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Exercise 2.

Expand the words printed in italics in the following sentences into phrases :*

1. The girl sang sweetly. 2. Lying is one of the meanest of vices. 3. The grateful mind loves to consider the bounties of Providence. 4. Walking is conducive to health. 5. Very brave soldiers fell at Bannockburn. 6. The husbandman's treasures are renewed yearly. 7. Cromwell acted sternly and decidedly when it was necessary to do so. 8. Error is human; forgiveness, divine. 9. Idleness prevents our true happiness. 10. Delay is always dangerous. 11. His indolence was the cause of his ruin. 12. Leonidas fell gloriously at Thermopylae.

Exercise 3.

Expand the words printed in italics in the following sentences into clauses:—

1. Quarrelsome persons are despised. 2. We manure the fields to make them fruitful. 3. The contented man is always happy. 4. The manner of his escape is a profound mystery. 5. Some persons believe the planets to be inhabited. 6. The appearance of a prince possessing so much virtue and personal grace, was the signal for universal rejoicing. 7. Truly wise philosophers are even rarer than very learned scholars. 8. He answered contemptuously, believing himself to have been insulted. 9. No one doubts the roundness of the earth. 10. His guilt or innocence is still uncertain. 11. The sea, having spent its fury, became calm. 12. The people, seeing so many of their townspeople fall, were exasperated beyond all sense of danger. 13. The battle having been concluded, the general began to estimate his loss. 14. The barricade being forced, the crowd immediately rushed out.

29. Contraction. This process is the reverse of expansion, and may be performed

1. By converting a principal into a subordinate clause, or a subordinate clause into a phrase, or into a single word;

2. By omitting, in a compound sentence, elements common to different clauses.

Exercise 4.

Contract the following sentences, by converting one or more of the principal clauses into subordinate clauses, or into phrases :—

*For the proper connectives, see ? 15.
† For the proper connectives, see 20.

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1. He descended from his throne, ascended the scaffold, and said, Live, incomparable pair." 2. I took them into the garden one summer morning, and shewed them two young apple-trees, and said, " My children, I give you these trees." 3. The light infantry joined the main body, and the enemy retired precipitately into Lexington. 4. Just give me liberty to speak (condition), and I will come to an explanation with you. 5. He was a worthless man (cause), and therefore could not be respected by his subjects. 6. He arrived at that very moment (nega. tive condition), or I should have inevitably perished. 7. Egypt is a fertile country, and is watered by the river Nile, and is annually inundated by it; and it thus receives the fertilising mud which is brought by the stream in its course, and derives a richness from the deposit which common culture could not produce. 8. Thomas à Becket completed his education abroad, and returned to England; he entered the church, and rapidly rose to the grade of Archdeacon.

Exercise 5.

Contract the following complex into simple sentences :

1. As he walked towards the bridge, he met his old friend the captain. 2. When he had spoken for two hours, the member resumed his seat. 3. The ground is never frozen in Palestine, as the cold is not severe. 4. The choice of a spot which united all that could contribute either to health or to luxury, did not require the partiality of a native. 5. There are many injuries which almost every man feels, though he does not complain. 6. Socrates proved that virtue is its own reward. 7. Cromwell followed little events before he ventured to govern great ones. 8. When darkness broke away, and morning began to dawn, the town wore a strange aspect indeed. 9. After he had suppressed this conspiracy, he led his troops into Italy. 10. The ostrich is unable to fly, because it has not wings in proportion to its body.

Exercise 6

Contract the following sentences, by omitting elements common to different clauses :—

1. Plato was a great philosopher, and Aristotle also was a great philosopher. 2. Death does not spare the rich, and as little does death forget the poor. 3. In his family he was equally dignified and gentle, in his office he was equally dignified and gentle, in public life, also, he was equally dignified and gentle. 4. The hyena is a fierce animal, the hyena is a solitary animal, and the hyena is found chiefly in the desolate parts of the torrid zone. 5. Baptism is a sacrament of the Christian Church, and the Lord's Supper is a sacrament of the Christian Church. 6. The sun shines on the good, and the sun shines equally on the bad. 7. Of all vices, none is more criminal than lying; of all vices, none is

more mean than lying; and of all vices, none is more ridiculous than lying. 8. Alfred was wise, and Alfred was good; Alfred was a great scholar (not only), and Alfred was one of the greatest kings whom the world has ever seen.

30. Enlargement.

An element of a sentence is said to be enlarged when there is added to it a new word, phrase, or clause, expressing an additional idea, e. g. :—

1. (Simple) A prudent man is respected.

2. (Enlarged) A prudent man is most respected by his fellows when he is also generous.

Exercise 7.

Enlarge the following sentences by the addition of attributive words to the nouns, of modifying words or phrases to the verbs, or of secondary objects when required by the sense:*-__

1. Alexander have passed away

in 1329

2.

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years died

was the son of Philip
(phrase of time). 3. Robert Bruce

4. Have you ever considered the wonderful structure

? 5. The general resolved to give battle
(time). 6. The master accused his clerk

and the judge sentenced him
(place)

8. The earth

sail

(place)

(dative object), (genitive object),

(time), and goes

(infinitive object). 7. He resides (place) (time).

moves round the sun

9. The ship set

(time, when). 11.

(absolute phrase). 10. Bonaparte was imprisoned
(time, how long), where he died

Cotton is imported
(absolute phrase). 13. The swallows disappear
versation was interrupted
16. The maniac shot himself
sent difficulties

12. The enemy began their attack

19. The captain set sail 21. Many men succeed, the stupid may triumph. and they are built

14. The con

15. The spire was struck
17. He will overcome his pre-

(condition). 18. The eye was made
20. The fort was abandoned
(manner); but

(condition) even (purpose);

22. Churches are erected
(material) that they may last

The children heard the thunder roll taken prisoner

Exercise 8.

23.

24. The ensign was

Enlarge the predicate in the following sentences by the addition of adverbial CLAUSES,† expressive of the relations indicated :—

For the proper connectives, see ? 15.
For the proper connectives, see ? 20.

1. He had just completed his work

known

(time). 2. It was not

(place) until (time). 3. We are often so beset by temptation (effect). 4. The righteous shall flourish (likeness). 5. Government has offered a reward for the rebel (concession). 6. He will succeed succeeded

May,

(condition). 7. He would have (condition). 8. He will have succeeded before next (condition). 9. He will not succeed (condition, nega

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tively and affirmatively). 10. He would not have succeeded

(con

dition, negatively and affirmatively). 11. The evils of war are greater (degree). 12. The evils of war are greater

son). 13. The king fitted out an expedition
(purpose). 14. We are often liberal rather
(reason). 15. Honour thy father and mother
born to trouble
18. I shall remain

(compari

(concession) (reason) than 16. Man is

17. I would not grant his request
19. He failed to attract notice

31. Substitution is the process of writing in the place of one word or phrase, another of the same, or similar, meaning, e. g. :

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1. The favourers of the ancient religion maintained that the pretence of making the people see with their own eyes was a mere cheat, and was itself a very gross artifice, &c. 2. The adherents of the old faith held that the pretext of making the people see for themselves was a mere subterfuge, and was itself a very vulgar trick, &c.

Exercise 9.

Substitute for the words printed in italics in the following passages others equivalent to them in meaning :—

1. The friends of the Reformation asserted that nothing could be more absurd than to conceal, in an unknown tongue, the word of God itself, and thus to counteract the will of heaven, which, for the purpose of universal salvation, had published that salutary doctrine to all nations; that if this practice were not very absurd, the artifice at least was very gross, and proved a consciousness that the glosses and traditions of the clergy stood in direct opposition to the original text dictated by supreme intelligence; that it was now necessary for the people, so long abused by interested pretensions, to see with their own eyes, and to examine whether

* This exercise is intended merely to illustrate the process of substitution, which is subsequently more fully treated; and to test the extent of the pupil's vocabulary, rather than its accuracy, which will be considered in Part I. chap. VI., on the Selection of Words. The teacher may extend the exercise at pleasure, either by passages chosen from subsequent exercises, or from a historical or other text-book.

the claims of the ecclesiastics were founded on that charter which was on all hands acknowledged to be derived from heaven.

2. As they proceeded, the indications of approaching land seemed to be more certain, and excited hope in proportion. The birds began to appear in flocks, making towards the south-west. Columbus, in imitation of the Portuguese navigators, who had been guided in several of their discoveries by the motion of birds, altered his course from due west towards that quarter whither they pointed their flight. But, after holding on for several days in this new direction, without any better success than formerly, having seen no object during thirty days but the sea and the sky, the hopes of his companions subsided faster than they had risen; their fears revived with additional force; impatience, rage, and despair appeared in every countenance. All sense of subordination was lost. The officers who had hitherto concurred with Columbus in opinion, and supported his authority, now took part with the private men; they assembled tumultuously on the deck, expostulated with their commander, mingled threats with their ex. postulations, and required him instantly to tack about and return to Europe.

32. Transposition is the process of changing the order in which the parts of a sentence are arranged, without changing the sense; and allows such alterations on the construction (e. g., from the active to the passive voice, or v. v.) as the new arrangement requires-e. g.

1. The greatness of mind which shews itself in dangers, if it wants justice, is blameable.

2. (Transposed) If the greatness of mind which is shewn in danger wants justice, it is blameable.

Exercise 10.

A. Transpose the phrases and clauses in the following sentences, without altering the sense :—

1. That morning he had laid his books, as usual, on the table in his study. 2. I shall never consent to such proposals while I live. 3. Many changes are now taking place in the vegetable world under our immediate notice, though we are not observant of them. 4. By those accustomed to the civilisation and the warm sun of Italy, it must have been felt as a calamity to be compelled to live, not only in a cold, uncultivated country, but also among a barbarous people. 5. Let us not conclude, while dangers are at a distance, and do not immediately approach us,

*As it is the purpose of these preliminary exercises to explain processes afterwards made use of, the pupil should be required to give as great a variety of arrangement of each sentence as possible.

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