soundings, which making this gigantic line, including station accom- progress had been made during the last year in were not doubtful, since considerable quantities modation, engineering expenses, rolling stock, re- the solution of this difficult question. It would of the sea bed had been brought to the surface, serve fund, and contingencies, and allowing 10 per seem that a better knowledge of the principles wers, he thought, second to none which had been cent. for sideways, he roughly estimated at of political economy and the laws which regulated obtained in geographical research, during the £27,000,000. Upon this point of cost, Mr. Wad- the production and distribution of wealth would last few years, and more particularly did this dington said, “We shall be told that such an outlay bo beneficial to all parties. It was earnestly to apply to the results obtained within the last is far too great to be thought of. But what we be hoped that strikes, which occasioned so much year. In referring to this matter, he called have to consider is not merely the amount, but the ill-feeling and loss of wages, would be more attention to a set of charts which had been just object to be attained, and whether that is com more avoided. The system of conseils des prud. published by the Admiralty, and which it was mensurate with the outlay. If the commercial hommes and courts of conciliation had been atproposed to extend to the whole world. Freedom supremacy of England is at stake—and that has tended with beneficial results. Some system of of intercourse and travel had been so unrestricted been pretty clearly shown—what are twenty-seven industrial partnerships appeared likely to unite in the whole of Europe, and in the greater part millions compared with the sad downfall which both workmen and employers, and would enable of North and South America, that, perhaps, but must inevitably follow such a loss, and the decay the former to inquire into the state of markets and little was left for geography to add to our pre- and ruin of our country? Never was so large a foreign competition. The president traced with sent knowledge. Throughout the greater part suni of money more usefully, more wisely applied; satisfaction the progress of insurance life, fire, of Asia, especially India and China, there could and in vain might we ransack the history of our and marine. With regard to life insurance, vital be no doubt that geography had been long well national debt to find a parallel. In times past a statistics had now assumed a form which enabled understood and cultivated, although, from the single subsidy to some Continental potentate has the most complicated problems of human life to be pecaliar institutions and customs of those countries, often cost more.” Mr. Waddington suggested that dealt with ; but life insurance business appeared to the jealousy of their rulers, and other causes, a company might be formed to undertake the work be making greater progress in the United States they had been closed to Europeans.

by the offer of liberal grants of land, which, though than in Great Britain. The progress of the PostWe have, however, a great deal to learn of that at present of no value, might, in course of time, as Office in this country might be regarded as a proof central portion of Asia which adjoins Tartary, but the territory became settled, rise in value sufficient of the growth of education ; and the enlightened by the zeal and enterprize of our own Indian to pay the cost of the railroad. Another induce- readiness with which every improvement was officers, and the progress of Russian armies of ment would be to subsidize mail steamers in con- adopted by the Post-Office gave us reason to hope exploration-or, as some call it, encroachment-nection with the line, and also to authorize the that what many regarded as an unwarrantable inwe are now learning something new every year. company to issue mortgage bonds to a certain terference with private enterprise, viz., the purThe Pacific Islands had become tolerably well amount, Government to pay the interest until the chase by the State of telegraph property, would known to us, owing to maritime discovery and line becamo self-paying, which he thought would prove a public benefit. It seemed probable that a the labours of the church missionaries, who be the case in about six years. With regard to sup- uniform charge of sixpence per message would be always take a leading part in all these matters. posed geographical difficulties, the country from established, and the consequence would be advanTurning to the dark side of the picture, the Ottawa to Fort Garry, with the exception of a tageously felt in the internal trade of the country, President referred in succession to what remained narrow mountain range north of Lako Superior, and in the promotion of private convenience. As to be done in Africa, in Australia, in New Guinea was one vast lovel, and fit for settlement; beyond it might be assumed that telegraphic business exand in the Arctic regions. Respecting Australia, Fort Garry the valley of the Saskatchewan pre- panded at the rate of 10 per cent. per annum, he he pointed out how little was known beyond the, sented another extensive level of fertile country as believed that the interest of the capital to be paid coast, notwithstanding that a great English nation far as Jasper's House ; and from that point the for the purchase of the telegraphs would be has grown up there within the present century, Rocky Mountains had to be traversed, and here gradually more than covered. The president next and intimated that the only means of acquiring the difficulties wero far more serious; but a prac- touched on the desirability of establishing a unifull and accurate information was by the Go- tical road had been explored by the Yellow Head formi system of weights and measnres, and on the vernment finding the means. New Zealand, he Pass, which has beon pronounced available for a equally difficult question of monetary unity. As showed, was peculiarly favourable for an English railroad; and then, following the course of the regards the latter subject, he remarked that Austria colony, and was now pretty well known, though Upper Frazer through the mountains, the line and the Papal Government had exprossed a readibut for the accidental presence of a small brig, would cross the Chilcoaten valley, and reach Buto ness to take up the subject, and it seemed strange commanded by Captain Owen Stanley-a name Inlet by anotbor practical road through the cascade that when the Papal Government was ready to which should be well known in this city—we rango. Mr. Waddington declared that the severity act in the matter the English Government did should at this moment havo had a colony of of the climate had been exaggerated, and that the nothing, Finally, the president alluded to the French separated from us only by a narrow claims of the Hudson's Bay Company would be intornational statistical conference, and he remarked channel. New Guinea was now almost unknown, open to arrangement; nor did he anticipate any that the etlert of t'i ngress was seen in the notwithstanding that it was almost within sight difficulties with the United States arising froin great importanc, nox attached to the collection of Australia ; owing to the character of the people, / any spirit of rivalry or jealousy.

of Government statistics of all kinds which would they would, he feared, remain for some time

throw light on many of the unsolved problems of beyond the influence of commerce and civilization, because geographical knowledge must precede SECTION F.-ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND

ADMIRALTY ESTIMATES. civilization and occupation. In speaking of


BY MR. E. P. FELLOWES, F.S.S. African discovery, the President spoke at length on the chance of Livingstone safely returning to PRESIDENT --Samuel Brown, F.S.S., F.R.G.S., Pro- This was a paper on Mr. Seely's proposed form of

as recommended this country, taking a rather desponding view, sident of the Institute of Actuaries. Vice-presi- Admiralty Estimatos accounts from the fact that nothing had been heard which dents-Sir Willoughby Jonos, Bart. ; Sir S. Big- by the Naval Committee of the House of Commons. was certain of his arrival at Tanganyika, his nold; Sir J. Bowring, F.R.S.; Dr. Farr, F.R.S.; Mr. Fellowes' paper observed that, despite a great destination, although more than sufficient time W. Newmarch, F.R.S.; Professor Rogers, M.A.; improvement, the whole system of Admiralty had elapsed to permit of this. A resumé of the R. J. H. Harvey, Esq., M.P. Seretaries-Pro-accounts appeared to be based on an entirely erroArctic discoveries was then given, and the fessor Leone Levi, F.S.A.; Elmund Macrory, neous principle ; and the scheme which Mr. Seely opinion expressed that there was not the least M.A.; and Rev. W. C. Davie.

had proposed, the adoption of which had been redifficulty to be anticipated should an attempt to

commended by his committee and accepted by the

PRESIDENT'S ADDRESS. reach the North Polo be made-a discovery,

Accountant-General's Department, entirely rethe honour of which all nations appeared to be The President, in his innugural address, referred versed in several important points the previous inclined to leave to England. After a brief to the subject of technical education, to which he system. It also established for the first time a reference to the absence of Sir Roderick Mur- considered a strong impulso had been given by distinct and easily traceable connection between chison, and the loss to the Association by the the comparisons of the world's industry occasioned the money voted by the House of Commons for death of Mr. Crauford and to Palestine explora- by the various exhibitions hold of lato yoars. It items properly chargeable to shipbuilding purtion, the President noted, that in ordor to

was clearly necessary that a higher standard of poses, and those items as included and incorpomote geographical study, the Geographical Society general education should be established among our rated in the cost of ships, so that when the House were about to give four gold medals annually to people, and a conference, called together by tho voted monoy for salaries, wages, or tho purchase of be competed for by the public schools, and this, Society of Arts, had brought together a largo num- materials, it voted it in such a manner as to insure he hoped, would prove an incentive to tho young ject. It appeared to be desirable that scientific or ships on bohalf of which it was to be expended.

ber of statesmen and men of scienco on the sub- its being proporly charged to the particular ship to enter on the study. labours of Dr. Hooker concluded the president's instruction should be followed by technical educa- It was impossiblo to adopt the French system address.

tion in workshops; and a great advance would without entirely overthrowing our whole system of THE PACIFIC RAILROAD.

be made if employers required more proofs of financial audit. It was also, in Mr. Fellowes' practical knowlodge. It was proposod that chil- opinion, excoedingly undesirable to overthrow our

dren should attend longer at school. The question financial audit, for, as a cast audit of money votod MR. WADDINGTON read a paper on an overland arose whether this would affoct the labour inarket, and money expended, he thought it infinitely more route through British territory from the Atlantic or whether a compensation would be found in the simple, preferable, and correct than that of France. to the Pacific. He urged that, if England did not increased skill attained. Tho recent munificent The estimates submitted to the House of Commons stir in the matter, the Pacific Railroad, now on the gift of Mr. Whitworth deserved the hearty thanks should be so arranged, if possible, that when the point of being completed, would throw the carry-of the nation, and might bo ospected to give a

(Continued to page 172 )

the age.




[merged small][merged small][graphic][subsumed][ocr errors][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed]

ABBEY MILLS PUMPING STATION. centro ones 3in. by jin, single. The tie rod, from | receive the rafters and tie bars, the struts having * VE

important work with illustrations of the king strut to raiter 2in. by zin., and the queen rod hip prinsipals are connected to the king head of details of the roofs of the engine and boiler houses. l’in. by fin. The king and queen rods are con- the ordina; principals by a gin. joint plate on the The following are the principal dimensions of the nected at onch end to tho joint platos withr gibs and top flango, riveted by zin. iivets. The ond and engine-house roof :-The rafter 4ļin. by tin. T- cotters, so as to be easy of adjustment, and the tie ordinary principals are connected by the same plate iron, the joint plates 7-16in. thick ; tie bars by rods, fro bottom king struts to rafters at the

ed as connecting the hip rafters, and fin., those next shoe in one piece, those between angles, are swelled where the cotter holes occur. the tie rods of the end and hip principals at bottom first and socond strut 3in. by fin. double, and the The struts are of cast iron, with jaws each end to of larger strut of end principal, and thence con

before desc

« EelmineJätka »