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11 12 13 11
PADDLE. THE GREAT EASTERN. a trial of speed. The first thing is to get the
Knots. ship safely out of the Thames; the next will be to Sept. 7, Noon.
0.82 get her comfortably round to Portland. After
0.86 The great ship having cast anchor off Parfleet that she will start upon her "trial trip," and then
1.30 (between Erith and Gravesend) we can do no will be the time for putting her to all necessary
1.73 better, we think, than gossip for a few minutes tests.
2:17 The experiment of to-day has sufficiently shown 11
2:13 with our readers (for one can only gossip on ship
3:03 board) respecting the event which has kept both that the practical handling of ships of this im
3.17 lanks of the Thames thronged with cheering Careful observation has enabled us to assure ourmense size will present no great difficulties.
4:10 human creatures for several hours this morn-selves that, at low speeds, at any rate, the Great
4:31 Eastern will steer well. Whether a high speed
4.77 It having been our good fortune to receive one will interfere with her excellence in this respect
5.74 can hardly be said ; let us hope not. Then, as to
6.61 of the very few invitations issued for this passage the communication of the captain's instructions
6:07 of the Great Eastern down the river, we embarked along her great length, very little difficulty has
6.97 last night “ by the light of the moon," and found been experienced, notwithstanding the intricacy
6.91 7:33 17
7.37 that the ship really was to undertake the passage, of the navigation in this instance; indeed, the
7.81 weather permitting, early to-day. In both en. only difficulty that occurred was that of getting
8.21 gine-rooms all was ready for the prrpose; the last the tugs a-head to do exactly what was required
8.63 in all cases; no obstruction whatever interfered
9:11 few harge-loads of stores were alongside, and were with the guidance of the helmsmen. Nor is this 5
9:51 being rapidly run on board by the steam cranes; owing to the adoption of Mr. Lungley's admirable
9.93 the coaling was completed, as far, that is, as it steering-signal apparatus, for through an error in
10:41 was intended to coal at Deptford; the rain and the arrangement of one of the parts this will not
11.03 wind of the day had subsided; and the captain be placed at the captain's service until to-norrow.
11:49 announced that nothing short of a gale would The apparatus will, however, reduce this part of
11.71 defer the departure of the morning. the vessel's management to the simplest form
12-15 possible; for by it the captain will be able to speak
12:58 Occasion was thus afforded for speculation upon to the eye of the helmsman-no matter how far
13:02 the prospects we had of getting well down the off he may be-all but as quickly and distinctly
13:15 as he could speak to his ear when at his side. We river to-day, and this speculation we quietly pur
11:32 gued while pacing the “ great deck” (in a very hope to see the apparatus in operation on our way
11.75 pleasant mixture of moonlight and starlight) tiit to the Nore to-morrow.
15:19 the hours grew nearly to their largest. As We must not omit to mention tho adinirable
15.62 grounds for apprehension we had, first, the fact precision with which Mr. Suffield's engine-room
10:0)5 that several very awkward bends and shallows telegraphs have worked to-day. We have made 10
16.19 would present themselves almost as soon as our them the objects of our special observation, and 101
18.92 10 17.21
17.30 mwrings were slipt ; and secondly, we had the must say that their operation has been most
1779 further fact that on the first trial of a stupendous satisfactory. In addition to our own testimony
19.22 experiment mischances and miscarriages of some we may also add that of Mr. Scott Russell, who,
18.63 kind may usually be looked for with confidence. we have already said, worked them himself
18.83 We also knew that the engines of our ship were throughout, and who has subsequently assured
19.29 of an unprecedented size, and were really about Mr. Suffield that they have given him entire
19:53 to be put upon their trial for the first time. On satisfaction; have proved themselves, in a word, 12+
19.96 the other hand we knew that in Mr. Atkinson we “ reliable."
123 To-morrow, the weather being moderate, we
20.83 were to possess the skilfullest of pilots--in
21.26 Captain Harrison the ablest of captains—and in proceed to the Nore. We shall there, probably,
21.70 the engineers on board some of the cleverest prac- have another opportunity of reporting progress,
22:13 tical men of the day. We further had the satis. but not, we fear, in time for our next nuinber.
22:56 fartion of learning that the working of both the The ship, and all in whose hands she now is,
23:00 paldle and the screw engines were to be placed deserve success, and we sincerely wish it them. under the personal control of Mr. Scott Russell, and of him alone. This last arrangement was
Thursday Noon, Off Southend.
THE CHEMISTRY OF CAST-IRON. calculated to inspire great confidence, because no
We are now running down to the Nore under
By F. A. ABEL, Esq., Chemist of the War Department. me could possibly have a higher sense than Mr. engines at “ half-speed,” the paddles making 81 Tre following paper on the “ Results of the chemi. Rnesell of the importance of handling the engines revolutions, and the screw 28. The theoretical cal examination of iron, and the materials eincarefully on this great occasion, and no one could speed of the ship (neglecting slips) is therefore ployed in its production,” is taken from the blue, have a warmer interest in their successful opera. about 13 knots; the real speed is 2 or 3 knots less book on cast-iron which has just been issued, and tim. On the whole, therefore, we turned in” probably, as the screw and wheels are insufficiently which is discussed in a leading article on another eontented with our anticipations of the morrow's | immersed to produce any near approximation to page of this Numbers work. The result, thus far, has amply justified our ex. the theoretical result. The crew and company sult of the analytical examinations of each set of
A special report has been drawn up on the repectations. By six o'clock this morning we were have saluted the ship, giving also three cheers, and samples received from the various works. To faon deck, and found good reason to expect an early one cheer more for Mr. Scott Russell and also for cilitate a comparison between the composition of Start. By half past seven the tugs had hold of us, Mr. Brunel. All on board are delighted with the the irons, ores, &c., tabulated statements have the moorings were slipt, and amid many cheers the monster moved off. Without the slightest mishap, complete success that has thus far attended the been prepared of the following description :and almost without a stoppage, this huge structure
Table I. embraces the numerical results obtained has been brought in three hours to this spot,
in the examination of the samples of iron. [We have at the last moment received another where she has room to swing with the tide, and communication from our colleague (dated from
Table II. exhibits the per-centages of the most inake herself “at home,” for the first time. From Sheerness), stating that the ship ran down Long
important constituents of the various ores ; the moment of starting, all eyes have been turned Reach most handsomely after the tugs were cast
and, upon the pilot, the captain, and Mr. Russell, the off. There is scarcely any perceptible vibration
Table III. includes, simnilarly, the principal retwo former of whom have performed their duty produced in the ship, except near the stern,
sults obtained in the examination of the fuels from the paddle-boxes as usual, while Mr. Russell and even there it is but very slight. She will
and fluxes. has kept himself stationed at the engine-room have started for Portland before these lines
The following are a few remarks which have telegraphs, upon the paddle-bridge, working the appear.]
suggested themselves upon an inspection of these two engines conjointly or separately, fas seemed
tabulated results :best to him-always, of course, supplying the The following table, giving the theoretical The specimens of iron prepared from the ores heed required by the pilot. Neither engine has, speeds of both the paddles and the screw, gradu of the Northern District and from the Forest of however, run beyond very low velocities. Twenty ated according to the number of revolutions made Dean are remarkably free froin phosphorus. This Revolutions per minute is, we believe, the greatest in each case, will be interesting. Experiments is readily explained by the very high quality of speed which the screw engine has been allowed to made this morning show that these theoretical these ores, which are almost perfectly free from aitain, and the paddle engine has been limited to numbers may be taken as practically correct, phosphoric acid. The considerable per-centage of alvont seven or eight. It is po part of the pro- the slips in the two cases balancing each silicon contained in a great number of the speciprietors' present purpose to attempt anything like other :
mens of iron alluded to is perhaps less easy of
explanation. A reference to the composition of the East End Iron Works) are, moreover, stated | may resist the application, for example, of a much the specimen of Ulverston (Hæmatite) iron, given to have been produced with cold blast.
more considerable tensile strain, than one which is in the appendix to this Report, which was smelted The North Staffordshire ore, used at the Golden of higher chemical quality (e. g., containing less with charcoal, and only contains 0-59 per cent. of dale Works, contains nearly 1.5 per cent. of phos. silicon or phosphorus), but of which the structure silicon, would appear, however, to indicate defi- phoric acid, and the proportion of phosphorus in is comparatively open and irregular. There is nitely that the high proportions of silicon must be the iron produced from it just exceeds one per little doubt, also, from the results of numerous ascribed to the employment of hot-blast in the cent.
experiments which have been made in this direcreduction of the iron at those works.
A general inspection of the results obtained in tion, that the effect of adding considerably to the The products of the ores from South Stafford the examination of the samples of ores and of the strength of some kinds of cast-iron, by repeatedly shire and South Wales which have been examined iron varieties produced from them appears to jus. re-melting them, is, within certain limits, due to are, with two or three exceptions, of excellent tify the following conclusions, upon which metal. no important chemical change effected in the chemical quality. Only three instances occur in lurgic chemists are now tolerably well agreed : iron, but to the gradual production of a more these divisions of the series of iron samples (out 1. The proportion of silicon in iron is much thoroughly uniform mass, in which the graphite of twenty-six samples from eight different works), less influenced by the constitution or quality of carbon bas gradually undergone a material change in which the amount of silicon reaches two per the ores employed than by the conditions of in its state of aggregation. cent. The samples from the Netherton and Oldsmelting. A reference to the composition of the Hill Works (South Staffordshire) and the Blae- Northamptonshire ores and iron samples (particu: CAPTAIN BLAKELY ON THE ARMSTRONG navon and Pontypool Works (South Wales), in the larly those from the Heyford Works), indicates
GUN. preparation of which cold blast is specified as that under certain circumstances, among which the following letter claiming & royalty on having been employed, the silicon, in only two in- may probably be included a deficiency in alumina evcry Armstrong Gun that is made has been stances (out of thirteen varieties of iron), slightly in the ore or the flux employed, an ore containing addressed to the Secretary of State for War by exceeds in amount 1 15 per cent.
much silica is very liable to furnish a highly Captain Blakely, H.P. Royal Artillery :The proportions of phosphorus and sulphur in siliceous iron.
SIR, -The late Secretary of State for War irons froin the ores of these districts are also in. 2. The proportion of sulphur existing even in having left undecided a case of great importance to considerable in the majority of the samples ex- light grey pig-iron is never so considerable as to me, and the correspondence on the subject being amined. In the case of three only (out of twenty-exert an appreciable influence on the properties of voluminous, I have the honour now to lay before six) does the amount of sulphur reach to 1-10th the metal; and none of the descriptions of you in a simple form the principal facts. per cent., aud the phosphorus amounts to less than British ores which have been examined in connec In 1854 I discovered a method of constructing 0-5 per cent. in twenty instances; of the other tion with this report contain an amount of sulphur cannon (or other tubes) whereby greater strength six, three contain less than 0:6 per cent.; one from compound sufficient to exert any prejudicial in. can be obtained from the same thickness of the the Old Hill Works contains 0.63 per cent., fluence on the quality of iron produced from them. same metal than by any other known method ; in and two samples from Brierly Hill Works 3. The proportion of phosphorus in iron is, in September I offered to the Duke of Newcastle to contain 0.63 and 0:72 per cent. The ores great measure, determined by the per-centage of communicate my plan to any person his Grace employed at the latter works contain some phosphoric acid in the ore employed, while, at the wished, who was capable of understanding the what high per centages of phosphoric acid, the same time, it is probably to some extent regulated subject, bnt was referred to the Ordnance Select effects of which on the composition of the iron by the temperature at which the reduction is Committee; in November I went, at considerable produced are, therefore, clearly traced. The effected (i. e., by the employment of hot or cold expense, to Constantinople and Balaclava, and tried per-centages of phosphoric acid in the ores blast).
in vain to persuade Lord Lyons to use my inven. used at the Old Hill Works (particularly in the
The various ores examined, if classed according tion for some heavy guns to destroy the sea-forta “ Balls,” Bilston), are also higher than those in to the per-centage of phosphorus in the iron re.
of Sevastopol, and for some huge howitzers to most of the ores used at the remaining South duced from them, would stand in the following shell that place from steamers at a distance of two Staffordshire Works; and its influence on the order :
or three miles. On my return to England in quality of the product is, to some extent, shown
January, 1855, you may recollect, Sir, that you by a reference to the composition of some of the No. 1. Northern District and Forest of Dean oras,
were good enough to give me a note of introdneirons from those works.
used by the Whitehaven, Weardale, and tion to the Duke of Newcastle, who then imme.
Parkend Works. That the proportion of phosphorus in the iron No. 2. South Staffordshire ores, used at the Ne. with Colonel Lefroy on the subject. From this
diately received me, and put me in communication is not always determined by the proportion of phosphoric acid existing in the ore employed
therton, Parkhead, Old Hill, Lays and Level scientific officer, however, I learnt with much re
Works. need, however, be scarcely pointed out; the fact
gret, that he personally could do nothing to recommay be exemplified by reference to some of the
South Wales ores, used at the Ystalyfera mend my plans or the reverse, but that they must
Works, samples of iron from the works last alluded to, and
be laid before the Ordnance Select Committee. to the iron from the Lays Works, near Dudley, in
South Wales ores, smelted with cold blast Knowing the uselessness of approaching that boulye
at the Blaenavon and Pontypool Works. which the per-centage of phosphorus is small, No. 2 North Midland ores, used at the West utility rested on mathematical calculations
, I at
with a novel invention, the only proof of whose while the phosphoric acid in the ore is compara
Hallam Works. tively high. The circumstance that the proportion
once set to work to get a sample gun made. of phosphorus in all the samples of iron from the No. 4. Northamptonshire ores, used at the East Having already teen at expense in going to the Blaenavon Works is small, while several of the
End and Heyford Works.
East, and being about to enter on a course of ores employed .contain considerable quantities of North Staffordshire ore, used at the costly experiments, I now took out a patent (dated phosphoric acid, is probably to be ascribed to the Goldendale Works.
the 27th February, 1855). Before attempting employment of cold blast in the reduction of the North Midland ores, used at the Batterley ceive, Sir, that I had offered my invention to the
thus to ensure any profit to myself, you will periron at those works.
Works. The Ooliticores and the clay ironstones employed No. 5. Cleveland ores, used at the South Bank trouble to press its acceptance on it. I was er.
country as a free gift, and given myself much at the works in the North Midland and North and Stockton Works. Staffordshire districts, from which specimens were
tremely fortunate in my choice of a manufacturer, submitted, as also the ochrey brown ironstones these few remarks on the results of the analytical had completed for me an 18-pounder gnn, wtich
It will scarcely be out of place to conclude and by the end of March the Butterley Company employed at the Northamptonshire Works, conexaminations, with some notice of the very con
was tested near their works in Derbyshire, and tain proportions of phosphoric acid, which are more considerable than those existing in the siderable difference observed in the structure of whose strength exceeded my expectations. I greater number of the other ores examined. Thus, ticularly in the physical condition of the so-called tested at Woolwich by the Ordnance Select Com
of the samples of iron analysed, and par. applied to Lord Panmure for leave to have it contains nearly two per cent. of phosphoric acid; graphite, as exhibited by fresh fractures of the mittee, but as a communication between the War that used at the Stockton Works contains upwards metal
. In some instances a grey iron containing Office and the Committee, through the Lieutenant
a per-centage of graphite similar to, or even General of Artillery, required six or seven weeks of 1-5 per cent., and very nearly the same amount higher than, that in a second example, exhibited a exists in one of the ores at the Butterley Works, dense compact structure, while that of the other ments:
I had the gun altered for further private esperi
It was an excellent 18-pounder gun, fully and in that employed at the Goldendale Works Sample was open-grained, and showed the exis- equal to the service gnn, though little more than (North Statfordshire). The proportions of phos. tence of the graphite in large and distinct scales. one-third its weight : I had the bore enlarged to phorus in the various samples of iron from these These modifications in the structure of pig.iron the size of a 21-pounder, reducing the thickne sources exceed one per cent., excepting in one sample from the Butterley Works, in which, how. | because it is to them that must undoubtedly be to 24 inches. are so well known, that they are only alluded to of metal where the greatest strength is requisite
As the thickness of an ordinary ever, it amounts to 0 72 per cent.
ascribed, in many instances, the apparent discre. 24-pounder is there 6 inches, I can have had no The samples of iron produced from Northamp: pancies (which may be noticed by comparison of expectation that mine would be equally strong; tonshire ores also contain more than one per cent. the results included in this report) between the I only wished to see how strong it was
Having hy of phosphorus, the proportions of phosphoric acid chemical quality of a sample of iron and the the middle of May obtained permission to send in the ores are, however, not quite as high as those results which it has furnished when submitted to the gun to Woolwich, I did so, and explained to last alluded to, amounting to 0.84 and 1.03 per mechanical tests. It is self-evident that a sample çent. The samples of iron from one of the works of grey iron, compact and uniform in structure, the present one.
• The Committee of 1854 was differently constituted from
26 6 5
1 1 2
SEPTEMBER 9, 1859.)
the Committee how I had altered and weakened | contractors for the use of the Government, or else | royalty due to me. That wrought iron is inferior it. It was tried, and after being fired several to purchase my patent. The cannon on which I is acknowledged by Sir W. Armstrong himself. He roands with 4 lbs., 5 lbs. and 6 lbs. of powder, a claim a royalty are now known as Armstrong tried it, Captain Younghusband says, and abansolid 24-pounder shot, and two wads, it absolutely guns, but their strength is obtained by the plan i doned it for steel. That he did not afterwards twice bore a charge of 8 lbs. of powder and the advocate, as you will at once perceive, Sir, by abandon steel, because it failed, is proved by his shot and wads, bursting at the third round. To comparing the published accounts of each. concluding words when writing to the Times my astonishment, the Committee reported that Provisional Specification Provisional Specifičntion about his first gun, which was made with a steal "guns so constructed could never be considered
left by W. G. Arm. left by A. T. Blakely at safe."
strong at the Office of
the Office of the Com. “ It now only remains to be stated, that Some scientific members having been added to the Commissioners of missioners of Patents, course of the long series of experiments made w the Committee by the Duke of Newcastle, and Patents, with his Peti. with his Petition, on gun it has been fired nearly 1,300 times without having been invited by the President to sit (in tion, on the 11th Feb., the 27th of February, sustaining any permanent injury either in the breech
1855. consequence of representations, which have secured
loading arrangement or otherwise. The only parts me the hostility of the Committee ever since), I "I, WILLIAM GEORGE “I, ALEXANDER TIEO. exposed to wear (and none are seriously so) are
and can with great facility be early in June presented the calculations on which ARMSTRONG, of Newcas. PHILUS BLAKELY, of Lit. separable from the gun,
St. renewed.” I formed my theory, and obtained leave to send tle - upon - Tyne, in the tle Ryder Street,
County of Northumber. James's, in the County of another gun for trial. The calculations were re: land, Civil Engineer, do Middlesex, Captain of the is still more decisive. After describing numerous
On this point Captain Younghusband's evidence ported on by a mathematician, Mr. Heather, and hereby declare the nature Royal Artillery, do hereby experiments made at Shoeburyness with the gun, declared inapplicable to cannon. The gun, how- of the said Invention for declare the nature of the he tells us thatever, a 9-pounder, was most completely successful. Improvements in Ord. said Invention for 'Im. A cast iron service gun and a brass service gun nance,' to be as follows:- provements in Ordnance,
“Mr. Armstrong, believing the gun to be stronger of the same calibre were fired round for round “ The improvements re- to be as follows: than necessary, suggested its being returned to him with it, with the same charge of powder, so long late, firstly, to forming “ The improvements re
to have it re-bored for a heavier projectile.” as they stood. All three were fired :
guns with the internal late, first, to forming guns Why then did Mr. Armstrong in the lator gans
tube cylinder of with an internal tube or use wrought iron ? Evidently to attempt to evade 2 rounds with 8 lbs. of powder, 2 shots and 1 wad. wrought iron or gun me- cylinder of cast iron or 3 lbs. 1
my patent. On the publication of his letter in 1 tal in
one piece, sur steel, enclosed with a 4 lbs.
the Times of January 3rd, 1857, I sent it and my rounded by one or more casing of wrought iron or 5 lbs,
cylindrical castings of steel. I prefer to form specification to a lawyer, and asked him if my 5 lbs.
wrought iron or gun me. the outer surface of the patent included the method described in the letter. 110 6 lbs. 2 tal shrunk upon the in- inner tube somewhat
His reply was that it did, and that, without my Here the cast-iron service gun burst. The other two ternal cylinder," &c. conical, the grcatest din perinission, Sir William could not continue to were then fired:
ameter being just in front manufacture his guns, I wrote to inform Sir W. 71 munds with 6 lbs of powder, 2 shots and 1 wad.
of the trunnions and Armstrong, and obtained a reply promising to II.pe the brace gun became unserviceable from loss of
tapering both ways, and “negociate” with me before “using" the invenshape, wins alone remaining, and being fired after
to apply the outer casing
tion "commercially.” This promise tvas written waris :
in the form of collars or
on the 21st of January, 1857, yet on the 11th of
rings driven thereon; and 134 rounds with 6 lbs. of powder, 2 shots and 1 wad.
in some cases I apply two February, three weeks later only, Sir William 1 6 lbs. 1
filed a provisional specification substituting
or more layers of such 6 lbs.
wrought iron for the steel and cast iron mentioned 6 lbs. In the MECHANICS' rings, according to the
In November, 1856, I had the 0 lbs.
MAGAZINE, of Feb, 25th, strength sought to be ob- in my patent!
tained, the trunnions be- pleasure of seeing Sir Wm. Armstrong at his 1 6 lbs.
it is said that the Arm- ing of one piece with one Engine Works, near Newcastle. On that occasion 6 lbs.
of the rings. I also form
he expressed views exactly coinciding with my
“Is formed of an in- such outer casing of wire 158 6 lbs. and filled to the muzzle! ternal steel tube, bound or rod wound spirally in tinctly told me that the principle of the construc
own, published nearly two years before, and dis. Sh great was the endurance of this gun, that
over with strips of rolled one or more layers around tion of his cannon was to have the exterior in a the esperiment lasted nineteen months, conse
iron laid on spirally.” the inner cylinder quently was not ofñcially reported till 1857.
state of permanent strain, and that it mattered
tube,”' &c. A
little which of several suitable metals were used. 6x-pounder was then ordered to be made at the (Here other extracts from Captain Younghus, He then agreed to manufacture a gun for me on Government foundry at Woolwich, further to test band's paper* the Times, the Daily News, and my plans in which the above-named principle was my plan. The gun has been made, but, I believe, other journals follow.) bas not been fired to this day!! Meanwhile I of these extracts I would wish, Sir, to draw iron larger one, the latter forming nearly the
to be applied by forcing a small tube into a cast have made many private experiments.
your especial attention to that from Captain entire gun. He afterwards declined making it. In 1853, Mr. Robert Mallet, assisted by an emi. Younghusband's report, — "i the parts are then in nent mathematician, Dr. Andrew Hart, of Trinity that state of initial tension which is necessary, this nor any other unimportant alteration would
I am advised by eminent lawyers that neither College, Dublin, planned the construction of can and to that from my own description,—" by non on the same principle I advocate. He forcing on the rings the necessary degree of tension enable him legally to use the essential feature of obtained the sanction of Lord Palmerston to can be obtained," because this tension is the my patent. I was prepared to try the question expend a large sum of public money to test the essential and novel feature ; and the similarity of this summer by an action against the Elswick truth of the theory; the Ordnance Select Com- expression is striking. If the necessity for this General Peel that if I continued it, he would mittee having reported it unsound. I could bring tension was known before to any one, and cannon forward, if necessary, many more proofs that the were publicly constructed accordingly, my case is
cease to consider the question of the infringement Talne of this method of manufacture was unknown not good (though even could that be proved I least to correspond with me on the subject.
my patent rights is Woolwich Arsenal, or at at the commencement of the year 1855, at least fancy I have some claim on Government, having to the British Government and all their officiel spent a large sum of money to prove this neces
In choosing whether I would submit my case to axlvisers; but those I have here stated will
, I trust, sity to them, they denying it), as the words of Her the decision of a legal tribunal, where any quibble Sir, remove all doubt on that subject from your Majesty's patent to me declare it void “if the might have deprived me of my rights, or to that mind : the Ordnance Select Committee reported said invention is not a new invention as to the of an English statesman and gentleman, I could that “guns 90 constructed could never be con•
Public Use and Exercise thereof in our United not hesitate. I made a discovery of great value sislered safe,” and even after witnessing the Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, the Chan to my country ; I offered it to the country, and wonderful endurance of two guns, desired to see nel Islands, and the Isle of Man.” Sir W. Arm- urged its acceptance; to enable me to raise money farther experiments.
They cannot pretend to strong's own letter is, I presume, conclusive, to prove its value, which after being denied for have known the value of the method before that his first cannon was made on my patented four years has now been acknowledged, and my Nor can Lord Palmerston's Government, as that plan; "the gun,” he says, “ is composed internally plans adopted, not only as better than the old tatasuvan sanctioned Mr. Mallet's spending of steel, and externally of wrought iron, applied system, but as the only known method whereby thugsands to test it.*
Nor can any of those who in a twisted or spiral form.” I am informed that sufficient strength can be obtained for rifle cannon have sanctioned the manufacture of 3,000 or 4,000 now he makes the inside of wrought iron, think of any size. This has been proved by the burst. grans within the last three years on the old plan. ing thereby to evade the words of my patent, ing of the 32-pounder and 63-pounder guns rified
This being the case, and I have spent upwards while retaining the only essential feature of it, by Mr. Whitworth, and by that gentleman imof £1,500 in experiments and in urging the viz: the tension on the outer part. This might mediately adopting my plan for those guns he is Government to use my method, I have no hesita- do for a private individual, but I feel certain now making
It remains for you, Sir, to decide what the tion in asking you, Sir, now that it is adopted, to Her Majesty's Government, so long as you, Sir, cause to be paid to me a suitable royalty on each such an evasion. Even were it fair, or even legal
, that He has enabled me to do my duty to it. are Secretary of State for War, will never sanction country shall do for me; I can thank my God run mannfactured according to my patent either in the Royal Arsenal at Woolwich, or by private service to substitute an inferior metal for the it would be most prejudicial to Her Majesty's
I have the honour to, Sir,
Your obeclient servant, I published in the MECHANICS' MAGAZINE, my reasons inside of the gun, merely to save the trifling
A. T. BLAKELY. But babering Mr. Mallet's mortars would fail, before they fcre tried, lle bad underrated the strength required.
The Right Jonourable The Secretary of State
for War, &o., C., &c.
Again, is there so much poverty of inventive editor inserted my letter, but with an observation / builders, was constantly best makers, both engines
THE NEW BRONZE COINAGE.
columns, in my fifth chapter, the greater part of A CORRESPONDENT of the Times writes as fol
which, if I recollect rightly, was written a twelve. lows:-A very sensible article, extracted from the
month ago. I remain, Gentlemen,
Your obedient servant, MECHANICS' MAGAZINE, has been inserted in
THE AUTHOR OF THE“ NAVIES OF THE WORLD." several of the daily papers on the above highly important subject, and I respectfully beg a small
Bridgenorth, 5th Sept., 1859. space in your columns, while I, as a practical en
[The above letter calls for but very few remarks graver of some experience, endeavour to answer
from us, since it offers no contradiction whatever it. I shall feel too glad that if by your kind in
to our comments of last week. We can assent to sertion of the opinion of one of the profession it
“ TO THE EDITORS OP TIE MECHANICS' MAGAZINE." all four of Mr. Busk's "facts," and still leave the should succeed in inciting others with more ability to supply my defects in striving to vindicate the
GENTLEMEN,-In your Magazine of last Friday subject precisely as we then stated it. We regret,
however, for Mr. Busk's sake, that he has not the national ability of the engravers, designers, and you were so kind as to give a drawing with a
candour to acknowledge plainly that our first estimodellers of the present age. I will first glance description of my elongated flat-faced iron or at the highly commendable and honourable desire steel rifle bolt. I shall now be much obliged if mate of the book was fairly formed. Seeing evi
. for improvement that has lately been shown in all you will be so good as to insert
a drawing of my dences of very recent composition in all the
elongated pointed rifle shot. The four-grooved chapters, and finding them plentiful in many our late national undertakings in connection with wooden jacket is cut out of a piece of seasoned places
, we concluded that the book was recently the fine arts, viz., by means of a public and gene, willow wood, with a sharp rifle cutter corre-written, and every intelligent reader of it will do ral competition, judging the relative merits and sponding with the bore of the rifle; a hole is the same. From this conviction, we are quite capabilities alike of the highest and lowest en
drilled out the centre of the jacket, which is then content to let Mr. Busk’s explanations have whatgaged che we required, and I ask you, Sir,
ever weight may belong to them, notwithstandthe editor of the leading public journal, and the placed in the rifle mould, and the molten lead is public generally, if it has not been of the greatest poured through the hole, thus forming the body ing the difficulty we ourselves have in accepting
some of them. Take this 4th “fact" of the abore advantage to the country; therefore, why should of the wooden jacket. In the year 1851, when letter, for example
. Mr. Busk says he has never not the same course be followed in the present the Katlir war' was raging, and the letters of read either Mr. Isherwood's work or our quotainstance ? I have such perfect faith in the versatility of genius of our native artists that I have many otřicers from the scene of action stated that tions from it. How difficult it must be for us to no hesitation whatever in saying they will relieve the Kaffirs sheltered themselves in the, to the believe this statement the reader will judge when our Lady Emblem from the uncomfortable position mimosa, in the midst of stony and rocky ground, Mr. Isherwood, as quoted
British soldier, impenetrable jungle of thorny we put two passages side by side, thus :she has occupied for so many years. The questions where our horizontal fire of musketry could make in the MECHANICS' Mr. Busk's “Naries of raised are :
no impression on them, I wrote to the editor of MAGAZINE for Feb. 18, What impressions are to be given to the new
the World,” p. 146.
1859. bronze coins, and why not have something new ? the Naval and Military Gazette suggesting that
“The machinery of the
“ Well made, however, my elongated rifle-shot and percussed shells fired To this I answer there is indeed a vast tield open vertically might have the effect of driving the sun.boats, thouglas well as the machineren of the . from their
by the was, and by
The skill among engravers that there is danger of get- of his own, that Carnot made experiments by boilers and engines gave getting out of order
. ting something worse than the present impres- firing vertically round bullets from mortars, continual trouble ; sion? I here assert that if the means of publicly and howitzers, and carronades, but that in their fall first from the use of high measure
, to the excess si generally testing the question be allowed, there they made but a slight impression on boards pressure steam and water; velocity of the screw. The will be found plenty of native artists capable of placed on the ground. Now, the nature of the last from the high fifteen gun-boats employ. making and executing a better design. To the Carnot's round shot vertical experiments bore no rotary velocity employed. ed in the late Chinee last question, Is there no one in the kingdom who analogy to my plan of firing vertically elongated of the engines was so large steam factories (one has talent enough to sketch out a design which sembled the arrow shower, Carnot's that of a ball ble to keep them in order. work in executing their
great that it was impossi- afloat and one ashore) at would at once be symbolical of the ocean’s falling from a sling. Every archer knows how During the hostilities at repairs ; therefore, until
some more durable ma. for its coinage? I finally
reply, let the opportunity ground, and that it requires some force to draw English established a shop chinery can be derisa be given of trying the fact, and proof would be
it out. shown that our countrymen have not degenerated,
I am, yours obediently,
repairing; they also had, considered available, er. but will be found in numbers, ready, willing, and
Rosherville, 5th September.
at the same place, the cept for temporary emner competent to execute a design that shall at once
floating workshop, “Vol. gencies in hostile operabe a fit emblem to represent the coinage of
cano," sent out from Eng. tions upon an enemy's
THE “NAVIES OF THE WORLD.” the first country in the universe as it will the
land, completely fitted up coast."
MECHANICS' MAGAZINE." artistic skill of its people. Let me entreat, Sir,
with tools and power for
GENTLEMEN, I have not the slightest wish to doing a large amount of your powerful and generous advocacy in aid
respondence further than may be requisite for the finishing; and both these
establishments were kept 1. That there be a public competitive exhibi. 1. With regard to the articles in the “ Conver, the gun-boats, there be
constantly employed on tion of pencil or sepia drawings and wax or plaster sations Lexicon," which you say “was not printed ing, out of about fifteen, models, about six inches in diameter.
in the Times, nor heard of in England until usually a couple under2. That the exhibition he holden within this January”—this article originally appeared, I be going repair ; in fact, the present month.
lieve, last September, and had, as I observed, repairs upon them were 3. That artists of every grade be invited to “ made a great sensation throughout Europe” long enormous. For economy compete.
before it was discussed in England. The trans. of fuel, durability and re4. That the judges appointed shall choose a design from the drawings or models exhibited, and World,” together with the greater portion of the lation of it given by me in the "Navies of the liability as war vessels for
use, the maif their choice of design should not be the work of critique thereon, was in type last November.
chinery of these
boats cannot be reconn. a practical engraver or artist, capable of carrying 2. The list of the French navy was in type mended, however well out the design, let a given sum be paid to him for shortly after, as was also a large portion of the adapted to the momentary the drawing or model chosen, and then give the
rest of the book, though it was not published in purpose for which they commission to the best practical exhibitor for its present form till the 28th May.
were constructed.” execution.
3. The parliamentary papers you allude to I Now, we ask any man of the slightest ex 5. That the judges appointed be unconnected indid not see till March. The information extracted perience in literary matters to read the above ex: any way with any of the exhibitory.
from them, which is not furnished in the appendix, tracts carefully, and then tell us if he finds it
together with the comments upon Sir John easy to believe that the writer of the second erIt is reported in Toulon that orders have been re. Pakington's and the extracts from Sir Wm. Arm- tract had never read the first, particularly when ceived froin the French Admiralty to cease disarming strong's speeches, together with various other he remembers that Mr. Isherwood (as we said in the fleet, and that the forts commanding the entrance subjects, were embodied with the matter already in February)“ derived most of his information reto the harbour aro being armed with the guns which type (and which had, of course, been “kept specting our gun-boats from personal examination have hitherto been kept in store.
standing”) just before the volume went to press. of those employed in the capture of Canton," One of the Armstrong guns, an 80-pounder, forged at the Elswick factory, was recently tested in the long
4. The work you name, Mr. Isherwood's he being in China at the time. But we do not
Engineering Precedents for Steam Machinery," range at Shoeburyness, in the presence of the Ord.
wish to urge such objections further. nance Select Committee at Woolwich Arsenal, and I do not remember ever to have heard of, nor did those who have confidence in us do the best they gave the most wonderful results as regards accuracy,
I ever see the quotations therefrom in your Maga. can with Mr. Busk's statement; as for others, &e. The flight obtained was 9,000 yards, or upwards zine of the 18th February. There can, therefore, they may read the book for themselves, and then of live miles.
be no extracts from that book, nor from your l judge us harshly—if they can. Eps. M. M.]
TO THE EDITORS OF THE
THOMAS'S HEAVY RIFLED CANNON FOR | miles, * lay any town on the coast in ashes, in a ON EXPERIMENTS IN GUNNERY. GUNBOATS. very short time, and with perfect impunity. This
By LYNALL THOMAS Esq., F.R.S.L.
GUNNERY furnishes no exception to the rule, that The author of the interesting paper on “Experi- may be accomplished, and will be ; if not by our
own nation, by another. It is questionable, how. there must be a cause for every effect ; indeed, in ments in Gunnery" given in this number, in the volume from which that is taken proposes the ever, whether the 11 of 12 inch guns, such as scarcely any investigation is a knowledge of
causes more essential than in conducting experiuse of the powerful rifled gun represented in side Niagara, would not prove more destructive in ments in gunnery. Hence, when we find that two and front view in the annexed engraving. He close action—from their large diameter and shots, fired apparently under precisely the same says our own heavy guns are constructed upon a
heavy bursting charges—than even the powerful circumstances, show a variation in their range, or principle so false that the only wonder is that so
rifled guns which I have described. Before in their accuracy, we know that a cause must exist few accidents happen with them; those of the adopting rifled guns into our naval service, to the why this should be the case ; and although the largest size are not only unsafe, but also very entire exclusion of smooth-bored guns of large fact of the variation in the effect of shoť fired inferior in power to the American guns. If,
calibre, inuch consideration would be necessary, | under similar circumstances shows that general however, it should be discovered that rifled guns and many experiments required to be made. I rules only are applicable in gunnery, and that no of six or eight tons weight—the weight of some
see no reason, however, against the acquisition of single result is to be relied on, yet a proper study of the guns employed in the American service such a gun as I have described. The only difficulties of cause and effect in this matter will considerably can be constructed of wrought iron, then, indeed, which lie in the way of it have already been once reduce the chances of failure.* a powerful piece of ordnance will be obtained ; a
surmounted in the case of Messrs. Horsfall's It is not sufficient merely to obtain a greater compound shell
, of 2 cwt. and upwards, could be 13-inch gun, and will, no doubt, be still more fired from it, and a greater range and accuracy completely overcome.
range, accuracy, or general effect; but we should
The great tensile strength know, also, how these results are obtained, if we coinbined would probably be attainable, than which is required for guns to throw compound wish to profit by them in the greatest possible could be acquired with any other description of shells arises from the absence of windage, and degree. gun, such as conld with convenience be used. A
also from the friction on the whole surface of the fortress or a floating battery, attacked with ord. bore, which impedes the progress of the shell applied in practice, repeated failures must always
Before any new principle can be successfully nance of this kind, could scarcely escape destruc- along the bore, and allows the Auid produced by be expected. I may go so far as to assert that tion. The length of the bore of the gun here the fired charge to accumulate behind the shell, they are absolutely necessary to the complete atillustrated is nine feet, and the calibre eight and thus to exert a great strain on the gun. tainment of success. Because the Lancaster, inches; the metal which surrounds the charge is Nearly the maximum results as to range and Whitworth, and other guns may have failed in nearly twelve inches in thickness; this (if the general effect-regarding the means employed fulfilling the expectations that were forined reguns were constructed of the new puddled steel) might be attained with the gun represented in specting them, their trial is, by no means on this would probably be sufficient to give it ample Plate 7. Any larger piece of ordnance would not account, to be considered as an entirely useless strength, and weight enough to prevent great only be unmanageable, but probably unsafe ; and expenditure of either time or money. On the recoil. A shell of 2 cwt., similar to that shown although a larger gun could, of course, throw a standing on end below the muzzle of the gun in heavier projectile, still a comparatively greater made, and, no doubt, considerable advantage in
contrary, it was necessary that they should be the engraving, and a charge of from 25 lbs. to effect could not be obtained with it, as the range many respects will arise from 30 lbs. of powder, might be used with it; a is the of the larger shell would probably not be greater, made.
eir having been front view of the gun. "A long, low, strongly unless a higher velocity could be given to it ; so built vessel, possessing great steam power, armed that, to acquire the same relative effect, compara- highest degree-as Mr. Whitworth, for instance
When men possessing mechavical skill in the with a gun of this kind, would prove,” says Mr. tively greater means would have to be em- undertake experiments with a view to any imThomas, “infinitely more destructive than the
ployed. steam battering-ram which has recently excited
provement in the construction of implements,
whether of a warlike or a peaceful character, good some attention. A vessel such as I have described
LIST OF NEW BOOKS.
must always result; for, even if they fail in would possess great advantage over a steam-ram, from the difficulty which would be experienced Moore's History of the British Ferns, 3 edition, 78. 6a. Family Cyclopædia, The, 3s. 6d.
establishing their views, considerable light will
always. be thrown upon the subject to serve as a with the latter—first, in striking a vessel under
Needham's Physiology of Articulation, 3s. cl., ls, swd. sail or steaming; and secondly, in getting disen
guide for the future. Suill, although the aid of Our Farm of Four Acres, 7 cdition, 2s.
able mechanicians is of great importance in the gaged from it afterwards.
Parkinson's Under Government, Key to Civil Service, "Ten or twelve vessels of the above description
. These somewhat trite remarks were called forth by an
observation which was made to the author by an artillery sea-going gun-boats-each armed with a heavy Shot-Gun and Sporting Rifle, The, by Stonehenge,
officer of some eminence-to the effect that the firing of ritled gun to throw shells of 2 cwt., and with
the charge with cannon was attended with such varying steam power sufficient to give them a speed of at
results, that it was useless to think of applying any rule
• At this range such a gun would not require an eleva- for regulating the thickness, or strength of metal, required least fourteen knots, would, at a distance of three | tion of more than about 11°.
for guns of different calibres'"