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Ohms per knot after immersion for twenty- the cable was very much delayed by the a like quantity of new ones.

The gutta-percha covered wires were manu- point where the junction with the main cable factured in lengths averaging over 3,300yds. was to be effected. The lifting of the cable, or rather more than 1.6 knot; the great ad cutting it, and making the splice with the

vantage in having the lengths so long is cable recently laid, is all that is now reMECHANICS MAGAZINE. reducing the number of joints as much as quired to complete the alteration. We trust

possible, for joints may be looked upon as the now that the landing place has been changed,

vulnerable point in a submarine cable. the company will benefit by the alteration, LONDON : FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 4, 1868. The sheathing in the eighteen miles of main and that the continued working of the cable

cable consisted of eleven No. 1 best best gal- free from interruption will prove the wisdom

vanized soft iron wires (in order to have as of the alteration. THE DUNWICH AND ZANDVOORT by Messrs. Johnson, of Manchester, in lengths place where it has to be cut will shortly be

few welds as possible, these wires were rolled The piece of cable from Dunwich to the CABLE.

averaging over lcwt.): each wire was first recovered. PHIS cable, the property of the Electric passed through a bath of bituminous com

THE GOLD COINAGE OF GREAT was manufactured and submerged for them servings of tarred Russian hemp. After the

BRITAIN. by Messrs. Glass, Elliot, and Co., in the cable had been thus sheathed it was coated autumn of 1858. It consisted of four wires, with bituminous compound as a still further and has been at work, with occasional inter protection. The main cable weighed about IT has been suggested that, with a view to

assimilating the gold coinage of Great ruptions, ever since; but it has been found twelve tons per knot.

Britain with that of France and other contithat these interruptions-usually caused by The shore end cable was materially differ- nental nations, the standard of the metal ships' anchors—which occur generally more ent; the core, after being wormed and served, composing the former should be “levelled than once a year, are not so frequent further was first sheathed with 15 No. 5 best best down” to that of the latter. Without at north. The Lowestoft and Zandvoort cable, galvanized iron wire, coated with a layer of present entering into the question as to which has been laid for some time, has been bituminous compound, then covered with a whether this course is really desirable or not, comparatively free from accidents, while the serving of tarred jute, and again with bitu- we may furnish our readers with some facts, Dunwich cable to the south has, as we have ininous compound. The cable was then statistical and otherwise, in reference to our already stated, suffered considerably. The finally closed with an external sheathing of own gold coinage, and thus enable them to nature of the traffic and of the coast itself at eleven strands, each containing three No. 5 judge of the cost and magnitude of such a once makes the fact apparent. The anchor- galvanized iron wires, each strand having change. It has been computed, and appaage at Lowestoft is' well protected by sands, previously passed through a bath of com- rently upon reliable data, that there are in and is close in shore. Outside the sands, pound and then covered with two reverse actual circulation at home and throughout from the easterly position of the place, but servings of tarred Russian hemp, the whole the colonies at least one hundred millions of little protection can be found, and vessels being covered with a good coating of bitumi- sovereigns. If it were determined that the working tides are usually carried well to one nous compound; its total weight is 20 tons. British standard should be reduced, it would side or the other of Lowestoft, and rarely It is really about the most massive cable ever be necessary that the whole of these should anchor on the line of the cable. At Dunwich manufactured, and with the amount of hemp be called in and re-coined, because the cothe case is very different; from westerly and and compound it contains 'ought to last an existence of pieces of varying standards would north-westerly winds there is good protection, enormous time. The quantity of hemp, the be fraught with the greatest inconvenience. and it is extraordinary the number of vessels number of servings and coatings of compound It is easy to comprehend that such an that anchor off here working tides.

to be applied, stranding the wires, and so on, operation would in itself be attended with The directors have wisely considered that made the manufacture of this cable, although enormous expense and very great difficulty, it would be to their advantage to shift the the length was short, a very tedious opera- for English gold travels all over the world. landing-place of the cable, and on the recom- tion.* The whole, however, was satisfactorily In time, however, and under a carefully mendation of Mr. Culley, their engineer, they completed and stowed away in the tanks organized arrangement, the work could be decided to bring the cable in to Lowestoft. ready for the Company's steamer “Monarch,” accomplished. Let it, then, be imagined that This was rendered easier, for the cable as it to be taken away in her and submerged, the the International Coinage Commissioners approaches the English coast was laid too great weight of the cable, and the small have recommended, or may recommend, the much to the northward in consequence of one capacity of the ship, rendering two trips re-coinage of the whole quantity in question, straight course being steered across; the ves necessary.

that the Government has assented to the sel was therefore carried each way by the That the specification for the conductor proposition, and that the Mint is ordered to tide, and on sighting the English coast, the and insulator has been more than fulfilled the undertake the accomplishment of the gigantic ebb had carried them well to the northward; following particulars of final tests, furnished task. Then arises the question, “What will it has been, therefore, determined to pick up by Mr. Hawkins, the Company's electrician, be the cost of its performance to the public?" the present cable at the nearest spot, and lay will amply prove :

In order to answer it with any degree of a new section of improved manufacture to

exactitude, it will be necessary to regard with Lowestoft. For this purpose a length of

Main cable. Shore end. care the productive powers of the Mint thirty-three miles was offered for contract,

machinery and appliances, and the annual the tender of the India-Rubber and Gutta

expense of the establishment to the country. Percha Company being accepted, and they Insulator

Now, as at present constituted, the stamping forthwith proceeded with the manufacture of

Res. at 75deg. Fah. in
millions per knot .......

presses of the Mint are capable of yielding the cable at their works at Silvertown.

one million of pieces per week when worked Of this length of thirty-three miles, fifteen Conductora

up to the maximum point, and considering

Res. at 75deg. Fah. were to form a massive shore end, the

Specific conductivity,

each day to be ten hours long. So far as remainder being main cable of a slightly dif pure copper = 100...... 9507 per ct. 1965 per ct. 92.34 time is concerned, the re-coinage of one ferent construction to the old Zandvoort Inductive Capacity

hundred millions of sovereigns would occupy cable. The core throughout the length was

a space of two years. The average annual of the same construction, containing four

The means of the above tests give:

vote of Parliament for the support of the well insulated conductors according to the

Resistance of insulation

Mint is £30,000, and thus it would appear, at following specification, each

746 millions per the first blush, that the actual cost of conwire to copper

knot. be a strand of seven No. 22 wires, of the weight of 1071b.

Percentage of conductivity = 96 per cent. verting the old coin into new would amount knot; and at a tempera

per ture of 75deg. Fah. to give a resistance of

Inductive capacity per knot= 3784 Farads.

to £60,000. These results are remarkably high, but we

Such an estimate would, nevertheless, be not more than 12:07 Ohms, per knot, and a believe they correspond with the final tests most fallacious, even supposing what is not specific conductivity of 92:34 per cent of taken by the Electric Telegraph Company's likely to be the case--that the Mint authoripure copper. The insulator to be of three

electricians. coatings of gutta-percha with three alternate coatings of compound, of the weight of 1501b.“ Monarch” took away two miles of the shore coins during its progress. In the first place;

Before the cable was completed, the tinuously, and not to touch silver or bronze per knot. The wire when insulated to give a end and laid them from the cable house at millions of old sovereigns would not produce resistance of not less than 250 millions of Lowestoft over the sand. The completion of

The wasting four hours in water at a temperature of 75deg. vessel being required for repairing some power of abrasion would be found to have Fah. Each wire was numbered on the out-cables that had broken down.

On the 8th produced its effects upon the money recalled side by longitudinal stripes from one to four. ult., however, she succeeded in laying the from active duty, and the loss thus entailed The advantage of having external means of shore end, and on the 28th she completed would necessitate the addition of at least half knowing the number of wires is too obvious to laying the eighteen miles of main cable from a million's worth of new metal to make up for need mention. The gutta-percha wires when the shore end, to which it was spliced, to the manufactured and passed were wormed, and

item in the cost of a re-coinage, and which served in the ordinary manner with tanned

must not be lost sight of. jute, and then passed through the sheathing it is known that the cable contained about 900 miles of

That this was the case may be readily imagined, when Under the most favourable circumstances, machine. iron wire and nearly 10,000 miles of hempen strands.

namely, when employing new gold for the

Contract.

677

806

250

11.641 Ohms 11.54 Ohms 12.07

.......... 3784 Farad. 3784 Farad.

per ct,

purpose of creating sovereigns, and using the vestigations connected with the subject of mum fall from the mean annual fall for any Mint presses alternately for the production of rain. Unfortunately, this information is place. Meanwhile, he gives us what “ seems silver and bronze moneys-both of which are crudely digested, and bears evidence of having to be” the rule, as follows:-Where the annual struck at a profit to the Mint—the cost of been compiled with haste. Much of it is fall is 20in., the maximum fall will never each sovereign is exactly 0.311 of a penny: premature, and might have been reserved for exceed 16-100ths of that amount; where the Under the unfavourable conditions named verification with advantage. The article on annual fall is 60in., the maximum daily fall above, the cost of each newly-minted sove- monthly percentages of mean annual rainfall cannot exceed 6-100ths of the amount. Thus, reign would be enhanced to 1.271 of a penny, indicates a tendency to bend facts to suit con- for every increase of 4in. in the yearly rainor about 14d., and the total cost of the reception. Its statements are confused by un- fall between 20in. and 60in., the maximum coinage of a hundred millions of such pieces necessary iteration, and its conclusions are possible fall decreases one per cent; above could not therefore fall far short of one million far-fetched. So far as we can make it 60in. it is constant at 6-100ths of whatever sterling. Of course, as a set-off against this out, the chief induction said to be arrived at the mean fall may be. If this rule be true, heavy outlay, it is only proper to mention is that "taking the whole surface of England, there is no part of the British Isles where from that the reduction of the standard from one- in places where the mean annual rainfall is Sin. to 4in. of rain may not fall in twenty-four twelfth of alloy to one-tenth, as proposed, small, the general rule is that the maximum hours, at some time or other, as an extremely would, at any rate, prove an economical monthly portion of that fall occurs in summer, heavy rain ; while at places where the annual operation. It would not affect the estimate whilst where the amount is very large it is in fall is 150in., there may be as much as just given to any appreciable extent, from winter. At places where an intermediate 9in. in one day. Hence it would seem that various circumstances which are too minute fall is experienced, as a rule, the maximum the limit of capacity of the rain gauges which and intricate to be examined into here. occurs between these two periods (on the are used where the rain does not exceed 70in.

Independently of the advantages which autumn side), leaning more or less either a year should be 4in. in depth of the receiving might be anticipated from the assimilation of way, as their mean annual amounts vary." area, and for wetter localities the gauges the British standard of gold coin with that of The statistics adduced appear to us merely to should be more capacious. It must be reFrance, as effecting a corresponding uni- show that, generally, the largest percentages membered that this rule has not been shown formity of value between individual pieces of of rain occur in the months of July, August, to apply beyond the British Isles. money circulating in the two countries, September, and October, except at western To the question, "On how many days will another is suggested as likely to arise. It is stations, those having the largest annual fin. of rain fall?" Mr. Symons has worked of a mechanical nature, and not unimportant. rainfalls, where the months of November, out the answer :-On fifteen days yearly, as Gold alloyed with one-tenth of copper instead December, and January may have equally as a general average for this country. The imof one-twelfth, becomes much more elastic high a percentage as those just mentioned. portant investigation into what are the anteand durable. At present, the loss of weight The peculiarity may be accounted for in this cedent and attendant atmospheric conditions by attrition, which renders a gold coin legally way. The moisture brought from the of maximum and large rainfalls has not yet incurrent, is about the same in the British Atlantic in winter, although less in amount been attempted; and, indeed, the isolated and French mints. The English money, than in summer, is condensed more rapidly character of the data furnished by rain obhowever, being softer in its nature, wears out at the cold than at the hot season, and thus servers will not permit of this being done. sooner, and our sovereign is, consequently, a larger part of the winter moisture than of It must be left to the Meteorological Comshorter lived than their napoleon. In the summer is deposited at the western mittee, who intend to investigate, so we are either country, the extent to which a gold stations.

assured, the laws of British weather changes coin may be reduced in weight before ceasing In all questions involving considerations generally. In all except the mountainous to be a legal tender is very small, and by no of rainfall, especially for the supply of rivers districts, the amount of rain annually colmeans sufficient to allow of the obliteration of and canals, either for the purposes of naviga- lected increases about 24 per cent. per 100ft. their designs or to prevent their recognition. tion or the watering of towns, it is desirable of increased elevation. In other words, in The actual diminution by wear allowed on a to know the annual average amount for the the greater part of the British Isles, 50ft. sovereign before its withdrawal from circula- district, its distribution throughout the year, difference of elevation between two adjacent tion, is 0.628 per cent. ; on a napoleon it is and also the probable maximum fall that may stations cause generally about 4-10in. dif0.7 per cent.-an infinitesimal difference. The ever occur in one day. As regards the ference in the yearly amounts of rain at these theoretical or true standard weight of a average yearly rainfall, no conclusion can be places during the year. Hence it is necessary sovereign is 0.25680z., and that of a napoleon safely based upon the observations of a few for accurate investigation of rainfall to know 6.451 grammes.* The object of making gold years. It can be ascertained reliably only by the elevations of the stations above the sea. coins incurrent after so small an amount of long-continued observations at the place, or Rainfall returns may then be compared for wear and tear, is to guard against the fraudu- by reference to some long series of observa- places at the same level, to show the rainlent abstraction of metal from them while in tions made in a proximate and analogous bearing power of the atmosphere, and for circulation. It is a wise precaution, and well locality.. Thus the average depth of the places at different elevations to exhibit the answers its purpose.

annual fall of rain at Keswick is 58.53in., effect of high land upon the precipitation of It is not supposed that the present brief from observations made during the years aqueous vapour. Mr. Symons has diligently paper on the probable reduction of the gold 1845 to 1866 inclusive; but the years 1845-53 sought for this necessary data, and there are coinage of Great Britain to the French gave 61.74in. For the same nine years at very few blanks in the column for height standard is exhaustive of the question. There Wastdale Head the average rainfall was above sea. For the purpose of exhibiting the are other points of interest in connection with 103.67in. It is quite legitimate to suppose geographical distribution of rain by the it which may be considered hereafter. Our that, as these stations are not very far apart, transporting power of the atmosphere, we present end will be served if public attention and are nearly the same height above the sea, select from the table all places at or about be attracted to the interesting and important there was the same ratio between the long 100ft. above the sea, classifying them into subject.

and short average at each station. Hence western and eastern. This arrangement is we can approximate to the average annual suggested by the fact that the annual resultant

fall at Wastdale Head by a proportion :-As direction of our winds is westerly, or om RAINFALL IN THE BRITISH ISLES. 61.74 is to 58.53 so is 103.67 to 98.28, the the west. Is, then, most rain deposited where E have before us Mr. G. J. Symons's probable annual fall at Wastdale for the the winds first encounter the land, and least

Of course, if reference be where they leave it? observed at about 1,300 stations in Great made to two or three other stations, somewhat

Rain in 1867. different results may be got, and a mean may

Days. Britain and Ireland. These annual tables

Plymouth sent the summary of the year's observations on be struck which will be more satisfactory than

46.80

162 rain, in an available and useful form, for the the result of a single comparison. This is, in Teignmouth

38.56

170 Bristol

32:29

184 purposes of the sanitary and civil engineer, but all its simplicity, the plan adopted by Mr. we should scarcely think that they contain Symons. However, he mystifies the process Ross

31.55

153 Cardiff

48.91

213 sufficient details for all the purposes of and lengthens the calculations by percenting. meteorological investigations. It is quite as In the construction of sewers for the drainage

Llandudno

31.98

Manchester desirable to know the monthly distribution of cities, it is important to know the probable

34.58

173

Workington of rain, as the annual. As far as these tabula- maximum fall of rain in a limited time. This

32.87

186

Ayr tions extend, however, they are presented in limit is settled, by the practice of observers,

42.11 199 a methodical manner. Mr. Symons gives the as one day. As regards this maximum fall,

EASTERN STATIONS.
London

26.29

151 names of the stations, the authorities for the though in point of quantity the western

Norwich

25.93 observations upon which his results are based, stations maintain their excess, as well in in

Nottingham

25.47 the diameters of the gauges, the heights of dividual falls as in the yearly totals, the heavy

Leeds falls there are relatively hardly half so large

26-02

150 the gauges above ground and above the sea

Newcastle

153 as at the eastern stations."

21.78

The rainfall at level, the total amount, and the number of days

Seaham

23-62

144 on which rain fell in the year at each station. the western stations is more uniform in its distributions throughout the year than at the

Swinton (Berwick) 22.70 Besides the tabulations, about eighty pages

137 Prestonkirk

24.94

163 are devoted to details of experiments and in- eastern ones, where the fall is, so to speak, more spasmodic.

Drew (Haddington). 22.90 * One ounce troy is equal to 31.104 grammes, and one

Mr. Symons believes that a perfect rule These figures answer our question in the gram is 15-43235 grains.

may be established for calculating the maxi- affirmative.

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WESTERN STATIONS.

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IMPROVEMENTS IN PARIS.

except in very small examples. As a rule, one more to-day, devised by Weiskopf. He first

we prefer stretching iron plates from girder of all brushes the object (say roller) over with a W THETHER the cause be rivalry, or simply to girder to carry the superstructure, as is solution made by dissolving one part of nitraté of

the force of example, it is, neverthe- exemplified by Westminster and new Blackless, somewhat a remarkable coincidence that friars bridges. Each arched rib of the struc- copper in fifty parts of hydrochloric acid ; and the finest and handsomest capitals in Europe ture we are considering is of the double-tee afterwards with a second solution made of ton should be undergoing a complete transforma- shape, and has spandrils of lattice bars parts of nitrate of copper, ton parts of chloride of tion at the same period of time. It is not strongly interlaced to insure the necessary copper, and eighty, parts of hydrochloric acid. too much to assert that anyone who has been amount of rigidity. Longitudinal beams This latter solution is applied very quickly with a absent five years from London, and should connect the main ribs, upon which are placed soft brush. The copper is deposited in a few not return until the expiration of another the arches of hollow brick. A considerable seconds, and the object must be rinsed immediately similar term, would not recognize the locality saving of weight is effected by the use of in cold water and wiped with a soft cloth. By roof some of our leading thoroughfares. Not hollow bricks, but yet the superstructure is posting the application of this second solution the the least meritorious portion of the numerous much heavier than it would be if constructed copper coating, may be obtained of any desired

This process, the author says, is to be improvements in progress is the alteration of sheet or corrugated iron.

recommended for its simplicity, cheapness, and the that has been carried out on the Surrey side The bridge over L'Oureine-street presents durability of the copper layer. Our own experience of the Thames. This part of the metropolis but few details differing from those of its with the coating of copper with acid solutions is not so well known as that lying upon the neighbour. The span is a trifle less, and the similar to this has shown us that unless the appliMiddlesex shore, and, in fact, does not pos- rise also, but the breadth is the same. Both cation be made very quickly indeed, the copper sess, strictly, speaking, any "fashionable bridges were tested previously to their being does not adhere firmly to the iron and is apt to superb as the future new hospital, and the test applied differs materially from that in Weil's or the old cyanide plan. When the pattern quarter.” The erection of a building 80 declared open for public traffic, and as the blister and peel off. For coating rollers, therefore, construction of spacious roads and footways, use among ourselves, it will be interesting to is out of date, the Swiss convert the old roller into a and the clearing away of ancient wharves and describe it. As a rule, we do not test our new one by covering all parts of the roller, except river premises, will tend materially to open bridges that are built for road traffic; they the engraved pattern, with an insulating varnish, up this hitherto neglected region. In all are supposed to be amply strong enough if then immersing it in a bath, to fill up the pattern cities there are certain districts which may they only have a certain sectional area of with freshly deposited copper. The roller is then be said to be a complete terra incognita to the metal at the centre. This view is, however, ready to have a new pattern engraved upon it. majority of the population, and the ins and not strictly correct, but as the margin of safety Weiskopf, whom we quoted above, gives a further outs of which are only revealed to a chosen is very great, there is no danger of a failure process for communicating to objects of art few. Similarly to London, Paris has its taking place. The test was of a double nature, coppered by his plan the appearance of antique

bronzes. Surrey side of the Thames. Those localities combining the action of a static as well as

For this purpose he brushes the articles lying upon the left bank of the Seine are but a dynamical load, the latter being successively ammoniac, one part oxalic acid, one part acetic

over with a solution composed of four parts salvery imperfectly known to the great mass of applied upon various parts of the structure. acid, and thirty parts water. The application is to citizens, and the large tract existing between It consisted of a roller weighing thirty-two be repeated until the articles assume the desired the Observatory and the river, including the tons, which was used for crushing and con- colour. Bièvre valley, has been for ages occupied by solidating the roadway. Indicators placed Mr. Gore communicates to the “Philosophical tanneries, and other manufactories of a con- under the ribs registered the deflection they Magazine” an excellent way of making charcoal genial nature. Now, all these dilapidated underwent during the transit of the load, as crucibles, &c. He first shapes the articles out of reliques of former days are in progress of well as the permanent set after its removal. wood, and he finds that lignum vitæ, kingwood, demolition. The “ transformation of Paris" The former varied from 0.04 to 0-24 of an ebony, and beech answer best. After the vessel demands their destruction and removal, in inch. In order to ascertain what the effect has been formed, the wood is carefully dried in a order to make room for handsome avenues, would be by allowing the test load to remain warm place. The articles are then enclosed in a spacious boulevards, and wide thoroughfares. upon the bridge for a certain time, it was copper tube retort having two exit tubes for the

One of the principal works of construction placed exactly over the rib that had evinced and finally for some time to bright redness, to comin connection with the alterations, are the the greatest amount of deflection, and left in pletely carbonize the wooden vessel. It is necestwo bridges which carry the Boulevard de that position for one night. The result was sary, Mr. Gore says, to turn the retort continually, Port Royal over the streets Pascal and a very slight increase in the permanent set, and so distribute the heat, that none of the tarry L'Oureine. There is some similarity in the but the time of trial was too short to allow matter evolved may condense upon the articles; manner in which the pedestrian traffic is pro- of any definite conclusion being arrived at otherwise, he tells us, their shape and dimensions vided for here and at our future Holborn From the works already executed by Joret may, be curiously altered. The heating is to be Viaduct bridge, although there are no side and Co., it was only to be expected that the continued until no more gas is evolved, and care approaches for vehicles, owing to the com- bridges would be of excellent material and must be taken not to heat too rapidly, or the paratively limited amount of space in the workmanship. Many of our readers

article will fall to pieces. Charcoal made in this

provicinity of the structure. To enable pedes- bably remember thať M. Joret erected the way from lignum vitæ is remarkably hard, and the trians to mount from the lower to the higher steel bridge at the Quai D'Orsay, which impervious to liquids ; eren after immersion in the

texture is so close as to make it apparently quite level, there are four staircases built in the attracted so much attention during the Exhi- strongest hydrofluoric acid the surface had no masonry: The principle of the bridges con-bition of 1867. It is too early, however, at acid taste. Rods made of this lignum vitæ charsists in the adoption of an iron superstructure present to pronounce upon the relative merits coal conduct electricity admirably, and would carried upon arches with spandrils of lattice- of iron and steel for bridge building. Until probably, Mr. Gore says, answer well for pencils work, and the erection was entrusted to some greater progress is made towards the for the electric arc. Joret and Co. M. Buffet, one of the staff production of a cheap homogeneous steel, its

In the City article of the “ Times” a few days of engineers of "Les Ponts et Chaussées," was high price will be an effectual bar to its ago, it was quoted from " Travers' Circular ” that charged with the designing and superintend- entering the lists with its rival with any set up in a sugar refinery with the object of bleaching of the bridges. That over Pascal-street chance of success.

ing sugar by means of a powerful stream of is at an angle of 82deg. 30min., and has a

electricity. The machine is no doubt employed to clear span of 43ft., and a breadth of 125ft.

NOTES ON RECENT between parapets, and must present a some

ozonize a large volume of air which is forced

SCIENTIFIC DISwhat peculiar appearance upon plan, since

COVERIES AND THEIR PRACTICAL AP- through the syrup, the ozono acting as the bleach

ing agent. We hope this experiment will prove it is three times as broad as it is long. This,

PLICATIONS.

successful. however anomalous it would seem in a rail-COPPERED IRON ROLLERS FOR CALICO PRINTERSway bridge, is not an uncommon event in

THE BRITISH ASSOCIATION. road and street bridges, the relative dimen METHOD FOR MAKING CHARCOAL CRUCIBLES, &c.sions being reversed in the two instances.

SECTION A.-MATHEMATICAL AND The Boulevard de Port Royal has a roadway CALI YALICO printers have a good deal of capita]

PHYSICAL SCIENCE. 46ft. in width, two avenues 30ft. wide, and lying idle, in the form of copper rollers. To

EXTENT OF EVIDENCE OF CHANGE ON THE two footpaths measuring 9ft. 6in. in the clear, save much of this, the Swiss printers have been ex

Moon's SURFACE. all of which are included in the width of the perimenting, and with completo success, with iron new bridge. Arched, girders, numbering rollers coated with copper of sufficient thickness to The author remarked that the two opposite quessixteen in all, constitute the framework of the

tions of fixity of, or change on, the moon's surface structure, the span being 42.83ft., and the allow of the pattern being engraved upon it.

must be decided by observation and not assertion. rise 5.24ft. Transverse beams and ties brace copper must of course be in immediate contact with regard to evidence on the question of fixity, the main ribs together in a lateral and longi- with the iron, and not deposited on black-leaded such evidence-resulting from observation and not tudinal direction, while small cross girders varnish, as in Oury's process. The mode of coating including theoretical considerations--must, he said, of the double-tee form support the brick adopted by the Swiss is said to be a secret; but conceive how the unalterable state of the surface of

be exceedingly scanty. Indeed, it is difficult to arehes which carry the road and footways. there are several plans by which a thin layer of our satellite can be determined by observation ; This is a favourite system of construction with our continental neighbours. The bridge copper can be obtained upon which as much metal for if, as has been assortod, “all changes on the over La Place de l'Europe is built upon a as may be wished can be thrown down by the moon's surface have ceased myriads of ages ago,”

we are certainly destitute of the records of the obsimilar principle. Our engineers are not ordinary eloctrotype process. We have published servation of the real state of that surface at so much given to the adoption of brick arches, several modes of coppering iron already, and add remote a period, and even if " fixity" of the more

NEW MODES OF COPPERING AND BRONZING IRON

ELECTRICITY AS A BLEACHING AGENT.

BY MR. W. R. BIRT.

The

the observations undertaken in the August meteoric little or no rain. The observations of the last two in 1866, and at the Dundee meeting last

minute details be really established at any one point angles at which rain fell during certain months, products and the phenomena of the material by a long series of observations, it would be no and the effect thereof upon the indications of the universe should form a large part of the education argument for its universal prevalence, since a state gauges. Tho results are that--1. There is no of its inhabitants seemed at last to have dawned of quiescence might be attained at very different month in the year in which a gauge whose mouth on society generally. It was one of the opinions of epochs in different regions. The author next pro-is horizontal collects as much as one which is the day that scientific was at least of equal value ceeded to examine the question of change, and inclined and kept face to wind by a vane. 2. In with classic lore, that it must be infused early and glanced at the attempts to perpetuate a knowledge summer rain falls nearly vertical, the average froely into the minds of even children, and that it of the moon's surface by means of maps, drawings, anglo therewith being about 20deg. ; in spring must be recognized in Universities as an essential and topographical descriptions, remarking that it and autumn about 45deg. ; and in winter more branch of a liberal education, sharing the honours is by the study of details that a definito answer than 60deg. 3. The ratio of the fall on the and privileges heretofore too largely absorbed by must be given. These details are numerous, em- ground to that at 25ft. above it bears a nearly con- Greek, Latin, and logic. Oxford-classical and bracing mountains, valleys, plains, craters, rings stant relation to the angle of fall—for instance, in mathematical Oxford-the most conservative body, apparently nearly filled, bright spots as mountain two months, when rain fell at a mean angle of intellectually, in the kingdom, was now taking the tops, and others loss bright, but presenting pheno- 65deg. from the vertical, the 25ft. gauge collected lead in the physical education movement, and it mena difficult of explanation, dark spots with 25 per cent. less than that on the ground, and on could not be doubted that such an example would bright rings or boundod by distinct lines separat- the other hand, in two months, when the mean be followed by other Universities. A movement ing them from the surrounding surfaco. All such angle was 20deg., the upper and lower gauges of this kind, based on rational, if somewhat utilisubjects must be carefully studied before a conclu- only differed by 5 per cent. 4. The relation of tarian, considerations, was certain to make rapid sion can be drawn as to their unalterable stability these results to their cause wind was striking in progress with Englishmen, and they mig take it of their mutations. The means of obtaining evi- its accordance. 5. The necessity of all observers for granted that science would soon be taught dence on these points consists in the examination keeping the top of their gauges strictly lovel is through the length and breadth of the land. of delineations and topographical notices on the one brought out very clearly by the tables of results Colonel Strange proposed the foundation of a hand, and comparing them with the moon by per- given. By these it is shown that in summer a tilt national institution expressly for the practical sonal observation of the objects on the other. Mr. of even ideg. will cause a difference of 0.2 per advancement of scientific research apart from Birt referred to a diagram, giving two aspects of cent. in the amount collected. It is not unfrequent education-an institution for workers as disthe same spots. One as given-lighter than some to find gauges two or three degrees from lovel, tinguished from learners. Such an institution imsurrounding objects—by three authorities, Lohr- which would give a total error of 5 per cent., if plied a building or buildings planned with a view mann, Beer, and Mädler and Schmidt; the other, they were always inclined towards the wind; but to modern scientific requirements, of which the as observed by himself at a recent date, in which as the errors are never intentional, it is probable chief were ample space, absolute stability, and the spot is darker than all surrounding objects. In they neutralize one another ; but it would be far perfect command of light and temperature. It connection with these differences of colour, he put better for observers to be careful to keep the seemed indispensable that such an institution, the question, “ Can we decide for change?” In orifices level, and so to avoid the error altogether. being maintained at the public expense, should be reply, he pointed out one great disadvantage. Various proceedings at stations were recorded ; and as accessible as possible to the scientific public. namely, the uncertainty of the number of observa- then an account was given of the new stations The manufacturing public should also be pertions on which the earlier records rest, and showed established in the central and eastern portions of mitted to participate in its advantages, and in the great importance, not only of increasing our the English lako district. In the district to which should be open to any person to submit to the own observations, but also of soliciting the aid of Dr. Miller confined his attention the fall averages governors proposals for any glven research or exothers, that there may be no want of confirmatory about 100 inches, and at one spot reaches 165 periments, and it would be for that body to decide evidence to establish the certainty of what is re- inches; the usual influence of a range of hills or whether the investigation should be undertaken. corded. In the absence of confirmatory observa- mountains windward of a station is, if the station Due provision would have to be mado for the tions, Mr. Birt considered that the evidence capable be close to the hill, to increase the fall, that is to prompt publication of results. Institutions such of being brought to bear on questions of change is say, ordinarily the maximum fall is on the N.E. as those advocated would be of most important very limited, especially as former records are more slope of a hiil, but the normal deposition having use as consultative bodies, to whom the State could or less open to be regarded as inexact drawings or been exceeded in consequence of the cooling and with confidence resort for scientific counsel. inaccurate statements when they happen to differ condensing influence of the hill, there is so much from the present observed appearances. less vapour in the cloud when it passes onward

SECTION B.-CHEMICAL SCIENCE, REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON LUMINOUS

from the hill. Hence, at say five miles N.E. of a
given hill, the fall would be less than if the hill did

ORGANIC CHEMISTRY,
METEORS.
not exist. This being the case, it might naturally

BY MR. A. R. CATTON, M.A.
BY MR. JAMES GLAISHER, F.R.S.

have been thought that the enormous rainfall in The author commenced by giving a brief resumé With the catalogue of this report the committee the valleys of Wastdale and Borrowdale would of the results described in the reports presented by

year,

and shower of the present year (1868), to determino years have shown that this does not follow.

of the objections which had been raised as to those the heights and real distances of the meteors. The

Professor Phillips and Mr. Symons have both results are given, and an appendix contained independently been investigating the relation be- results and the manner in which thoy had been notices of the stonefalls in the present year, which twoen height above sea level and amount of rain, the admitted difficulty of the research, and in consehave been made the subject of interesting 'discus- fall, as indicated by both new and old stations in quence of the liability to error therein, it was consions by astronomers on the Continent. The star Cumberland district. Professor Phillips has found sidered desirable that the research should be comshowers of November last and of last month are in the Scawfell group the maximum fall was at an menced de novo, and that Dr. Anderson, Professor of a few charts were last year exhibited to the Asso- different method, had determined that the maxi- vited to aid the author with his advice and assistciation, has been completed, and thirty-five copies

mum was at an altitude of 1,000ft. to 1,500ft.; the ance, and the results presented in this report had distributed to eminent astronomers. A new edition two methods have, therefore, led to very similar received his approval. "Taking into consideration of the atlas brought up to the present time was results,

the nature of the objections which had been made, now presented. In addition to the radiant points THE NECESSITY FOR STATE INTERVENTION it was considered to be of the greatest importance first observed by Dr. Heis and Mr. Greg, a similar list of radiant points of star showers in the southern TO SECURE THE PROGRESS OF PHYSICAL SCIENCE, at the outset to try to obtain the products produced

synthetically in the reaction, in quantities which hemisphere is published by Dr. Heis, from obser

formed a much higher percentage of the qualities vations of stars recorded at Melbourne. A com- The author stated that knowledgo, of whatever of substances employed in the reaction. To this plete meteoric survey of the heavens, with a view kind, was promoted principally in three ways, problem his past etřorts have been directed, and to determining the most obvious points of radiation, viz., by teaching, by oducation, and by exhibition. they have been completely successful. Instead of is thus already terminated, and brought, at least Unless the young were instructed, unless the only obtaining, as previously, seven grammes of provisionally, to a satisfactory conclusion. The workers advanced beyond what they learnt when organic sodium salts formed synthetically from meteoric shower of 1867 was next fully described. young, and unless the world was reminded of what 100 grammes sodium, he has obtained twenty-five In respoct to tho past August (1868) motooric had been done, and of what remained to be times that amount, or from 100 grammos sodium showers, the report states that at Sunderland, achieved, knowledge must languish. The provi- he has now succeeded in obtaining 175 grammes Durham, Mr. Blackmore saw one meteor on the sion, such as it was, which had been made in of sodium salts of acids formed synthetically. 7th, one on the 8th, and thirty-five on the night of England to meet these three main requirements To give an account of the conditions necessary the 9th. The 10th and 11th were cloudy. On the had grown up casually with the progress of society, to this result, and of the experiments by which it 9th, the meteors camo very irregularly—they and was not equally complete in all branches of is established, was the subject of this report. The seemed most froquent from 10.40 to 11.10 p.m. ; knowlodge. In literature, extensive provision was author gave'in great detail an account of the their average rato was about twenty-two por hour. made for instruction in our private and public results of a large series of experiments which it The radiant point was about R. A. 2hr. 45min., schools, and in our Universities, while the fine arts would be impossiblo to render intelligible unloss N. Dec. 53deg. Most of the bright ones had were less cared for. They formed as yet no avowed given at length, for which we have not space. He trains.

part of general education in England. Neither music, found that a larger amount of products was obtained REPORT OF THE RAINFALL COMMITTEE. painting, nor sculpture was taught systemati- by keeping a stream of carbonic acid constantly cally in our schools, nor encouraged warmly in passing through the apparatus.

His conclusions our Universities. The provision made in our ADOPTING the same arrangements as in former academies for its extension was meagre in the 1.—That where a current of dry carbonic acid reports, it was stated that steady progress had extreme-from no fault, perhaps, of the professors is kept constantly passing through absolute alcohol, been made with the extraction and classification of or the system, but chiefly from the fact that this which is in contact with sodium amalgam containpublished and unpublished records, and in the ex- requirement was provided almost wholly from ing about 2 per cent of sodium for every 150 amination of rain gauges. Tho records of the private, and, therefore, inadequate, resources. Art grammes of sodium used in the reaction, at least inclined and tipping funnelled gauges described in was better, if not perfectly, provided for ; but that 175 grammes of sodium salts, formod synthetically, the report of 1866, and erected at Rotherham our pictures, statues, and music was seldom good are produced, about 35 grammes of which are the under the superintendence of Mr. Chrimes, have was due to our imperfect means of teaching and of sodium salts of volatilo acids, and the remaining been discussed with some care. One of the prin- extension. The conviction long held by thinkers 140 grammes are the sodium salts of fixed acids. eipal results is the determination of the true and workers in scienco that a knowledge of the 2.—That the volatile acids do not consist entirely

BY COLONEL STRANGE.

BY MR. G. J. SYMONS.

were:

CHEMICAL NATURE OF CAST IRON.

BY DR. P. M. DUNCAN.

BY PROFESSOR FRANKLAND.

of formic acid, but contain at least one acid of showing most conclusively that the greater the more recent, being deposited after a long interval higher molecular weight.

atomic weight of the bodies, the greater was the of denudation, and disposed with reference to the 3.—That the fixed acids are principally acids luminosity of their flames when submitted to com- existing coast outline. The resemblance in the having a greater atomicity than basicity, and they bustion by the electric spark.

fauna and flora of the Mundesley freshwater dewere originally produced as sodium salts, in which

posit to that of the forest and laminated beds was both the basic and typical hydrogen of the acid

noticed, and the Mundesley peat and other thin are replaced by sodium.

THE report on the chemical nature of cast iron layers of similar matter in the Norfolk coast till, The author deferred to a future report the by Dr. A Matthiessen (read by Dr. Russell) was were considered to be merely a recurrence of the full account of the examination of the nature of important, inasmuch as it stated that although Dr. laminated beds at its base. The Thames Valley the products thus formed synthetically. The pro- Matthiessen and Dr. Prug had made seventy deposits at Grays Thurrock might be contemduct of the reaction is of a very complex experiments in the production of pure metallic poraneous with the Norfolk coast beds, as they oxcharacter.

iron from its various compounds, they had nothibit a contorted structure at their baso. Professor Frankland drew the attention of the succeeded in obtaining any iron perfectly free from

REPORT ON BRITISH FOSSIL CORALS. Section to the importance and great interest sulphur. Dr. Matthiessen hoped, however, by of synthetical investigations, such as those of which continuing his researches, yet to obtain a perfectly Mr. Catton had now given the preliminary report. pure sample of metallic iron.

This report consisted of notes and observations Mr. Catton showed his judgment in bringing for In the course of the discussion which followed, I made upon the coral fauna described by Milne Edward in his report only those results which he had Mr. Sutton suggested that probably the presence wards and Jules Haime, in the monograph published conclusively established by experiment. He had of sulphur in iron was only another instance of the by the Palæontographical Society, of descriptions obtained a great quantity of the crude synthetical persistence of that element in the atmosphere, as of new and unpublished species, of notices of product, and the great problem now remained of shown by the experiments of Mr. W. F. Barrett, species published by himself in 1867-68, and of isolating and determining the precise nature of the who first dovised the method of detecting the examinations into the affinities of the forms and substances of which it was composed. Should he presence of sulphur upon the surfaces of bodies their geological positions. The fossil corals of the succeed in solving this problem the result would exposed to the air by projecting upon them a flame Crag, Brockenhurst beds, Eocene deposits, uppor be one of the most interesting discoveries in syn- of hydrogen, a magnificent blue flamo resulting and lower white chalk strata, upper greensand and thetical investigations. Mr. Catton had no doubt therefrom.

red chalk rock of Hunstanton, are considered, and struck out a novel line of research in a class of in

also those of the Rhætic beds, and the great Liassic vestigations which, at the present time, prominently

SECTION C.-GEOLOGY.

series. The fossil corals of the Lias have been occupied the attention of chemists.

published in two parts by the Palæontographical Mr. Perkin asked whether the result might not

ORGANIC CONTENTS OF MINERAL VEINS.

Society during the last twelve months, and this be due to the action of nascent hydrogen on ethyl

BY MR. CHAS. MOORE, F.G.S.

great fauna, with the exception of one species, is carbonate of sodium.

The author stated that for some years he had new to Great Britain, and has been illustrated'in Mr. Catton roplied that he had made special been paying attention to the curious fact that most, 17 plates. The fossil corals of the red chalk of experiments in this direction, and found that if not all, our mineral veins contain organic re- Hunstanton havo just been lithographed in one nothing was produced but formic acid, due no mains, and that he had found 115 species alone at plate, and those from the interesting tertiary dedoubt to the excess of carbonic acid dissolved in the the bottom of a lead mine on the Mondips, includ-posit at Brockenhurst have been already published alcohol. In reference to the remarks of the pre- ing not only fresh water but land shells, and that and illustrated in 1866. The report dwells fully sident, he wished it to be understood that he had it could be proved by their presence that the mine- upon these three new faunæ. The species described made considerable progress in the separation of the rals belonged to the lias and not to the older rocks by MM. Milne Edwards and Julos Haime from the acids which he had formed synthetically, and he in the voins of which they were found. During strata whose corals are noticed here are 43 in numhad no doubt that he would be able to present a the past year he had examined 134 different

ber. Notices are added of 115 species new to complete and final report on the subject to the samples from the mines of the north of England, Great Britain, 25 of which have been described in next meeting of the Association.

in 80 of which he had obtained specimens. A tho coral fauna of the Continent. The labour of COMBUSTION UNDER PRESSURE.

more lengthened examination was needed before passing so many forms under roview, and of superhe could arrive at precise conclusions as to the intending 26 plates published by the Palæonto

age of some of the Yorkshire and Cumberland graphical Society, 2 plates in tho “Philosophical PROFESSOR FRANKLAND read a vory interesting mines, but as he had found some seeds-Fla- Translations,” and 6 in the journal of the Goologipaper on combustion under pressure, illustrated mingites gracilis in one of thom—which had hitherto cal Society, may, perhaps, be explanatory of tho by exseriments. He commenced by stating that only been found in the coal monsures, he concluded impossibility of concluding the report of the coral the origin of the paper now communicated arose in this instance they must be at least as young as cretaceous fauna. The new species from the gault from observing the way in which candles burned that period, as in the case of the Mendip mine, ho have, however, been lithographed but not published, at the top of Mont Blanc, and the law deduced had under those peculiar circumstances found but those from the upper greensand and necomiaso therefrom was that the diminution of illuminating several genera of fresh water shells, including val- have not yet been drawn. There remains for a power was exactly in proportion to the diminution vata, in considerable abundance, from which he future report the description of the fossil strata of of atmospheric pressure. The Professor stated concluded a land area could not be far distant the gault, lower groensand, and of the Oolitic rocks. that some years ago, while ho was on the summit from the vein during their formation. These were The vast coral remains of the Paleozoic age have of Mont Blanc at night, he was struck with the mixed with a marine fauna, including several not been alluded to in this report, and although want of illumination in the candles burnt in the genera of fishes, viz., petalodus, eteuoptychius, possessing the advantage of Mr. Thomson's valutent in which they stopped for the night. He had squaloraia, hybodus, and acrodus, together with able skill in producing sections of carboniferous observed similar results in other elevated regions. numerous species of brachiopoda, outomostraca, corals, and also of investigating large series of The diminution of the illuminating power was in &c., and for the first time a beautiful nummuline, Devonian and Silurian groups, it could only be asall probability due to the roduction of atmospheric like species of foraminifera, together with the serted that before any satisfactory communication pressure. If they took an ordinary gas flame, and genera Nodosaria, Cristellaria, Dentalina, and on these early zoantharia can bo writton much placed a piece of paper with writing on it against Rotalina. The author concluded by saying the time must be occupied, and much labour be undorthe flame, looking steadily through it, they would operation for the discovery of these remains was gone. be able to read the writing as well, or nearly as very difficult, owing to the minute examination well, as if the flame was not thero at all. needed, and to the generally intractablo character

SECTION D.-BIOLOGY. The commonly received opinion was that they of the vein stuff yielding them. must have incandescent solid or liquid substances

ZOOLOGICAL ASPECT OF THE GAME LAWS. in order to produce a white light in gaseous flames.

SEQUENCE OF THE DEPOSITS IN NORFOLK AND

SUFFOLK ABOVE THE RED CRAG. In following out this subject, he had been brought

MR. NEWTON argued that great advantage had into contact with a number of flames which emitted

arisen from the attention of the public having been a considerable amount of light, but which did not Mr. Maw considered that the whole of the bods abovo called to the question. The most effectual proteccontain any solid matter whatever. One was the oblique forruginous rod crag in the well-known tion to animals was that afforded by public opinion. métallic arsenic, burnt with oxygen gas; it emitted Chillesford Crag Pit pertained to the Chillesford A most striking instance of its intluence was that an intense and brilliant white light. Bi-sulphide clay series. The Fluvio Marine or lower Norwich presented by the fox. Not much moro than a of carbon also emitted a very intense light-indeed, Crag was here wanting, but he disagrood with century ago the British farmer was only induced so intense that it had been employed to take instanta- those who considered the obliquely bedded fermu- to permit the galloping of horses and hounds over neous photographs. This was produced without ginous red crag as the equivalent of the Norwich his corn by the reflection that they were doing him the possibility of a solid or liquid mattor oxisting crag, for in its occurrence at Thorpe, in Suffolk, a great service in ridding him of a pestilent main the flame while the light was being evolved. If within three and a half miles of Chillesford, it rauder, and he would hear with grim satisfaction oxygen and hydrogen were enclosed in a soap shows no approach in either its physical or pala- that the scourge of his wife's henroost had boon bubble and exploded, or other light envelope, there ontological features to the red crag. The Chilles- run into, or he would willingly at a vestry meeting was scarcely any light produced; but if they were ford bods extend transgressively over the coraline, pass the churchwardens' accounts giving awards enclosed in a strong vessel and exploded by means red, and fluvio marine crags, and do not appear for the destruction of a vixen and her cubs among of an electric spark, at the moment of their com- to pass upwards in conformable succession from any other so-called vermin. Now-a-days the British bustion the light would have an increased lumi- of the subjacent beds. The upper part of the farmer was generally in the first flight of the horsenosity to the extent of ten times above that in the Chillesford beds probably graduate into the drist men, and the fox had no friend so staunch. A previous case. Ignited gas emitted light in pro- underlying the boulder clay of high Suffolk: these similar change with regard to other wild animals portion to its density. The increase of luminosity were considered older than the coast beds of was most desirable. The public should feel that in flames, the Professor considered to be due to Cromer, and appear to partake of the general de- they had an interest in the production of wild the presence of dense hydrocarbon vapours. One nudation contour of the country, having been ex- animals, especially during the season of reproducof the most interesting experiments shown was that tensively denuded in the excavation of valleys that tion. The decrease of these animals, however, of sending an electric spark first through air under | are cut deeply through them into the chalk and was often attributed to secondary causes, and not ordinary pressure, and then through air under other formations. The coast beds, including the to direct slaughter. Man had no great spite against doubled pressure. The result was, that the light forest bed of Cromer (with which the author the bustard or the great copper-íly, but both had of the spark due to combustion of the air was very identified the other forest beds along the S.E. and been extirpated within living memory, the latter much increased. The spark was sent also through S. coasts), the laminated beds and the overlying probably owing to the drainage of the fens. Both, many other gaseous and vapourized substances, boulder till and contorted drift were considered however, might possibly have been preserved by a

BY MR. A. NEWTON.

BY MR. MAW.

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