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places the relief drawing between the metal plates, of suitable rolls, whereby the blooms are rolled out which the broken thread passed, tilts up and coming hat plate upon the face of the drawing being the one into bars of the desired form. In preparing the pile in contact with the projecting spur throws the hooked to be impressed, and submits the whole to pressure. he arranges the metal bars so as to have the fewest end of the curved lever free from the projecting stud, Patent abandoned.

practicable number of external joints. There are when the pulley or wheel will cease to carry round 464. G. KAMMERBR. Improved gearing for modifications included. Patent completed.

the other parts of the apparatus, and will revolve gins or horse mills, applicable for grinding, winnow- 262. W. BASFORD. " Improvements in the method loose on the spindle. Patent abandoned. ing, and other purposes requiring motive power. (A of, and means for, drying bricks and tiles preparatory 467. F. P. J. VAN DEN OUWELANT. “Improve. communication.) Dated Feb. 18, 1859.

to their being burnt, and also in the construction of ments in apparatuses to be applied to fire-places, for This consists of a central base or pedestal suitably kilns or ovens for burning such bricks, tiles, pipes, obtaining a more complete combustion of the fuel bolted down, and on which is erected a central column pottery, or earthenware, and in the mode of charging employed therein." Dated Feb. 19, 1859. the frame and pole of which the horse or other animal or placing these said articles therein to be burnt or This consists in providing the said fire-places with actuates. The mill is mounted and moves round on fired, and in certain appliances for regulating the heat one or more apparatuses through which either steam the lower part of this column. It carries a wheel or therein." Dated Feb. 19, 1859.

or air, or both, is caused to pass, and afterwards in. rim having internal teeth, and this wheel gears with The specification of this invention is too elaborate to jected by a sort of screen in the fuel, in order to obtain 8 pinion fixed in a vertical shaft mounted on bearings be quoted here at sufficient length for an intelligible thereby a better combustion of the gases evolved. Pa. supported by a central column; a wheel keyed on to abstract. Patont completed.

tent completed. the upper end of this shaft gears with a pinion 463. S. WHEATCROFT. “ Improvements in the 468. G. PAUL. “ Improvements in spindles and mounted on a stud in the top of the column. This method of, and the means for, uniting lace to blond flyers.” Dated Feb. 21, 1859. pinion is fixed to or cast of a piece with a bevil wheel and other fabrics, and also in the apparatus used in The mode of fixing the spindle and flyer together, albo rotating on the same stud, which bevil wheel manufacturing or converting the same into bonnet which forms the subject of this invention, is susceptgears into a pinion whose axis is in direct communi. and cap fronts, rouches, and such like similar articlesible of various modifications, according to one of cation with the shaft by which the motive power is to of millinery." Dated Feb. 19, 1859.

which the spindle end is formed with a taper fitting or be transmitted. Patent abandoned.

Here to unite lace and blond the materials are tapered socket formed in the flyer boss, the flyer being 455. W. CLARK. Improvements in emptying wound on separate reels, and then unwound from held in its place by a pin fixed in the end of tho cesspools, and in raising other Auid and semi-Auid these, the blond travelling in one place, the lace in spindle, and which pin is passed through a groove in tho matters.". (A communication.) Dated Feb. 18, 1859. another more elevated. The former in its course socket of the flyer boss, and then turned round so as

Here the inventor projects steam into a metallic passes one of its edges under a little slot guide, and is to lock it. The outer edge of the flyer boss which capacity, which by valves may be perfectly closed; then carried beneath a piece of sponge fixed in the bears against the pin is inclined in opposite directions the steam drives the air from the capacity, and the narrow end of a bent funnel which supplies water to on each side of the groove, so that the turning round steam then fills the chamber. When the chamber is it, so as to moisten and wet the edge of the blond, of the spindle in the flyer boss in either direction so filled all the valves are shut, and the steam thus and dissolve the softening material with which it is causes the pin to jam or wedge the flyer fast on the enclosed condenses and produces a vacuum, and the dressed. Travelling on from this they then pass spindle, This mode of fixing is thus equally secure vacuum chamber being by means of pipes in connec. under & guide, which has a lateral adjustment for in whichever direction the strain upon the flyer may tion with the space from which the muddy matters, different sizes of fabrics, and into which the lace act. Patent completed. &c., are to be drawn, the said matters are thereby passes, and is by means of it caused to overlap the 469. O. BLAKB. “Improved machinery or apparaised and enter the chamber. Patent abandoned. adjoining edge of the blond. The two fabrics after. ratus used in the manufacture of glass.” Dated Feb.

456. W. CLARK. "Improvements in pressure wards come in contact with heated rollers suitably | 21, 1859. gauges." (A communication.) Dated Feb. 18, 1859. arranged. Patent completed.

The patentee performs the whole of the manufacKere by the movement of a train the dial plate 464. C. F. VASSEROT. “An improved apparatus ture of glass from its rough state to its finish, by one works two needles which move together as the pres. for manufacturing the strands of wire ropes." (A set of machinery or apparatus, and on one bed or sure gauge is acted on by the steam, but these two communication.) ®Dated Feb. 19, 1859.

table. The improved machinery is not described needles do not return together to zero if the engineer This chiefly consists in mounting upon a common apart from the drawings. Patent completed. has allowed the maximum pressure which he should axis three rings or wheels of cast-iron, placed 470. G. MCCULLOCH. “ Improvements in machi. keep in the boiler to be exceeded. The needle which parallel and behind each other, the diameters of each nery or apparatus for spinning, doubling, and throw. remains to indicate the excessive pressure is furnished regularly decreasing. Upon each of these wheels are ing silk, and doubling other fibrous materials.” Dated with a small wheel which rests on a fixed ratchet, mounted a number of bobbing, the number on each Feb. 21, 1859. The wheel has, 1, teeth at one part of its circum- being proportionate to the number of strands or The inventor gives motion to the bobbins and ference in a certain position; 2, a smooth surface wires of which the composing strand is to be made. spindles at any required difference in order to wind round its circumference. The parts are mounted so Upon each bobbin is mounted a wire, and all the wires on, and also to obtain the desired twist, by attaching that when the maximum pressure is arrived at, the are wound off the bobbins, and are all drawn and passed the spindle and bobbin to toothed wheels of different fixed ratchet gears one tooth, whereby the second through an eye or converging guide, by which they numbers of teeth, which difference is determined by needle is prevented returning with the first when the are brought together. The combined mass is then the twist required. The said toothed wheels are put pressure of steam diminishes, which second needle fixed to a hooked rotatory spindle, and the required in motion by other toothed wheels having discs of will indicate on the dial plate that the regulation twist given to it; the bobbins are put in motion by leather resting upon the circumference of plain pressure has been exceeded, and to what extent. The pulleys and wheels. The strands being formed wheels placed upon a shaft extending from one end of invention also consists in a new kind of piston for the in this manner, a rope is then formed of a certain the machine to the other. Patent abandoned. manometer. Also in a new application of india number of these strands as before. Patent com- 471. T. Wilson. "Improvements in the manu. rubber for closing the issue of steam in the manometer. pleted.

facture and construction of ordnance." Dated Feb. Patent completed

485. C. F. VASSEROT. "An improved carding 21, 1859. 457. J. H. JOHNSON. "Improvements in the machine." (A communication.) Dated Feb. 19, This consists in making the barrels of ordnance of manufacture of textile fabrics, and in the machinery 1859.

hollow cylinders or tubes of annealed cast-iron, the or apparatus employed therein.” (A communication.) Here it is proposed to augment the carding surface said tubes being of progressively increasing diameter, Dated Feb. 18, 1869.

by adding a third cylinder between the two now and fitted upon and connected with one another by This consists in the production of a new species of employed. This cylinder having a less surface than the process of shrinking. Also in closing the breech woven fabric wherein the weft threads are beaten up the large card, has a greater speed. Patent abandoned. end of ordnance by means of a screw carried by a bow at various angles to the warp, or in undulating lines. 486. R. A. BROOMAN. Improvements in ma- strap or frame jointed to the ordnance, so as to permit Also in undulating certain of the warp threads in the chinery for doubling threads." (A communication.) | the said screw being turned aside or out of the line of production of these fabrics. Patent abandoned. Dated Feb. 19, 1859.

the fire when loading the ordnance. Patent con458. P. A. J. DUJARDIN. "Improvements in the This apparatus is applicable to all descriptions of pleted. printing apparatus of railway telegraphs.” Dated doubling machines or frames, whether the bobbins 472. A. BELPAIRE. “Improvements in the revers. Feb. 18, 1859.

are set in a vertical or a horizontal position. To ing gear of locomotive and other steam engines. Dated This invention is not described apart from the every bobbin in which the doubled threads are Feb. 21, 1859. drawings. Patent completed.

wound, there must be a separate apparatus. Any Here the reversing lever of the engine has a bear. 459. A. R. L. DE NORMANDY. “Improvements in one of the bobbins in the frame may be stopped ing piece which turns on two pivots or journals, and an apparatus for obtaining fresh water from salt without interfering with the rotation of the others. it has also two ears through which the screw passes, water. Dated Feb. 19, 1869.

The apparatus consists of three parts, one a pulley and by which it is held at the bottom of the bearing This relates to a former patent dated 20th August, or toothed wheel fitted to turn loosely on the bobbin piece. A piece sliding in grooves in the bearing 1856, and the improvement consists in using a float spindle, upon receiving motion from a strap, or from piece has a screw thread at its lower part, and gears composed of pottery, earthen, delfe, or glass ware. It toothed gearing as the case may be; this pulley, or into the screw from which it can also be disconnected also relates to the priming box, and consists in wheel is provided with a projecting stud, which, when according as it is raised or lowered by the catch. making the priming and feed box into one vessel. the parts are all in working order, is caught by a hook When the engine driver wishes to work the lever It also consists in a different method of constructing in which one end of a curved lever is made to without the aid of the screw, he presses the catch, and the sheaf, bundles, or series of pipes used for terminate, the opposite extremity of which terminates when he wishes to displace the lever by means of the evaporating the sea water. Patent completed. in a projecting spur; this lever forms the second of screw, he turns a wheel properly arranged in the re.

460. T. EARLE. “Improved apparatus for con. the three parts, and is secured to the remaining part quired direction. Tho screw is mounted on a piece voying signals to railway trains in motion.” Dated by a screw upon which it is free to oscillate. The third moving on pivots so that it can accommodate itself to Feb. 19, 1859.

and remaining part is a collar terminating in a disc any inclination corresponding with the position of the This apparatus is constructed with a lover or levers, by means of a feather and pressure screw the collar lever. Patent abandoned. cam or cams, which when the train is in motion will and disc are fixed on and revolve with the spindle. 473. G. HUMPHREY. “ Improvements in meters be so pressed on or against as to act on some part of Each of the threads to be doubled passes through an for measuring fluids and gases." Dated Feb. 21, 1859. the engine or tender, or other part of the train, and eye on the outer end of a small lever, and while the This consists of a case containing a circular plate cause a whistle to be blown or a bell to be rung. threads are whole they keep the outer ends of the or wheel revolving on an axis, and from which a Patent abandoned.

lever raised. The inner ends of the levers are turned number of fans or blades project, and travel in a 461. W. CLAY. "Improvements in the manufacture up, and as long as no thread breaks the turned-up race or course for by corresponding projections of deck and other beams, and of angular and other ends of the levers pass free of the projecting spur, in the case. The passage of the fluid or gas from bars of various forms." Dated Feb. 19, 1859. and the apparatus, spindle, and bobbin rotate the inlet to the outlet pipe gives motion to the fans

Here the inventor takes the puddled steel in the together ; but upon the breaking of any one of the or blades of the wheel, and thence to the ordinary surm of a bloom or billet, and subjects it to the action | threads the inner ond of the lever, through the eye of registering dials. Patent abandoned.


474. T. SPENCE: "Improvements in the manufac. 2033. F. J. Manceaux. Improvements in ear. LIST OF SEALED PATENTS. ture of alum, and in the mode of, and apparatus for, tridges.

Sealed Sept. 15, 1859. condensing and destroying gases arising therefrom." 2035. J. Stewart. Improvements in piano-forte

660. I. Ash.

712. J. Roberts. Dated Feb. 21, 1859. actions.

664. W. Avery.

713. S. Leoni. This relates to a former patent dated Nov. 27, 1845,

Dated Sept. 7, 1869.

671. T. W. Miller,

714. J. Biekerton. and consists of admitting ammonia during the diges. 2037. J.J. Lyons. Improvements in the manufac. 672, C. Detries.

717. W. Rhodes. tion of shale, so that the whole may be conducted in ture of sugar.

676. R. A. Brooman. 727. D. L. Banks. one vessel. The gases evolved are conducted into a

2039. G. Lawrence. Improvements in the con. 678. A. G. Hutchinson. 736. W. Adamson. condenser of a peculiar arrangement. Patent com struction of wheeled vehicles.

679. P. Larochette.

790. W. Brown. ploted.

2011. W.J.J. Varillat. An apparatus indicating 681. A. Warner and W. 792. J. W. Hadwen. 475. R. Jopson. " Improvements in supplying the level of water in steam caldrons or boilers. H. Tooth.

795. T. D. Shipman. water or other fluids to axletree boxes and other 2013. J. P. Joule. Improvements in apparatus for 684. W. B. Taylor. 802. J. Lacy, S. Simpjournal bearings to lubricate the same." Dated Feb. refrigerating and condensing steam or other vapours, 690. R. Mushet.

son, and H. Smith. 21, 1859. which said improvements are applicable to refrigerat 691. R. Mushet.

805. T. Ivory. Here a close vessel to contain the lubricating fluid ing or heating liquids.

692. A. L. Thirion. 806. T. Ivory. is connected with the axletree box by a suitable tube, 2045, A. V. Newton. Improvements in the manu 693. C. Lambert.

857. N. Libotte. so that when the fluid lubricator is at the desired facture of ladies' hooped skirts. (A communica. 694. J. W. Duncan and 942. W. Sinnoek. level in the box the outlet end of the tube is covered tion.)

J. E. A. Gwynne.

1028. W. Stevenson. by the fluid. By these means there will be no supply 2017. E. T. Hughes. Improvements in machinery 696. W. B. Gingell. 1038. W. E. Newton. of the lubricating fluid from the close vessel into the or apparatus for forging metals. (A communica 700. J. W. Hart.

1162. A. V. Newton. box or bearing so long as such outlet from the supply tion.)

702. J. Howden and A. 1180. T. P. Bennett. tube is closed or covered by the water, &c., but so


1493, A. Parkes. soon as the level of the water, &c., in the box or PATENT APPLIED FOR WITI COMPLETE

703. R. Mushet.

1617. W.E. Newton. bearing descends below the outlet, and air can pass


707. W. Haggett.

1687. W. M. Smith. into the close vessel, the water, &c., will flow into the

2072. M. A. F. Mennons. An improved arrange. box or bearing until the outlet of the tube is again ment of piston packing, principally applicable to PATENTS ON WHICH THE THIRD YEAR'S STAMP covered. Patent completed. hydraulic apparatus. (A communication) Dated

DUTY HAS BEEN PAID. 476. A. TAPERELL. " Improvements in compositions Sept. 12, 1859.

2059. J. M. Hayes. or compounds used when cleaning glass.” Dated 2073. M. A. F. Mennons. Improvements in the

2116. S. White.

2175. J. Barber. Feb. 21, 1859.

construction of hydraulic pumps. (A communica 2124. P. A. Balestrini. 2200. A. Templeton. Here a decoction is made of Brazil wood, peach tion.) Dated Sept. 12, 1859.

2142. E. Green.

2202. W. Young. wood, and alum, which is mixed with sifted whitening,

2147. F. D. Monod. 2203. E. Finch. and also with a composition of soap and chalk. Pa

2157. G. C. T. Cran. 2206. J. Underwood and tent abandoned.


stoun, G. Young, and J. F. V. Burt. WITH PATENTS.



(From the London Gazette, Sept. 20, 1859.)

2159. S. Chodzko.

2253. S. Calley.

2174. D. Crichton and 2294. J. Holman. Dated Sept. 1, 1859.

1138. F. Angerstein, R. Clogg, and G. Thorring. J. Cathcart. 1993. J. A. Simpson. Improvements applicable to

ton. Motive power. hats and other coverings for the head.

1146. J. Combe. Measuring the hoofs of horses. PATENT ON WHICH THE SEVENTH YEAR'S STAMP 1164. E. T. Hughes. Motive power. (A com.

DUTY HAS BEEN PAID. 1995. T. Aveling. Improvements in locomotive munication.)

120, G. Collier. engines.

1165. T. Green, jun. Steam boilers. 1997. R. H. Collyer. Improvements in preparing 1169. W. Wilkinson and C. Whitley. Buttons and

LIST OF SPECIFICATIONS, &c., materials for the manufacture of paper. fastenings.

Published during the week ending Sept. 16, 1859. Dated Sept. 2, 1859. 1187. J. Leadbetter and J. Rhodes. Pumps.

No. Pr. 1190. J. Saxby. Railways.

No. Pr.

Pr. No. Pr. No. Pt. Xori. 1999. J. Bernard. Improvements in the manufac.

1191. R. A. Brooman. Solidifying, pressing, and ture or production of boots and shoes, in the maehinery, apparatus, and means employed in such moulding: (A communication.)

36510 3 1192. A. P. Rochette. Soft soap.

3862 11|| 399 1 4 40810 3 417 0 8 4270 10 manufacture.

3670 7387 0 3

3 4180 1380 1193. T. R. Oswald. Building ships. 2001. W. Brown, jun., and S. Bathgate. Improve.

3700 43880 5| 401 0 6 4100 4 4190 8 4290 10 1196. T. Scott. Surface condenser.

3720 7

4020 3 ments in machinery or apparatus for grinding or

4110 6 4200 34300 3 1205, J. T. Beale and T. N. Kirkham. Dyeing 37607|| 3910 6| 4030 3 4121 1| 4210 51 43110 7 sharpening the card teeth of carding engines for card and printing.

37810 7

4010 10 4130 64230 3 43310 3 ing fibrous materials. 1208. M. Leahy. Carriages.

51 3940 61 4050 341410 3 1 4240 5) 2003. W. Fearn. An improved construction of 1212. E. Maw. Buildings.

3803 1397 4060 6 4130 3 42310 31 buoys.

3830 6 398 0 10ll 40710 3 4160 3 4260 vill

1213. J. Chatterton. Covering conductors. 2005. S. D. Goff, H. Davis, S. Strangman, and E. 1219. G. Allcroft. Pressure gauges. (A com NOTE.-Specifications will be forwarded by post from the Strangman. · An improved method of, and apparatus munication.)

Great Seal Patent Office (publishing department) on re

ceipt of the amount of price and postage. Suns exceeding for, drying malt, corn, and other articles.

1227. J. Nasmyth. Motive power.

3s. must be remitted by Post Office Order, made payable 2007. E. Button. Improved apparatus for raising

1229. R. Romaine. Cultivating the soil.

at the Post Office, High Holborn, to Mr. Bennet Woodsunken vessels.

1232. S. N. Evans. Preventing accidents at mines. croft, Great Seal Patent Office. Dated Sept. 3, 1859.

1237. J. H. Johnson. Lubricating. (A com2011. J. Friou. Detaching instantly the locomomunication.)

PRICES CURRENT OF METALS. tives from railway carriages, and also for detaehing 1239. J. Childs. India-rubber and gutta-percha.

London, Sept. 23rd, 1859. 12 15. R. V. Leach. Iron.


Di.. instantly the harness from horses that run away

Rails in Wales and North 1262. R. V. Leach and T. W. Willett. Tin and

& A. d.

2. d. when attached to any carriage.

of England terne plates.

Welsh Bars, in Wales 2013. H. R. L. Schramm. A new process for pres. 1346. J.J. Lundy. Cartridges and wads.

Staf. Bars, at the Works

7 0 0 sing and separating simultaneously the fibres and 1407. M. J. Haings. Driving straps.

Hoops ...

Sheets, Singles pellicles contained in the constituent matters of the 1419. A. V. Newton. Fire-arms. *(A communica

Nail Rods

7 10 beet-root sugar, beer, grains, alcohol, potatoes, beets, tion.)

Boiler Plates and other similar substances.

1489. E. Gwyn.. Fire-arms. (A communication.)

Scotch Pig, M.-Nos. War.

rants, at Glasgow 2015. W. Neilson. Improvements in steam 1683. C. Pottinger. Excavating and driving piles. Do. No 1, Good Brand... hammers.

1731. W. E. Newton. Extracting oil. (A com

Scotch Bars ...

Swedish Bars, in London .. 2017. J. C. Nixon. Improvements in kitchen munication.)


1742. J. Davies. Ventilating apparatus. ranges with combined steamer and hot closets, for

Sheet and Sheathing

0 0 12

Tough Cake and Tile.. 1930. T. Richardson. Treating copper ores.

pr. ton 107 10 0 cooking, warming, drying, or other purposes.

Best Selected 2019. C. Schiele. Improvements in weighing1937. J. Murray. Aërated liquids.


101 00 machines.

1951. F. Wrigley, Permanent way.
2001. W. Brown, jun., and S. Bathgate. Grinding STEEL:

Yellow Metal Sheathing
2021. B. Lauth. Improvements in the manufac.
card teeth.

Swedish Keg..

pr. ton 18 10 ture of rollers or cylinders for calico printers, and of 2005. S. D Goff, H. Davis, S. Strangman, and

Faggot tubes of copper and brase, or mixtures of those metals. E. Strangman. Drying malt,

English, Block.........

6 160
Dated Sept. 5, 1859.
2015. W. Neilson. Steam hammers.

Bar... 2023, W. Bush. Manufacturing granulated seid. 2017. J. C. Nixon. Kitchen ranges.

Foreign, Banca

7 00 leitz powder.

2072. M. A. F. Mennons. Piston packing. (A TINPLATES: 2025. J. W. P. Field. Improvements in breech communication.)

Charcoal, IC, I 12 loading fire-arms,

2073. M. A. F. Mennons. Hydraulic pumps. (A

Coke, 1.c.

LEAD: 2027. V. Tomell. Improvements in the manufac- communication.)

Pig, English

pr. ton 19 00 ture of yeast. The full titles of the patents in the above list can be as.

Spanish 2029. A. V. Newton. Improvements in weighing certained by referring back to their numbers in the list of

machines. (1 communication.)
provisional protections previously published.

On the spot ........
Opposition can be entered to the granting of a patent to Por arrival
Dated Sept. 6, 1859.

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any of the parties in the above list who have given notice of
their intention to proceed, within twenty-one days from the

English Sheet 2031. R. K. Goldard. Improvements in the method date of the Gazette in which the notice appears, by leaving QUICKSILVER.... of, and apparatus for making pharmaceutical or other at the Commissioners' office particulars in writing of the

LAWRIE AND IIAGGER, Metal Brokers infusions. objection to the application.

33 Lombard-street, E.C.


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7 00


“Patent Laws be re-appointed, for the fur- | it altogether if they cannot bring greater zeal MECHANICS' MAGAZINE.

"therance of the objects set forth in their and intelligence to bear upon it. We want to report."

see the law reformed in due time; but we fear It would be well if the members of the the committee will hinder rather than hasten LONDON, FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 30, 1859.

British Association, when they talk and resolve useful changes. They are injuring a good

about the furtherance of objects,” would take cause by loose advocacy, mixing up small and PATENT LAW REFORM.

some little paius to let us know, precisely and great things, and we call upon them either to One of the most unpatriotic things which a clearly, what those objects are. Unfortunately, resign their work or rottse themselves and set man of influence can do in this country is to however, they have not done so in the present about it heartily: originate or take part in a needless agitation. instance. The report contains no definite and It is plain that the committee are not so The doctrine that our society is based

upon a succinct statement of the committee's objects, decidedly awake as they suppose. If they have systein of compromises is no fiction of the. Con- but leaves us to dig them out one by one for not fallen asleep sufficiently to lose sight of servatives, but a manifest and unquestionable ourselves, as best we may. They appear to be : their objects, they have dozed so far as to see fact. It is by the toleration of small evils that 1, A reduction in the fees paid upon patents; some things in a very vague and dreamy manWe manage to live the peaceable lives that we 2, The application of a portion of the patent ner. They pass over, almost silently, the grave in Great Britain enjoy. We cannot afford to funds to the purpose of arresting the progress fact that patentees are being sadly bamboozled, rush to the Legislature for the suppression of of some patents, with the consent of the appli- | not to say cheated, either by the Commissioners, every trivial wrong we see, or the correction of cants ; 3, The reward of meritorious inventors or by the Treasury, or by some official schemer every little abuse which chagrins us. We are who fail to profit by their inventions ; 4, The that comes between the two. The committee content to bear with many evils simply because application of the surplus patent funds exclu- tell us that one thing the Government propose the attempt to get rid of them would entail sively to the advancement of science.

to do is to build suitable offices for the Cominisgreater evils upon us.

Now, some of these objects appear to us to sioners, including a free library of consultaNot only, then, do we personally deprecate require great consideration. Of course, if we

tion " for patentees upon an extensive scale. all that agitation which is carried on for the are to set up some narrow class-interest as the They tell us this, we say, somnolently; but they mere sake of agitation, but we are also averse only thing to be looked to, it will be easy omit to tell us--indeed, they do not seen even to every movement that is instituted on insuffi- enough to dispose of them. But such questions to know-that Mr. Gladstone has put his pen cient or mistaken grounds. We believe that as these must be considered with a view to the through the proposal

, and so rendered the thing such movements cause us incalculable harm. public interest in general, and not to that of impossible, for a year at least. But this is a They do more to check the progress of useful simple inventors, or of patentees, or of patent matter which ought not to be passed lightly reforms, and to evoke a spirit adverse to all lawyers, or of patent agents, or of any other over. That library in Southampton Buildings reform, than any traditionary ideas or aristo- class. This, men like Mr. Fairbairri and his is a disgrace to the country, and the committee cratic feelings can possibly

do. Statesmen who colleagues will unhesitatingly admit. Indeed, might have taken the trouble to find out who almost everything because things both proper scarcely attempt to argue their several points

, present state. We strongly suspect, we know breath the latter the more loudly of the two. tion of partisans. We think, with them, that ourselves that we do, the mere fact of his holdWisdom cries, but she is not heard, because the fees on patents might be reduced with ad- ing half-a-dozen offices

, and grasping as many folly screams so confoundingly; understanding vantage—that, in fact, the seventh year's stanıp salaries, will certainly not save him from the lifts up her voice, but ignorance bawls and duty of £100, which is just about beginning to exposure which his igrorance or his superdrowns it. We really sometimes wonder that fall due, might be taken off altogether. As to

ciliousness merits. the still small voice of reason is eyer heeded, or the first of these objects we are therefore agreed. even heard, among us. But as to the second, we differ altogether. The

THE HOT-BLAST IRON QUESTION. With these feelings, we look with anxiety proposition appears to us to amount simply to In our articles upon the Report of the Admiupon the efforts which are from time to time this—that a portion of the patent funds should ralty Committee on Marine Engines, published being made by a few individuals in reference be absorbed in paying some functionary to do in May last, we stated that Admiral Ramsay, to the reform of our Patent Laws. The Patent that for inventors which they may be too lazy Mr. Nasmyth, and Mr. Ward (who composed Law Amendment Act of 1852 was scarcely to do for themselves ; or, viewed in another the Committee), recommended the entire exclupassed before attempts to get up an agitation light, it appears to be a plan for making a few sion of hot-blast iron from all future specificafor changing it were commenced, and these more good places under Government for dis- tions for new engines, and also mentioned the attempts have been renewed at intervals ever satisfied people to get into. At the present opposition which the Surveyor of the Navy since. A committee has for the last year or moment every man who invents an improve- offered to the recommendation. We have now two been appointed by a section of the British ment of any kind can go—thanks to Mr. before us the official report of a speech made a Association to inquire into and report upon the Woodcroft and the Commissioners—to

a Free month or two since at the Institution of Mechasubject; and the report which that committee Library and read for himself the specification nical Engineers, Birmingham, by Mr. Neilson, recently presented to the Association at Aber- of every invention ever before patented in the the distinguished inventor of the hot-blast, in deen will be found on another page of this same branch of manufacture, and thus satisfy which speech we find a trenchant criticism of number. It bears the signatures of W. Fair- himself whether his idea is new or not. And the Admiralty Committee's proceedings in conbairn, E. Sabine, and T. Webster, but, judging this is all that a paid functionary could do fornection with this matter. from its character, we can hardly believe that him. Why, then, should not patents be ar- It will be recollected that the experiments any one even of those gentlemen had much to rested by the inventors themselves, instead of upon which the Committee based their recomdo with its production. It is a clumsily drawn being arrested by a paid officer with the inven- mendation were confined (30 far as the Report document, at any rate, for in its earliest sen- tor's consent ? As to the committee's third shows) to a single pig of hot-blast and avother tences it tells us that the committee have done object--if it can be shown how unrewarded but of cold-blast iron, these being beaten by sledge nothing decisive in furtherance of their “im- meritorious inventors can be easily and econo- hammers, and thrown upon the ground. These

portant objects" -- although “ those objects mically recompensed, without opening a door experiments, Mr. Neilson asserts, afforded very " have not been lost sight of”—and that the to any attendant abuses, we will cordially inadequate data for the judgment of the ComCommissioners of Patents have made no sort of second the committee's proposal when it is mittee. They were, he says, a very unsatisfacreply to the committee's memorials. These properly brought forward. But as to their last tory mode of ascertaining the relative qualities observations can scarcely give the reader any object--the use of the surplus patent funds ex- of hot and cold-blast iron, and not sufficient to very high opinion of the committee and its clusively for scientific purposes—we must again afford any ground whatever for so serious a conlabours. A committee that does nothing deci- differ from them. We have yet to learn why clusion : "" for it was evident that the comparisive, and gets no notice taken of what it does the general revenue of the country should not son had been made between a good cold-blast do, but merely congratulates itself upon not be contributed to by patentees, many of whom pig and a hot-blast'cinder pig, which being having gone to sleep and "lost sight of its make handsome fortunes out of their patents, "made of very inferior materials was far re"objects," is neither a very brilliant nor a very and all of whom hope to make a good deal moved in quality from the first class hot-blast useful body, no matter under what auspices it more than they spend upon them.

"pig iron.” may have organised itself, or whose names it We have thus glanced at the proposals of It is undoubtedly important, as Mr. Neilputs to its musings. The British Association the committee in order to show with how little son says, that the mistaken views advanced nembers, however, seem to rather like that care they are conducting this agitation. The in the Report should be discussed and set style of thing, for the meeting at which the reform of our Patent Laws is a subject deserv- right, as the question is one closely affecting said report was read, resolved and resolved ing more attention than they seem prepared to the ironmasters, and also the country at large ; canimously, too--“that the committee on the give it, and we should be glad to see them drop for if the quality of hot-blast iron is as good as

that of cold-blast, and its cost only half that of in the furnaces are largely imported from surroundings can be no sort of question that prints from a the latter, a great waste would be occasioned if districts.

photograph on a steel or copper plate are percold-blast iron were to be used throughout the either hot

or cold blast a very fine'description of pig manent, since they have the same guarantee of machinery for the navy where hot-blast would

iron. answer quite as well. Fortunately, however,

has already endured in some cases for a very “the Surveyor of the Navy's replies were

It thus appears that many of the ironstones make a good quality of iron

both with hot and to which a plate engraved by this process may

great number of years. Moreover, the extent "printed throughout with the Report, and were

cold blast. The largest portion of the iron in be made available is almost unlimited. "of much value in correcting the erroneous

The “ views advanced ; and it was there pointed the country--more than 90 per cent of the

plate from which the photoglyph given away "out, in reply to the suggested exclusion of whole—is now made by hot-blast; in many cases

by our contemporary was printed is of copper. “ hot-blast*fron, that there is no ground for the iron

is within a trifling, per-centage of the This, after being engraved by Mr. Fox Talbot, “ prohibiting its use , simply because it is cheap at first acquired by hot-blast iron arose from not to give us a plate which may be used for print

was steel-faced. The result of this process is questionably productive of benefit when used distinguishing between mine and cinder iron, ing any number of proofs, on the simple con« with judgment." This portion of the Report and from the facility afforded by the hot-blast dition of having the steel-facing renewed as showed, as Mr. Neilson says, a great ignorance such as flue and tap cinder and the refuse scale of wear. The picture represents a portion of

for making iron from very inferior materials, soon as the present coating of steel shows signs of practical ironmaking, the only difference of the mills and forges, which could not be the Palace of the Tuileries ; and from the richrecognized in the qualities of the two descrip-worked at all by cold-blast, and of course could tions of iron being that due to the temperature produce only an inferior quality of iron. The and the numerous fluted columns, is an exceed

ness of the sculpture, the number of the statues, of the blast; and, further, in the experiments best class of cold-blast iron is no doubt some- ingly difficult subject to engrave by a chemical witnessed, a single pig of iron only was, as we have said, dealt with in each case, and no men

what superior to the best hot-blast, as a rule ; process, owing to the great variety of tints it tion was made of the locality of production, or

but the difference is not so marked as to war- presents. We may therefore point to this phothe quality of the pig as regarded the material rant any unqualified condemnation of hot-blast, toglyph

with confidence as a proof of the great such as is conveyed in the Report referred to, or value of Mr. Talbot's process. from which it was made. There are three principal classes of pig iron : by any means to justify its exclusion from first

Let us now, with the aid of the Photographic namely, cold-blast mine iron, in which the

class mechanical purposes, where judiciously material used is entirely mineral or ironstone used. Hot-blast iron, especially in second runs News, glance at some of the advantages of this from the mine, smelted by cold blast ; hot- and for foundry purposes generally, is an excel- process. In the first place, fac-similes of rare blast mine iron, made from the same material lent material when made from good ores; and engravings or manuscript may be multiplied by by hot blast ; and hot-blast cinder iron, made the great bulk of best hot-blast castings made it to any extent, with the certainty that these from inferior materials, and from the cinder of from judicious mixtures

are quite equal to those fac-similes are not liable to fade. Again, a puddling furnaces mixed in the blast

furnace. of cold-blast iron, and at the same time much most important consideration in estimating the The quality of each description of iron is due

value of this discovery is the extreme comparacheaper.

Such is the testimony borne by Mr. Neil- tive cheapness with which, by its means, peralmost exclusively to the materials—that is, the ironstones, fuels, and fluxes used in the furnace son, and we think it highly desirable that fectly stable photographs of paintings or other

it should be made as widely known as possible works of art may be produced. When photofor its production, and varies continually even at the same works according to the nature of -not, of course, for the sake of iron manufac- graphs can be printed with printers' ink with these materials. The ironstone varies greatly turers, who understand the facts of the case the

same facility as from a metal plate engraved perfectly well, but in order to prevent engineers in the ordinary manner, without the preliminary in quality, and there are altogether more than and others from being deceived as to the real cost of engraving, there can be no reason why 150 different varieties now known, which are

the most beautiful prints should not be sold at classed into the following eight principal divi- nature of hot-blast iron.

a price but little above the cost of the paper on sions by Mr. Neilson :

which they are printed. And not only has this 1.-Black Band ironstone of Scotland. This is

ENGRAVING BY LIGHT. the principal ironstone of Scotland; when smelted When the various photographic processes now ordinary process as regards cheapness, but it

method of engraving a vast advantage over the deed, as a cold-blast iron can hardly be made, since in universal use first began to appear, the most has the additional and most important advanwith the generally inferior fuel there obtained the unprophetic minds augured that other wonders tage of giving a perfectly faithful reproduction necessary heat for smelting is with difficulty maintained were in store for us in the same direction. And of the scene or object without omitting the with cold blast, and the furnaces are consequently they were quite right; from that time forward most minute details. This microscopical miliable to serious fluctuations in working: the cold marvel has followed marvel with astonishing nuteness of delineation will render it of great blast iron of Scotland is scarcely in any instance rapidity. It is only a week or two since that value in the reproduction of anatomical photo, made by hot-blast the iron produced is of a useful we inspected the photographs of Raffaelle's graphs-a matter in which every individual quality for foundry purposes, though not very cartoons at the South Kensington Museum, may be interested. The cost of a complete set tough.

where complete sets of varying sizes could be of photographs of all the various organs, &c., of 2.-Hematite ironstone of Cumberland; produces purchased at any price between a few pence the human body, taken by the ordinary process, either with hot or cold blast a very strong tough pig, and a few pounds! This is, of course, but one would be so expensive as to place them beyond purposes, but red short. It is very good as a tough example of what is now a very common affair the reach of most medical men just commencing ening mixture.

- the purchase of splendid photographs almost practice, which is the very time when they most 3.- Cleveland ironstone of Yorkshire. This is a for a song. But our contemporary, the Photo- need to keep the knowledge they have acquired different and peculiar quality of ironstone only re- graphic News—which, as a photographic organ, fresh in their memory; but when multiplied cently worked, but the iron made from it is now

is unrivalled-last week presented its readers by this mode of printing, cheapness would be largely exported and also used extensively in this country. With hot blast it produces a serviceable but with a fine engraving of the Tuileries, produced secured without the slightest sacrifice of accurather cold-short iron, and a fair quality for castings by a “photo-glyphic” process which is quite racy or minuteness. Further, in reproducing or forge purposes. The ironstone of tắis district is unique, and deserves to be brought prominently photographs of maps, either on a large or reinvariably smeltd by hot blast.

before our readers as an illustration of the man- duced scale, it is calculated to be of essential 4.-Clay Band ironstone of Derbyshire, Stafford ner in which the chemical and the mechanical service. This branch of photography is pracshire, and Shropshire; produces a good tough iron arts are coalescing, as well as for other reasons. ticed now to a considerable extent, but at a cost with either hot or cold blast, and when judiciously mixed in the furnace a fine quality of pigʻis obtained Talbot, to whom we owe the discovery of the employing the photoglyphic process, because for

This process has proceeded from Mr. Fox which would be very materially lessened by for best and general purposes.

5.-Hydrate ironstones of the Churnet Valley; method of producing a positive picture from a all commercial purposes the reduced or enlarged these give a very fine soft iron with either hot or colå negative ; photography on paper; and the photograph has to be copied by the engraver

development of the image by gallic acid, beside on a steel plate, which is rendered unnecessary 6.- Northamptonshire ironstone. At first a very other discoveries in the art, which have been by the process under consideration. The atteninferior description of iron was obtained from this crowned by this last discovery of photoglyphy. tion of the Government has therefore been ore; but now with a better management of the fur: The photoglyphic process is said by our contem- called to this circumstance. There are excellent very soft and fluid quality of melting iron is produced porary to be the only one by which a plate can photographers in the Government service who with hot blast, which compares well with the general be engraved without being “ touched” by the are perfectly able to test the value and utility average.

professional engraver. At the present moment of this process, and a small portion of the sum 7. - South Wales clay, band ironstone; produces there is no other process known by means of annually expended in photographic manipulafine descriptions of pig iron with either hot or cold which a metal plate can be engraved entirely tions in the different offices, would be sufficient pendent for their iron making on the excellent quality by chemical action, and with perfect results. to prove the superior advantages of the photoof fuel obtained there, and the mixtures of ores used | On the same authority it is stated that there I glyphically-engraved plato ever the ordinary


glass negative. “To sum up the advantages of whole series of strange assertions, but which from us till this and that is redressed. We are

this discovery,” says our contemporary, “we we fear are a wide-spread creed of the present not apologising for strikes. We believe them “may say that it gives the power of producing day. They are so well and outspokenly said more often wrong than right. But we are try"an unlimited number of photographs of an that we devote an article here to comments on ing to decipher this doctrine of political eco" object at an exceedingly small cost, and of them. We refer to them only as general prin- nomy. And here is its main flaw. It would "undoubted permanency, whether this object ciples, and not at all as connected with this be quite true and practicable were men mere “be a painting, a statue, a map, or a rare en-strike in particular.

dead products of nature, mere articles of comgraving or manuscript. It has also the addi“Determined by self-interest,"says this writer, merce.

To deal successfully with a thing you "tional advantage over the ordinary photogra- each man has gone to this or that pursuit. must first study the nature of the entity you “phic printing process,

that the picture once “Self-interest, pure and simple, pure mere self- are dealing with. Timber, iron, and cotton you "on the plate the state of the weather after

" advantage is the moving spring of commerce, can deal with at your will; though even these "wards is a matter of no importance.” “and is satisfied only by the highest price." have their likes and dislikes, their possibilities

On another page we publish a detailed Let any bright ingenuous man, occupied in any and impossibilities, which it is vain for you to description of the manner in which the new department

of labour, look back to the days of neglect. How much more have you to study art is carried out. But before leaving the ques- his youth, and ask his own experience if this is the temper and ways of your horse in order to tion it is necessary to repeat the caution of our

true. As far as he can remember, was there manage him! But a man—with all his wants, contemporary. The action of acids on metals not in him a fund of pent-up activity, eager to passions, and imaginings-surely the supply has long been known, and nitric acid has been, vent itself upon anything? And did not the and demand theory has not nicely calculated all and is, extensively employed by engravers in calling he selected seem to his youthful wonder the elements, and their intensities, contained in etching on metal plates, but this process must almost impossible and miraculous in him him. We confess that his “exclusion of all not be confounded with that of Mr. Talbot. In who practised it perfectly? Was there not

"passion, sympathy, benevolence from trade" is the former case a plate is coated with a sub

an enchantment in the ingenuity that could to us the most diabolical sentiment. How a stance unassailable by the acid, and the engraver build a house or print a page, that fascinated man communicates himself to his Newfoundetches his design on this substance, taking care him? Was not enthusiasm the spring that land dog ; sports with it, shouts to it, makes a that the etching needle passes through it to the moved him to try to imitate it? And when he companion of it. What a friendship springs up surface of the plate, which is thus laid bare to first succeeded, was there not a delight that between him and his horse. How he strokes the action of the nitric acid. It is manifest surpassed all the wages in money his work has and cheers it, and so admires it, that like that, by this method, the degree of perfection ever brought him ? "And was not the “highest Goethe, he often wishes it could speak. But of the plate so etched must depend on the ex-“ price” for his labour sought in after years, the tradesman and apprentice shall stand becellence of the designer in the first place, and more for the sake of his wife and children, or hind the same counter all day long for years, secondly, on his skill in manipulating with the mother or sister dependent on him, than for his and no friendly interest shall spring up, or acid. By Mr. Fox Talbot's process the plate is own? And has he never been smitten with a friendly word be spoken ! engraved without the intervention of any en- sense of the grandeur of the sum total of the The paper we quote from advances still graver. He himself, as he admits, has no achievements of human toil, and felt himself farther in the same direction : "The strikers practical knowledge of the art of engraving, and a member of the great commonwealth of labour, "have really struck their own case to pieces in it may, therefore, be fairly considered that what carrying on their designs higher and higher "the very stating of it, for they assign as one he has done may be equally well accomplished through generations ? And has he never for a “prominent reason for what they claim the by any amateur who may possess the perse moment forgotten his own self-advantage in “abundance of unemployed hands. But philanverance requisite to enable him to succeed. the feeling that he was doing his poor stroke thropy cannot be brought into the question.” It should be added

that Mr. Talbot has wisely of the far-reaching work, whereby all humanity Here, again, we speak not at all of the London obtained a patent for the process, and it cannot is lodged, clothed, fed, cheered, and adorned? builders and their workmen, but of the general therefore be carried out without license from How fine is that saying of Rousseau's, of a task principle-What have the employers to do him.

he left untouched in his early manhood : “One with unemployed hands ? . If the supply is

“thing that hindered me was, myself being in greater than the demand, the supply must mo EMPLOYERS AND THE EMPLOYED. “question in the affair ; and private interest, destly withdraw and extinguish itself. This is RICHARD COBDEN is a great favourite with the “whence nothing great or noble ever proceeded, an upheaving of the whole foundation of somajority of English people. His practical

“could not draw from my heart the divine ciety, for the men of rank, wealth, power, incommon - sense, his transparent honesty of “soarings which only the most pure love of Auence, to say to the labouring populationcharacter and purpose, win for him the esteem " that which is just and sublime can produce.” “We have nothing to do with finding you even of those who wholly disagree with him in We quote again from our text : "The com

“work. Labour is purely a marketable comtheory ; while his name, entwined with Sir "mands of religion and philanthropy are not to "modity. If there is too much of it, it must Robert Peel's, will go down English history for “be sought in ledgers, any more than the laws

“take the lot that an excess of wool or tallow centuries, as that of the winner of cheap bread “of commerce on the walls of churches." This would.” On what other condition are some for the English people. Mr. Cobden is a born breaking up of human life and duty into sepa- in high places and some in low, but that those practical administrator ; and as such, is a bene- rate parts is to dissect and destroy the man. As who take the high places are to guide and

profactor of his country. But in the region of ideas in his pature man is a unity, as in his person, tect those in the lower ? Surely the world is and primary principles, he, and indeed the wholeof his senses, thoughts, feelings are interwoven to wide enough for all the men in it; and human the Manchester school of politicians, seems to us gether, so they must be throughout the whole wants are multitudinous enough to appropriate to tumble and flounder in an element wholly of his practical existence. You might as well the labour of all that live. The fault is in the foreign to them. Only the other day, speaking try to separate the nervous energy of the body overseers, the generals of society, when men of the relation between France and England, from digestion and the circulation of the blood, and labour cannot find their place. Well was Mr. Cobden said, that if our armaments to pro as to try to separate a man's “religion” from it said of “the multitude” by One we profess to tect us against France cost us six millions his “trade." When a man can put away his listen to--“ They wander as sheep, without a a-year (and he believed they cost us nearer heart with his morning dressing-gown, and go

“shepherd.” But our modern friend says: twelve), France, as far as we are concerned, had into his counting-house with only a head and It is just as rational to demand compassion better not be ; and that if France, with an eye the multiplication table in it, then you may bid

“and benevolence of pure commerce as to pray to England, spent six millions a-year on her him be one person over his ledger and another a falling tile to refrain from hitting an infirm armaments, England, for France's sake, had in his church.

"old woman.” Happily we are quite sure trade better be at the bottom of the sea. To be sure

“Strikes," says our writer, "are good ; the is far from having reached this pitch. We behe did add, “ speaking according to 'political natural barometers of industry; a means for lieve there is many a noble master in England "economy;" but one fails to see that this

"estimating the fluctuations of labour, superior who is the friend of his men; who, if it came Manchester school ever thinks of men or nations in accuracy to any other that are possible ; to that, would say to them, “Rather than pay but as buyers or sellers, or believes in any “only divest them of the unnecessary and per

you wages by which you cannot live, I will pay higher economy over them but this shabbiest, "fectly illogical bad temper which generally ac- you more than the market price ; and we will prosiest, and meanest, of Profit and Loss. companies them.” Most illogical, indeed !

both go to ruin together, if better wages are But this philosophy of life is the only one Why can't the electric fluids, seeking their dis

to ruin us." that has any vitality in the great mass of think- turbed equilibrium, find it again without all Whoever has eyes can see that the relation ing heads at present. Only look at its do- their pother of lightning and thunder ? Why between the employers and the employed is minion in all men say and write about the bond can't man and wife "strike ” work, and be di- thoroughly deranged amongst us. Everywhere between employers and employed. A clever vorced, without bad temper? And why should the master complains of his workman, the miswriter, commenting the other day on the strike workmen be ruffled when they fancy themselves tress of her maidservant. The employers comof the London builders, surprised us with a wronged, and say, Not another stroke of work plain of insubordination ; and those who work

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