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Julian Pe.

Dr. Hales objects in this arrangement of Lord Barrington, to Antioch. riod, 4760. the supposition that “helps" answer to“ prophecy," and "goValgar Æra, vernments” to “ discerning of spirits.” 49.

Bishop Horsley bas classed the gifts of the Spirit nearly in the
same manner as Lord Barrington. He thus contrasts the nine
gifts described in ver. 8–10. with the ecclesiastical offices
eanmerated here.

1. The word of wisdom Apostles

i. c. expounders of 2. The word of knowledge Prophet the Scriptures of the

Told Testament. 3. Faith

Teachers of Christiauity 4. Miracles

Workers of miracles
5. Healing

6. Prophecies or predictions Helps Mark, Tychicus, One-

7. Discerning of spirits Governments, κυβερνήσεις
8. Tongues

Gifted with tongues in vari-
9. Interpretation of tongues

ous ways
The fourth and fifth gifts, miracles and healing, seem, he ob-
serves, to have changed places in the 9th and 10th verses. Mi.
racles, it seems, must take place as the genus, and healing must
rank below it as the species. Accordingly in ver. 28. miracles
or powers are mentioned before healings, with this slight altera.
tion, the list of gifts in ver. 8-10. seems to answer exactly to the
list of offices in ver. 28.

Dr. Doddridge and others, in consequence of the difficulty
which has been experienced in the attempt to classify these
gifts, have been of opinion that the same persons might have
possessed many of them, and sustained several of these charac-
ters, which were not stated distinct offices, and might be called
helpers, in reference to their great dexterity and readiness to
help those in distress; and governments, in regard to that ge-
nius for business, sagacity in judging the circumstances of
affairs, and natural authority in the councils and resolutions of
societies, which rendered them fit to preside on such occasions.

This opinion is in some measure defended by Mr. Morgan,
who has made the subjoined arrangement of the holy gifts, titles,

and offices.

Eph. iv. 11, 12.
Rom. xii. 6-8. I Cor. xii. 28-30.

1 Cor. xü. 8-10.


Word of wisdom
Apostles He that ruleth


Miracles of the

Governments Discerning of Spirits Saints.

Word of knowledge PresbyEdifying ? Prophets Prophecy


Gifts of healing ters Lof Christ.


He that exhorteth 2 Speakers with tongues Kinds of tongues
Work of

He that teacheth


Deacons <the Minis-


He that giveth


Interpretation of tongues He that sheweth mercy The writers in the Critici Sacri are very unsatisfactory on this subject. Though Lord Barrington appears to have given the best explanation, much light will be thrown on the meaning of the various gifts, if we endeavour to ascertain from the Septuagint, the received signification of the words which are used to express them. This version was generally adopted during the apostolic age, and must have been well known by the persons to whom St. Paul addressed the Epistle in wbich these gifts are enumerated.

S Prophets



Julian Pe. The miraculous gifts enumerated by St. Paul are all described

Antioch. riod, 4760. (1 Cor. xii. 7.) by one term, ý pavépwong ToŨ Tveúparos. The Valgar Æra, word pavépwois is not found in the LXX, but in Jer. xl. 6. of 49.

the division in the Oxford edition of the Septuagint, which
corresponds to chap. xxxiii. ver. 6. of the authorized English
translation, and the Hebrew, we meet with the word from which
φανέρωσις is derived; και φανερώσω αυτοίς, which is the literal
rendering of ons voo599 “ I will reveal unto them.” Our trans-
lators have rendered the word “ The manifestation of the Spi-
rit.” I canpot but believe that the full meaning of the whole
passage is, “ That to him who has been favoured with the mira-
culous gifts of the Holy Spirit, in whatever degree they may
have been imparted, the power is also granted of manifesting to
others the nature and extent of those gifts.”

The whole clause of this passage in Jeremiah is ons rebon
rendered “ I will reveal unto them the abundance of peace and
truth.” In which they are supported by the authority of the Sep-
tuagint; which bowever does not in all instances give the accu-
rate meaning of the Hebrew. Dr. Blayney rejects the literal
interpretation, and translates the passage "I will also grant their
prayer for peace and truth.” He defends this rendering by ob-
serving, “nny signifies to pray in a devout, fervent manner.
Hence niny may well be construed a devout and fervent prayer ;
and to manifest to any one his petition seems to be the granting
of it.” The learned author should bave been fully warranted in
thus interpreting the phrase nany woba, to grant a prayer. It
is not sufficient in endeavouring to ascertain the meaning of a
passage in Scripture, to inquire what may be the possible sense;
but what is first the literal, and then the secondary meaning.
If we render the word nnny by“ fervent prayer," instead of
“ abundance," we are still unwarranted in rendering the word
osoby “ I will grant,” which is unsupported by any anthority:
Even if we adopt its usual primary meaning " I will reveal,"
and translate the rest of the passage as Dr. Blayney proposes,
we shall obtain only a probable signification. The prophet is
predicting the future prosperity of Jerusalem, and its temporal
recovery of wealth and prosperity. From this prediction he
passes, as is usual, to a more spiritual promise, and propbecies
the full manifestation of their devout prayer for peace and truth
in the latter days. Peace and truth were spiritual blessings, of
which the restoration of the Jews from their captivity were
highly typical and illustrative. Neither is it improbable that
the apostle alluded to this prediction when he used the word
pavépwors, which is only found twice in the New Testament, in
the Épistles to the Corinthians, 1 Cor. xii. 7. 2 Cor. iv. 2. I
canpot, however, remember any authority for thus rendering
the word niny. Buxtorf supports the sense given by our trans-
lators, who, it should ever be remembered by the proposers of
new meanings, were among the most eminent Hebrew scholars
of a very learned age.

The gifts which are thus represented as bestowed for the
'common benefit are first arranged under three general heads,
(1 Cor. xii. 4–6.) and are then divided into nine particulars.
The three general beads are
Sxapropatwv , differences of gifts

but the same Spirit. διαιρέσεις, διακονιών


same Lord.
ενεργημάτων) diversities operations

same God.
Alaipiotis is only used in the New Testament in this passage.
It frequently occurs in the Septuagint in the same sense in




Julian Pc. which our translators have rendered it. It corresponds with Antioch.
riod, 4760. the Hebrew words npban Par. 24. 1. chap. xxvi. 1. 12. 19.
VulgarÆra,“ The divisions,” or “ classes," which would be possibly a bet-

ter word to express the meaning of the apostle than either "dif-
ferences" or " diversities."

The word xapioja does not occur in the Septuagint. It is
however derived from xapıróopau, which is frequently used. Its
evident meaning is a spiritual gift, or endowment of the mind,
which could not be mistaken for the natural or cultivated talent
of the teacher, upon whom it was conferred.-See Rom. i. 11.
2 Cor. i. 11.

Alakovia does not occur in the Septuagint, but it is found in 1 Maccabees xi, 58. where it is used to describe the service or furniture which Antiochus sent to Jonathan the High Priest, for the service of the temple, in addition to the golden vesselsαπέστειλεν αυτώ χρυσώματα και διακονίαν. Schleusner quotes from Athenæus, lib. v. t. ii. p. 342. a passage in which diakoviat is used to denote the instruments which are in daily use.

In the New Testament the word is repeatedly used to describe the general office or ministry consigned by our Lord to the apostles and teachers of the Church. (Acts i. 17. xx. 24. xxi. 19. Rom. xi. 13.) The services they were commanded to per. form were the appointed means of graco, for the perpetual and common service of the Church.

Evépynua is not to be found in the Old Testament, but in the Apocrypha only, Sir. xvi. 16. see Compl. It is derived from kvepytw, and is well translated by Macknight, In-workings-it is used but twice in the New Testament. Is it not possible as these in-workings are ascribed to God the Father, that they may mcan both those ordinary influences which proceed from the holy Spirit of God, by which we alone can become the children of God, and say Abba, Father, and the right efforts of reasoning and the natural powers of the mind, which God as the Creator has implanted in all human beings. They appear to be different from the xaplouára of the Spirit, and to be distin. guished from them.

It will be observed that the various gifts which build up the Christian Church, though they are all called the gifts of the Spirit, are ascribed in their arrangement by St. Paul, to the three persons of the Holy Trinity. This is done, however, in such a manner, that the character under which each has been revealed lo mankind, is carefully preserved. The Father is the Creator of man, to Him is assigned the internal natural energy or operations which he originally implanted in the human creation, or creature, and upon which, and with which the Spirit of God acts. The Son of God is the Redeemer; to him are ascribed the ministrations or offices which himself established as the appointed means of grace. The Spirit of God is the Sanctifier, to Him are assigned the gifts which produce holiness within, and convince the world of the truth of the Gospel, of righteousness, and judgment. And all these are rightly said to be the gifts of the Spirit, as it is the Spirit of God alone, which by its sacred office, overrules and changes the natural energies of will, understanding, and all the powers of mind which God has given us, and which makes all the means of grace appointed by Christ effectual; and by pouring into the soul of man its own purifying, consoling, peaceful influences, makes us spiritually fit to become for ever the companions of superior beings.

From this general classification of the gifts of the Holy Spirit, or of the Holy Trinity, we proceed to the particulars.

The first is Móyoc copias, which seems to have been peculiar to the apostles. The word oopia is repeatedly used in the LXX.



Julian Pe- It corresponds to 743a, Prov. ii. 3. and iii. 5. understanding- Antioch.
riod, 4760. to nyr, knowledge, Prov. i. 7, and to noan, wisdom, Isa. xi. 2.
Vulgar Æra, where copia is described as one of those gifts of the Spirit which,

should rest upon Christ. In the enumeration in the passage in
Isaiah, are threo words, which in various other passages of the
LXX. are rendered by copía, noon, na, nyi, and wbich are in
this place respectively rendered by the LΧΧ σοφία, συνέσις, and
yvúors. This circumstance might appear at first sight to destroy
the validity of any argument as to the meaning of the word copias
from the LXX, if we did not take into consideration the diffi-
culty which the Septuagint translators unavoidably found in dis-
covering a variety of phrases to express the synonymous terms
in the Hebrew.

Some further light may be thrown upon the meaning of the word oopía, in this passage, if we consider the use of the word nnon, to which it corresponds in Isa. xi. 2. in the description of the Sephiroth of the Jewish Cabbala (a). The learned Vitringa is of opinion, that the Sephiroth was an emblematical description of the Messiah. Whether this hypothesis be tenable, we cannot now stop to inquire. The first of the ten Sephiroth was the ona, or crown, which was placed on the head of the personage, whom Vitringa bas represented as the emblem of the Messiah. The two next were noon and n'a, wisdom and pru. dence, or knowledge,

The word copia is likewise used in the Apocryphal book of “ the Wisdom of Solomon,” to express, as Schleusner conjectores, the art of governing: in wbich sense it is peculiarly ap. plicable to the apstles. Προς υμάς ούν ώ τύραννοι οι λόγοι μου, iva páonte copiar-Unto you, o rulers, my words are addresscd, that ye may learn wisdom. As the word is used in these various siguifications, each of them so peculiarly applicable to the powers and gifts with which the apostles were endued, we may conclude that each sense was intended to be combined by the apostle in the passage before us. The word of wisdom, therefore, would imply all supernatural intelligence, and the highest endowments of mind, by whatever name they may be distinguished; together with the skill, talent, and power of governing as wise men, the Churches they had already planted.

The next gift of the Spirit is yvūois. This is a gift inferior
to wisdom (6). It corresponds to nys. As it was the gift pos-
sessed by the prophets of the New Testament, it must denote
the knowledge of future events; and, as they were teachers also,
it probably included the learning that was usually acquired by
industry, the experience given by time, age, and long inter-
course with the world, and other talents, demanded by the cir-
cumstances of difficulty or danger in which they were placed.
Lord Barrington supposes that these prophets were likewise
apostles. It does not appear that his proofs are decisive.

The third gift of the Spirit is nisis, faith, and it was that
which was imparted to the ocdaorador, or teachers. The word
nisiç is too well known to require explanation. In the New
Testament it is variously used to denote conviction, firm belief,
or unfeigoed assent to the truth of Revelation. It denotes also
the profession of religion, 1 Cor. ii. 5. xv. 4. 2 Pet. i. 5, &c. &c.
aod the mass or collected body of truths and doctrines taught
by the apostles, Acts vi. 7, &c. 2 Tim. ii. 18. iii. 8. Titus i. 4.
2 Pet. i. i. Jude 3.

All these we may justly assign to the first teachers of Chris-
tianity, who were neither bonoured with the apostolic nor pro.
phetic gifts. They would all firmly believe, profess, and prac.
tise, the doctrines and the duties of their new religion. The
ôrokoralo were not endowed with the same degroe of inspira.
tion as the prophets.

Juliao Pe- Dists, in the LXX, corresponds to the word 1DX ; see Deut. Antioch.
riod, 4760. xxxi. 20. where it is rendered “ faith" by our translators. The
VulgarÆra, primary meaning of the word yox, is steadiness, or firmness,

constancy and stability. God is called, in Isa. Ixv. 16. Jan vanhx,
The God of truth or faithfulness.

Another meaning is given to the word yax, in Nehem. ix.
38,(c) wbere it seems to signify a sure or firm treaty. The Sep-
tuagint translate the pbrase orasidéueda risiv. Our translators
render the word nunx, adjectively. Their version of the passage
is, we make a sure covenant." In the book of Ecclesiasticus
we meet with risus, in the same sense in which it is used in the
New Testament, chap. i. 33. xl. 12, &c. &c. In these senses
the word may be considered applicable to the passage before us.
It was necessary that the teachers of the new religion should
have “stability and constancy,” as well as belief and purity;
neither was it less necessary that they should enter into cove-
nant with God, in consideration of the fulfilment of his pro-
mises in Christ; as the legislator of Israel had done, when he
had recapitulated the mercies of God to himself, his people, and
their common ancestors.

The fourth of these sacred gifts requires no discussion: the gift of healing was the power of curing diseases; the most common, thongh at the same time not the least wonderful of these mighty powers. Some confusion has been occasioned by the word duvápels, which is used in two different senses, in ver. 28 and 29. But op referring to the Septuagint, it will be seen that the word is there used in the same manner.

It corresponds to no, strength, power, &c. Paral. xxix. 2. 2 Par. xxii. 9. and Esther ji. 18. to nay, a servant. The persons in. vited by the king of Persia to bis banquet, mentioned in this passage, were the great officers of his court; his higher and confidential servants. The officers of the Christian Church were peculiarly honoured, and received the same appellation which designated the companions of a sovereign

The fifth is evidently transposed in the three lists. The word kvepyhua does not occur in the LXX, though it is found in Eccles. xvi. 16. as we have observed. It seems to refer to tho bighest possible enlargement of the natural faculties, by which the teachers of Christianity were enabled to perform wonderful cures. They were supernaturally instructed, perhaps, to anticipate the knowledge and discoveries of a future age ; and to effect likewise wonderful healings of disease, by an agency superior to any efforts of medical science, past, present, or future.

In the next division of the miraculous gifts, prophecy, apopnteia, and the discerning of spirits, are classed together with 'Avrilhveis, “helps,” and Kubepvndeus, governments ;? which titles are equivalent, according to the arrangement in the third list, with fluogais dalõvTES, speakers of tongues. This divi. sion, as we may judge from the order, which has hitherto proceeded regularly from the apostles to the lower gradations of the ministry, and the inferior gifts imparted to them, ought to signify something inferior to the gifts and titles which havo been already enumerated. If we may, as we propose, fix the meauing of these muoh controverted words from the LXX, we shall find this opinion most singularly confirmed. The word apoonteia is used in the LXX for the Hebrew min, vision, or ex. stacy, 2 Paral. xxxii. 32. Dan. xi. 14. which was a lower degree of inspiration to that which was given to Moses, who talked with the Divine Leader of Israel “face to face;" and consequently lower than was imparted to the apostles, who were honoured in the same manner by the Sacred Oracle him

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