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arctic and antarctic families. The spermaceti whale (Catodon macrocephalus) abounds in the Pacific Ocean and in the deep Moluccan Sea, and also in the Indian Ocean and the Mozambique Channel. In the Atlantic it is scarce, although it occasionally comes north as far as our shores.

The genera of Catodontidae as given by Dr. Gray are, Catodon (2 species ?), Warm Eastern Oceans; Physeter (1 species), “the black fish,” North Sea; Cogia (2 species), South Temperate Oceans; Euphysetes (1 species), Coast of Australia.

FAMILY 39.-HYPEROODONTIDÆ. (9 Genera or Sub-Genera,

12 Species.) GENERAL DISTRIBUTION.–Atlantic, Mediterranean, Indian Ocean, and Southern


This family consists of the beaked whales, which have no permanent teeth in the upper jaw. The genera, according to Dr. Gray, are, Hyperoodon (2 species) “bottle-nosed whales," North Sea; Lagenocetus (1 species), North Sea ; Epiodon (2 species), North and South Atlantic; Petrorhynchus (2 species), Mediterranean Sea and Southern Ocean; Berardius (1 species), New Zealand; Xiphius (1 species) North Atlantic; Dolichodon (1 species), Cape of Good Hope ; Neoziphius (1 species) Mediterranean ; Dioplodon (1 species), Indian Ocean.

FAMILY 40.—MONODONTIDÆ. (1 Genus, 1 Species.)

The “Narwhal” (Monodon monoceros) which constitutes this family, is placed by Dr. Gray along with the “white whales,” in his family Belugidae. It inhabits the North Sea.

FAMILY 41.-DELPHINIDÆ. (24 Genera or Sub-Genera,

100 Species.) GENERAL DISTRIBUTION.—All Oceans, Seas, and Great Rivers of the globe.

This family, including the Porpoises, Dolphins, White Whales, &c., may be described as small, fish-shaped whales, having teeth

in both jaws. According to Dr. Gray they form seven families and 24 genera; according to Professor Carus, four sub-families and 8 genera, but as these groups appear to be established on quite different principles, and often differ widely from each other, I shall simply enumerate Dr. Gray's genera with their distribution as given in his British Museum Catalogue.

Platanista (2 species), long-snouted porpoises, inhabiting the Ganges and Indus; Inia (1 species), a somewhat similar form, inhabiting the upper waters of the Amazonian rivers : Steno (8 species), Indian Ocean, Cape of Good Hope, and West Pacific; Sotalia (1 species), Guiana ; Delphinus (10 species), all the oceans; Clymenia (14 species), all the oceans; Delphinapterus (1 species), South Atlantic; Tursio (7 species), Atlantic and Indian Oceans; Eutropia (2 species), Chili, and Cape of Good Hope ; Electra (8 species), all the oceans; Leucopleurus (1 species), North Sea; Lagenorhynchus (1 species), North Sea; Pseudorca (2 species), North Sea, Tasmania ; Orcaella (2 species), Ganges ; Acanthodelphis (1 species), Brazil ; Phocæna (2 species), North Sea ; Neomeris (1 species), India ; Grampus (3 species), North Sea, Mediterranean, Cape of Good Hope ; Globiocephalus (14 species), all the oceans; Sphoerocephalus (1 species), North Atlantic ; Orca (9 species), Northern and Southern Oceans; Ophysia (1 species), North Pacific ; Beluga (6 species), Arctic Seas, Australia ; Pontoporia (1 species), Monte Video.

Fossil Cetacea.

Remains of Cetacea are tolerably abundant in Tertiary deposits, both in Europe and North America. In the Lower Pliocene of England, France, and Germany, extinct species of five or six living genera of whales and dolphins have been found; and most of these occur also in the Upper Miocene, along with many others, referred to about a dozen extinct genera.

In the Post-pliocene deposits of Vermont and South Carolina, several extinct species have been found belonging to living genera; but in the Miocene deposits of the Eastern United States cetacean remains are much more abundant, more than 30 species of

extinct whales and dolphins having been described, most of them belonging to extinct genera.

The Zeuglodontidæ, an extinct family of carnivorous whales, with double-fanged serrated molar teeth, whose affinities are somewhat doubtful, are found in the older Pliocene of Europe, and in the Miocene and Eocene of the Eastern United States. Zeuglodon abounds in the United States, and one species reached a length of seventy feet. A species of this genus is said to have been found in Malta. Squalodon occurs in Europe and North America; and in the latter country four or five other genera have been described, of which one, Saurocetes, has been found also at Buenos Ayres.


FAMILY 42.—MANATIDÆ. (3 Genera, 5 Species ?)

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The Sea-cows are herbivorous aquatic animals living on the coasts or in the great rivers of seyeral parts of the globe. Manatus (2 species) inhabits both shores of the Atlantic, one species ranging from the Gulf of Mexico to North Brazil, and ascending the Amazon far into the interior of the continent; while the other is found on the west coast of Africa. Halicore (2 species ?), the Dugong, is peculiar to the Indian Ocean, extending from Mozambique to the Red Sea, thence to Western India and Ceylon, the Malay Archipelago and the north coast of Australia. Rytina (1 species), supposed to be now extinct, inhabited recently the North Pacific, between Kamschatka and Behring's Straits.

Fossil Sirenia.—Extinct species of Manatus have been found in the Post-pliocene deposits of Eastern North America from

Maryland to Florida ; and an extinct genus, Prorastomus, in some Tertiary deposits in the Island of Jamaica.

In Post-pliocene deposits in Siberia, remains of Rytina have been found; while several species of the extinct genus Hali. therium, perhaps intermediate between Manatus and Halicore, have been found in the older Pliocene and Upper Miocene of France and Germany.


FAMILY 43.—EQUIDÆ. (1 Genus, 8 Species.)

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The Horses, Asses, and Zebras form a highly specialized group now oonfined to the Ethiopian and Palæarctic regions, but during the middle and later tertiaries having a very extensive range. The zebras (3 species) inhabit the greater part of the Ethiopian region, while the asses (4 species) are characteristic of the deserts of the Palæarctic region from North Africa and Syria to Western India, Mongolia, and Manchuria. The domestic horse is not known in a wild state, but its remains are found in recent deposits from Britain to the Altai Mountains, so that its disappearance is probably due to human agency.

Extinct Equido.—Extinct forms of this family are very numerous. The genus Equus occurs in Post-pliocene and Pliocene deposits in Europe, North America, and South America. In North America the species are most numerous. An allied genus Hipparion, having rudimentary lateral toes, is represented

by several species in the Pliocene of North America, while in Europe it occurs both in the Older Pliocene and Upper Miocene. Various other allied forms, in which the lateral toes are more and more developed, and most of which are now classed in a distinct family, Anchitheridæ, range back through the Miocene to the Eocene period. A sufficient account of these has already been given in vol. i. chap. vi. p. 135, to which the reader is referred for the supposed origin and migrations of the horse.

FAMILY 44.—TAPIRIDÆ. (2 Genera? 6 Species.)

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The Tapirs form a small group of animals whose discontinuous distribution plainly indicates their approaching extinction. For a long time only two species were known, the black American, and the white-banded Malay tapir, the former confined to the equatorial forests of South America, the latter to the Malay peninsula, Sumatra, and Borneo (Plate VIII., vol. i. p. 337). Lately however another, or perhaps two distinct species (or according to Dr. J. E. Gray, four !) have been discovered in the Andes of New Granada and Ecuador, at an elevation of from 8,000 to 12,000 feet; while one or perhaps two more, forming the allied genus Elasmognathus, have been found to inhabit Central America from Panama to Guatemala.

Extinct Tapirs.--True tapirs inhabited Western Europe, from the latest Pliocene back to the earliest Miocene times; while they only occur in either North or South America in the Postpliocene deposits and caves. The singular distribution of the living species is thus explained, since we see that they are an Old World group which only entered the American continent at a comparatively recent epoch. An ancestral form of this group-Lophiodon—is found in Miocene and Eocene deposits of

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