Page images

come to explain, so far as appears necessary or any person who may be appointed by the authority desirable, the true system of house-drainage ; but it to superintend the making of such communications is manifest that, as in everything else, it is the way (sect. 21). The definition of nuisance given in sect. 91 in which the system is practically carried out that is of the Act includes any drain so foul or in such a the most important thing of all. Hence we are brought state as to be a nuisance or injurious to health,' for in face of the problem which I have set myself to the abatement of which the proceedings specified in discuss—the best means of providing for the regu- | the subsequent clauses of the Act may be taken. lation and registration of plumbing in houses. Every local authority must provide that all drains,

water-closets, earth-closets, ash-pits, and cesspools, II.-EXISTING LAW ON THE SUBJECT. within their district be constructed and kept so as It must be confessed that on this subject of house

not to be a nuisance or injurious to health (sect. 40). drainage our existing statute law, both in the country on the written application of any person to a local at large and in the metropolis, is very insufficient authority, stating that any drain, water-closet, &c., and unsatisfactory.

on or belonging to any premises within their district (a) England Generally.—Under the Public Health is a nuisance or injurious to health (but not otherAct,' where a house is without a drain sufficient for wise), the local authority may by writing empower effectual drainage, the local authority must, by four hours written notice to the occupier, or in case

or inspector of nuisances, after twentywritten notice, require the owner or occupier to make a covered drain emptying into any sewer not

of emergency without notice, to enter such premises more than 100 feet from the site of such house ; or and cause the ground to be opened, and examine if there be no such sewer, then into a covered cess

such drain. If the drain on examination appears to pool or other place not being under any house, as

be in bad condition, or to require alteration the local authority may direct. Such drain or

or amendment, the local authority is forthwith drains are to be of such materials and size, and to

to give notice in writing to the owner and be laid at such level, and with such fall, as on the occupier, requiring him forthwith or within a report of their surveyor the local authority may reasonable time to be specified to do the necesdeem necessary. If such notice is not complied sary, works. Non-compliance with the notice is with, the local authority may, after the expiration punishable by a penalty of ten shillings for every of the time specified in the notice, do the work day of default, and the local authority may, if they required, and may recover in a summary manner

think fit, execute such works, and may recover the the expenses incurred by them in so doing from the expenses of so doing from the owner (sect. 41). owner, or may, by order, declare the same to be

The obvious object of all these clauses is the private improvement expenses (sect. 23).

This repression of nuisance from drains where it has section applies both to urban and rural sanitary

arisen. But for the prevention of disease by ensurauthorities.

ing proper workmanship in the first instance there is It is unlawful in any urban district newly to erect practically no effective legislation whatever. any house, or to rebuild any house, which has been

Powers under By-Laws.—The by-laws which pulled down to or below the ground-floor, or to

individual local authorities propose for ensuring occupy any house so newly erected and built, unless proper and adequate drainage of buildings vary of and until a covered drain or drains be constructed,

course according to local circumstances (and, it may of such size and materials and at such level and be added, prejudices). But inasmuch as all these with such fall as on the report of the surveyor may by-laws have to be approved by the Local Governappear to the urban authority ‘o be necessary for ment Board, it may fairly be assumed that the the effectual drainage of such house. Such drain model lines prepared by that Board—to which they or drains are to empty into any sewer which is have shown a great disposition to adhere—reprewithin 100 feet of the house ; or if there be no

sent all the regulations that are likely to be put in sewer within that distance, into a covered cesspool force anywhere. These regulations require that the (sect. 25). Contravention of this section involves a

drains shall be of proper size, materials, fall, and penalty of 50l. It will be noticed that this require position, that they shall be embedded in concrete, ment does not extend to rural districts unless the ventilated at each end, and that the inlets shall be local authorities have been invested with urban trapped. The drains must be trapped from the powers, which are often not applied for until a mul- sewer, there must be no right-angled junctions, and titude of new houses have been erected on the most and upper extremities of the drains as practicable

at least two untrapped openings as near the lower flagrantly insanitary principles.

Every urban authority (including, of course, rural must be provided. authorities invested with urban powers) may make

Under the Model By-laws, every person who by-laws with respect inter alia to the drainage of intends to erect a new building must send in combuildings (sect. 157). The owner and occupier of plete plans and sections of every floor of such buildany premises is entitled to cause his drains to empty ing, together with a description of the intended into the sewers of the local authority on condition of mode of drainage, and a block plan showing the inhis giving due notice and of complying with the regu- tended lines of drainage and the intended size, lations of the authority in respect of the mode in depth, and inclination of each drain, and the details which the communications between such drains and of the arrangement proposed to be adopted for the sewers are to be made, and subject to the control of ventilation of the drains. Before covering up any

drain the builder must send a notice to the surveyor Drain is defined by sect. A of the Public Health Act to mean

of the date when the drain will be covered up. If 'any drain of and used for the drainage of one building only, or pre- he neglects to give such notice (and in that case mises within the same curtilage, and made merely for the purpose of communicating therefrom with a cesspool or other like receptacle for only) the surveyor may have the work cut into, or drainage, or with a sewer into which the drainage of two or more laid open, or pulled down if he cannot otherwise buildings or premises occupied by different persons is conveyed. Practically the same definition is given in sect. 250 of the Metropolis been contravened. The surveyor is to have free

ascertain on inspection whether the by-laws have Management Act, 1855.

access to the work at all reasonable times for the is left to be regulated by the local vestries with no purpose of inspection during construction, and also attempt at any sort of consistency or supervision. within a period of seven days after the completion of Hence it is not surprising that the state of the the building But the surveyor cannot claim to house-drainage of the metropolis should be so render the occupation of a new building con- scandalous as it is admitted on all hands to be. No ditional upon his certificate as to the structural one who takes a walk through any of our growing and sanitary fitness of the premises. And, gener- suburbs, and who contemplates the flimsy erections ally, it must be borne in mind that these by-laws that are being run up on all sides, can fail to be are not of universal application. The local impressed with the store of mischief that is being authority have first to be convinced that by-laws laid up for the next generation, if not for the present, are necessary, then to discuss with the Local through the absence of effectual regulations for the Government Board the details of their proposals, control of building and drainage operations. and, finally, when at length they have the power of regulating new buildings, have to make up their III. UNIVERSALITY OF BAD DRAINAGE. minds to enforce such power. Very many sanitary districts in the country have still no building by-laws law has been a necessary preliminary to a discussion

This somewhat tedious exposition of the existing at all, and the jerry builder has therefore ample of the alterations and additions which are necessary opportunity throughout the kingdom for his malevolent enterprise.

to be made in it for the complete protection of the (6) Metropolis.—In the metropolis a little more is householder. I shall not here enter at any length regulated by Act of Parliament, but there are no

into the respective merits and demerits of the various by-laws in force which impose the useful regulations systems of house-drainage, nor into the virtues of contained in the Model By-laws of the Local Govern

the multitudinous traps and other contrivances that ment Board. Thus sect. 73 of the Metropolis insist upon, and endeavour to show the

necessity of;

are so much belauded by their inventors; but I shall Management Act, 1855, makes obligatory the pro. vision of proper drains to every house required stringent regulations designed with the object of by section 23 of the Public Health Act of 1875, insuring that no drainage work is done except by but goes a little more into detail, and provides properly, instructed and skilled plumbers ; and, that it shall be lawful for the vestry or district further, that each stage of such work is systematic Board of Works to cause the said works to be ally and thoroughly inspected by an official of the inspected while in progress, and from time to time local authority, who shall test the efficiency of such during their execution to order such reasonable

drains before allowing them to be covered up, and alterations therein, additions thereto, and abandon

whose certificate shall be essential before any house ment of part or parts thereof, as may to the vestry

can be occupied. or Board and their officers appear, on the fuller

Sanitary Condition of Private Dwellings.-Mr. knowledge afforded by the opening of the ground, Rogers Field, than whom no greater authority on requisite to secure the complete and perfect working drainage exists, recently summed up the sanitary of such works.' Sect. 75 of the same Act prohibits principles governing house drainage as follows :the erection of a new house unless a proper drain

1. All refuse matter must be completely and be provided ; and sect. 76, as amended by rapidly removed from the house. 2. There must sect. 63 of the Metropolis Management Act, 1862,

never be any passage of air from the drains or requires that seven days' notice to the authority waste-pipes into the house. 3. There must be no must be given of the intention to lay or dig out the

connection between the drains and the domestic foundation of a new house or to make any drain water-supply. These, although so simple, are freunder a penalty of 51. and 21. a day. Every such quently neglected. The first goes absolutely to the foundation must be laid at such level as will permit root of sanitation, for were it strictly complied with the drainage of such house in compliance with the there would be no leaky drains, no polluted subsoil, Act, and every drain must be made in the direc- and no production of loul gases in the drains from tion, manner, form, of the materials and workman- houses fulfiling the conditions described by Mr.

decomposing organic matter.* The number of ship, and with such branches, &c., as the vestry shall order, and every such drain shall be under the Rogers Field is surprisingly small. Mr. Field him. survey and control of the authority.' Sect. 82 gives self said at a recent discussion that from an the authority power of inspection of drains at all experience of eight or ten years in these matters reasonable times in the daytime, and power to open

he found that the majority of houses were very the ground in any place they think fit. Improperly examined he had only found three that were sound.t

defective, and out of about a thousand he had making or altering drains is punishable by sect. 83 by a penalty of 10l., and if matters are not remedied The resident engineer of the London Sanitary Prowithin fourteen days, the local authority may do the

tection Association, stated last January that of the necessary work and charge it to the person offend- houses inspected by his Association, 10tal obstrucing. Drains found in bad order or condition, or

tion or stoppage of the drains had been discovered requiring cleaning, alteration, or amendment, must

in 6 per cent., leaky soil-pipes in 31 per cent., conby sect. 85 be put into proper condition within a

nection of the sinks, baths, or fixed basins, with the specified time, failing which the vestry may execute drain or soil-pipe in 68 per cent., and direct comthe necessary work.

munication between the drinking-water cisterns and Thus it will be seen that in many respects the the drain or soil-pipes in 37 per cent. For every metropolitan law is inferior to the law for the pro

100 country houses inspected by the Edinburgh vinces. There is no authority which can enforce Sanitary Inspection Association, 90 per cent. had the enactment and practical carrying out of adequate their drains in direct communication with the inby-laws; the Metropolitan Board of Works, which terior ; 80 per cent. had faulty water storage arrangecan control the foundations and the stability of

* SANITARY RECORD, Vol. xiv., p. 249. buildings, has no power over their drainage ; but all Ibid., Vol. xiv., p. 343.

Ibid., pp. 347-51.

ments; and no less than 15 per cent had the main addition had the overflow-pipes of baths or cisterns cisterns in direct connection with cesspools. And acting as sewer-ventilators into the house ; and all from every-day experience it is impossible to doubt this not unfrequently in places where the sewer that the number of houses that can be regarded as itself, from which so much air has been wasted, has safe from the irruption of sewer-air is very small been an ill-conditioned and unventilated sort of indeed. Our public buildings, where economy cesspool.* cannot be pleaded as an excuse, do not set us the Thus, the two great evils to be guarded against example they ought. The imperfect sanitary con- are (1) improper systems and (2) imperfect workmandition of the War Office, of Somerset House, and ship. The first can only be guarded against by the the Local Government Board and of other Govern- definite prohibition by Act of Parliament of all ment offices, has at various times monopolised a such improper appliances as D-traps, containers of large share of public attention, and we hear too the like, and by insisting upon the disconnection of often of public buildings, hospitals, asylums, and the the air of the sewers from that of the drains. The like, being rendered unbearably offensive and even second can only be prevented by the systematic dangerous to life through the imperfect state of their instruction of plumbers in their craft, by imposing drainage arrangements.

the necessity of a licence on all plumbers, and by

adequate independent inspection of all drainage IV.-NATURE AND EXTENT OF MISCHIEF CAUSED work before it is covered up and lost to the view. BY BAD DRAINAGE.

It is unnecessary for me, before such an audience as Although no sanitary evil has been more abun- this, to go minutely into the quality, material, or dantly demonstrated than defective drainage, it is other details of the system of drainage to be not unfortunately possible to adduce any statistical adopted. It will suffice to state certain broad evidence of the mischief which it causes. For when general principles, the reasonableness and necessity individual members of particular households are

of which will, I think, be readily admitted. struck down by illness arising from this cause, it is

Systematic Instruction of Plumbers.—The sysseldom that the mischief is known outside the tematic instruction of plumbers in their craft is no victim's own circle, unless he or she chance to be a

doubt a matter outside the Legislature. But much person of importance. The Prince of Wales's ill. may be done by the delivery of lectures, such as the ness in the winter of 1870, the Duchess of Con- admirable series recently given by Mr. Stevens naught's recent experience at Bagshot House, have Hellyer, under the auspices of the National Health their counterparts by hundreds; but the public Society, and now published in a separate and does not know of them except by accident. It is attractive form.f The interest, and even enthusiasm, only when fever-poison gets distributed wholesale with which these lectures were attended by working through sewers, and obtains access to the interior plumbers is, I hope, a fair augury of better things in of houses through imperfect house-drains that the the future. The City Guild of Plumbers, which has evil is seen in its true light. The number of deaths recently shown signs of awakening life, migbt, morein which drain-air is an existing or a contributory over, do much to encourage good and discourage cause is not ascertainable from the Registrar- bad work by instituting a School of Plumbing, with General's returns ; but if we bear in mind that

the needful accessories and workrooms, as well as sewer emanations and polluted waters are the two by the exercise of its influence upon the trade. chief agents in the production of typhoid fever we

And if I may venture a suggestion to architects as may, without fear of contradiction, assess the annual

a body, I would advise that in their specifications number of victims to drain-air almost by thousands. they should be more definite as to the nature of the The evil with which we have to cope is, therefore, appliances ordered, and should exercise supervision one of very general and pressing importance.

over these being properly situated and connected.

I trust I shall not be unduly touching upon the V.- RECOMMENDATIONS FOR STRENGTHENING

ethics of the profession when I remark upon the THE LAW.

immense advantage which accrues from the architect Imperfect Recognition of Danger of Communica- pipes and drains of any house which he has designed

insisting upon personally testing and examining the tion of House-Drains and Sewers.--Amongst those before they are covered up and lost to view. If more immediately concerned in the erection of every architect did this as part of his professional buildings there seems to be a very imperfect recog- concern for the house, we should hear much less nition of the danger involved by the direct commu- often of death and disease caused by drain-air. nication of the sewers with water-closets, sinks, Turning now to the question of the strengthening cisterns, baths, and the like in the interior of the of our statute law as to drainage and plumbing, I houses. And, in regard of construction, almost un- think that in any new Act the following points should limited trust has been placed in artisans, who not be provided for :only can hardly be expected to understand certain First as regards drainage itself :of the first conditions (as to atmospheric pressure) 1. Rural authorities should have the same powers which they have to meet, but who also in not a few

as are now possessed by urban authorities. In the instances have evidently failed to apprehend that suburbs of towns, just outside the municipal boundeven their mechanical work requires conscientious aries, thousands of houses are springing up without execution. Under influence of the latter deficiency any sanitary supervision whatever. The rural authothere have been left in innumerable cases all sorts rity is, perhaps, unaware of the evil, or is, at any of escape holes for sewer effluvia into houses, and rate, careless about it, until the houses are erected ; disjointed drains effusing their filth into basements; and their opportunity of making by-laws which can while under the other deficiency, house-drainage, control such houses is then lost. though done with good workmanlike intention, has often, for want of skilled guidance, been left entirely

• Simon, 'Report on Filth Disease,' p. 1). without exterior ventilation, and sometimes has in s. Stevens Hellyer. B. 1. Batsfordo

Lectures on the Science and Art of Sanitary Plumbing,' by

2. It would be well that the requirements of the plumbers. Chicago promptly took advantage of this Model By-Laws as to New Buildings issued by the law with the best results. Local Government Board should be incorporated in New York has passed a law in the spring of 1884 a Building Act, which should be forthwith passed, (and which is applicable to New York and Brookand be of general application throughout the lyn), making the registration of plumbers compulcountry.

sory, and providing for the supervision of plumbing 3. The plumbing and drainage of all buildings, and drainage generally: Every master and journey. public and private, should be executed in accord- man plumber must register his name and address at ance with plans and specifications previously ap- the Health Department of the city, and no one may proved in writing by the local authority.

carry on the trade of plumbing unless he be duly 4. No drainage-work should be allowed to be registered. A list of the registered plumbers is to covered or concealed in any way until it had been be published once a year. No building may be examined and passed by the surveyor.

erected the plan of which has not previously been 4A. The efficiency of all drains should be tested approved by the Board of Health ; and suitable by the peppermint or some other test before they drawings must also be submitted and deposited of are passed ; and it should be a rule that, wherever everything which relates to the plumbing and possible, drain-pipes should be kept from view only drainage of the house. Before the drains of a house by boarding which can be readily removed.

are covered up notice must be sent to the Health 5. No new house should be allowed to be in Department by the owner or plumber, that the inhabited until it had been passed and certified by the spector may examine the work, and the Board of surveyor, and a plan of the system of drainage Health will not approve or permit a drain which has should be appended in every case to the lease or not been examined by one of its inspectors and other document for the letting of the house.

found to be properly constructed.* As regards the plumbers, I suggest that

The Boston regulations, passed on Dec. 21, 6. The names and addresses of all plumbers 1882, are very full and complete. They are given should be registered by the local authority, and no in extenso in the SANITARY RECORD for January plumber should be able to carry on his trade until he last (p. 305), but I subjoin the regulations affecting had been so registered, and had received a licence the steps to be taken by the Board of Health. No from the local authority:

person may carry on the business of plumbing who 7. Before the licence is granted to him the plumber has not first registered his name and address in the should attend personally at the office of the local office of the Inspector of Buildings. Every plumber authority, for examination as to his qualification as is required, before constructing new work or altering a plumber.

old work (except repairing leaks), to file at the office 8. Such licences should be renewed from year to of the Inspector of Buildings a notice of the work to year, and their continuance should depend upon the be persormed, and if the approval of the inspector good behaviour of, and the return of the work done cannot be obtained, the plumber is deterred from by, the licensee.

doing the work. Every house or building must be 9. The names of all licensed plumbers should be separately and independently connected with the publicly advertised once a year by the local au- public sewer. No pipes or other fixtures may be thority.

covered or concealed in any way. The work is not

to be covered until examination by the inspector has VI.-STATE OF THE QUESTION IN AMERICA. taken place. The peppermint test is required, and

If it be contended that the enforcement of such | if the work does not stand the test, all water is to be regulations as these would harass a particular call- turned off from the building, and not let on again ing, and be an unwarrantable interference with trade, until the plumbing has been pronounced satisfactory my answer is a reserence to the enormous evils by the inspector. Violations of the Ordinance are to which arise from imperfect drainage, and an appeal be visited with penalties ranging from 20 dols. to 50 to what is now taking place on the other side of the dols. Atlantic. In the United States—the land of the

At San Francisco there is a Board of Examiners, free '—the plumber is being sternly circumscribed who examine all applicants for registration, as in his powers of mischief. All the more import- master or journeymen-plumbers, and on whose reant towns are taking powers for the registration of commendation certificates of registration alone are plumbers and the regulation of plumbers' work, issued. Candidates for master-plumbers have to and I cannot do better than cite in conclusion what undergo a theoretical examination as to their ability has been done in this regard.

to have charge of and direct the plumbing and The State of Illinois claims to have been the first drainage of plumbing ; and candidates for journeyto have passed a law for the regulation of plumbers, men-plumbers an examination as to the practical though it would appear that the subject had for part of the trade.f. At Washington no part of the some time before the Illinois Act was passed been plumbing work of any house-which is subject to under consideration at New York. The effect of strict regulations as regards materials-may be the Illinois law, which was passed on May 30, 1881, covered or in any manner hidden from view until was to make compulsory the sending in to the after inspection and approval by the inspector of Health Commissioner and approval by him of the plumbing. The pipes are to be tested by filling plans of all new buildings, and to prohibit any with water. The police are instructed to arrest any plumbing work being covered up until approved by

one found making an excavation in the street, or the Commissioner under a penalty of 100 dollars. making any sewer connection without permits. It will be observed, however, that no provision is

Other large towns are waking up to a sense of made here for the registration or licensing of their responsibility in this matier. * Baltimore had just (October 1883) passed an ordinance providing FIGURES, FACTS, AND FALLACIES. for the appointment of an inspector of plumbing, and forbidding any plumbing work without a permit

• See SANITARY RECORD, March 15, 1881, p. 345; and May 15, 1881, p. 438.

* SANITARY RECORD, vol. xiii., p. 55; and vol. iv., p. 215. lbid., vol. xix. P. 559.

By EDWARD F. WILLOUGHBY, under penalty of 5 dols. Washington has also ap

M.B. Lond., S.Sc.C.Camb., Cert.Pub. Health, Lond. Univ. pointed an inspector of plumbing, after a four years' struggle by the medical officer of health. A very VITAL statistics form so large and so valuable a elaborate code has been drawn up for Philadelphia, i part of the literature of public

health that it is of the but is not yet in force. They are much of the same utmost importance that the principles and practice character as those in force for New York, and need of the science should be well understood. It has not therefore be further described.

been said that figures may be made to prove anyI think these facts are a sufficient answer to pos- thing, and so they may if ignorantly or dishonestly. sible objectors as to the character of my proposed handled ; but since the effects of social or material regulations; and in any case I feel confident of agencies acting slowly on large masses of people can your support in my contention that our building only be appreciated by their results as shown by laws need thorough amendment and reconstruction. vital statistics, a knowledge of the fallacies incident

to such conclusions is absolutely necessary for the VENTILATION OF THE OFFICES OF THE DAILY

avoidance of erroneous inferences. TELEGRAPH.'-- In the compositors' room of this establishment 170 men work throughout the night, and 70 argand absence ot' any text-book on the subject and the

This may seem a truism, but partly from the burners light the desks. The complaints of the men and their sufferings were very great. The proprietors, desirous

scanty treatment it has hitherto received in works of of remedying this state of things, under the advice and a general character, and partly from the idea that direction of Messrs. Arding, Bond, and Buzzard, have put figures speak for themselves, some of the fallacies a new and lofty roof, which is covered by a lantern along we are about to expose are constantly met with, not its whole length, the windows on both sides of the lantern only in society and general literature, but, where we opening in two divisions by lever bars at each end of the should least expect them, in the reports of medical room ; this provides an ample outlet for the vitiated air in officers of health, and thus either mistaken notions summer time or in calm, moderate weather, when open are perpetuated, or the true indications are lost sight windows are unobjectionable. Fresh, purified air, either of, and the science itself is discredited. cold or warm, is driven in by a 16-inch Æolus waterspray Of course the great storehouse of facts and figures ventilator fixed in the basement. In warm weather this

is the office of the Registrar-General, whence are cool, fresh air is used to keep down the temperature to an

issued the reports of the census, which is taken agreeable point, while in winter the fresh air can be raised in a few minutes to a temperature of 100° by simply

once in every ten years (too long an interval), and lighting the gas burners around the tubes through which weekly reports of births, deaths, and marriages, as the fresh air passes. Thus a continual supply of fresh air, well as quarterly and yearly summaries and a valuequal to five times the cubical contents of the room, is able decennial retrospect, in which the lessons and afforded every hour, and of a temperature adapted to the results of the preceding period are discussed. sensitiveness of men engaged in sedentary occupation. Birth, death, and marriage rates are calculated on Returning to the subject of extraction, when the weather the population per 1,000, or for some purposes per is such as to render open windows undesirable, and in this 10,000. The actual population is known only by the climate of ours such an objection certainly obtains during census, but for the intervening years what are called eight months out of the twelve, the vitiated air is drawn corrected estimates are made use of. These are off by two 16-inch Æolus waterspray ventilators, which obtained in one of two ways, or by a combination of have their communication with the composing room the two. One is that of assuming that the populathrough two panels, occupying the position of two of the tion continues to increase at the same rate as it did side lights of the lantern. These are continued by 16-inch galvanised shafts outside the roof, entering the composing tain by the last census the average number of per

in the preceding decennium ; the other is to ascerroom through the roof by the plate, and descending

sons in each house' ard to assume that the same through all the floors into the basement. In each of the last 6-foot lengths of these shafts a waterspray is fixed; by density is maintained in the following years, the simply turning a tap a powerful exhaust is immediately set

number of inhabited houses being always known up, dragging down the vitiated air from the composing from the books of the rate collectors. Both methods room into the base. Thus a continual change of atmo- are obviously open to error, for a population may sphere is ensured for the composing room, although the increase rapidly through the rise of a new industry doors and windows be tightly closed. Another peculiarity or watering-place, and then remain stationary or in this application of the waterspray as an exhaust is the even decline, and the new houses may be of a better fact of the upper part of the shafts falling down the slope or lower class than the older ones, and therefore of the roof being exposed to the action of the cold atmo: have a different number of occupants. sphere outside ; this instantly condenses the carbonic acid

Fallacies of Estimated Population.In 1871 it held in suspension in the heated air, which by its own gravity assists the downward current. Thus condensation, over-estimated by 33 per cent., and that of Cam

was found that the population of Gosport had been å feature which in automatic exhaust ventilation is alway bridge under-estimated by 16 per cent., consequently found to be an obstacle and a drawback, is here impressed the former had appeared healthier and the latter into the service of the cause. A large portion of the vi:iated air drawn off by the Æolus from the composing unhealthier than it really was, the death-rates differroom is condensed and absorbed by the sprays and passed ing not by 12 per cent., as had been imagined, but off with the waste water. The residuum, which is almost by O'2 per cent. only. wholly pure air, passes through the shaft room into the If the assumed population differ from the true engine room, which is again emptied by another exhaust one by no more than io per cent., an assumed deathÆolus, discharging into the courtyard.

rate of 24 per 1,000 will represent one of 21.6 or of THE Worshipful Company of Founders have granted a

26:4, as the case may be. donation of five guineas to the National Health Society,

Fallacies of Registration.--All deaths (except 44 Berners Strett, W., for the Diffusion of Sanitary those of infants under a week old, who are often Knowledge.

reported incorrectly as stillborn, and therefore in

« EelmineJätka »