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The changes in the percentages of the three classes of labor are very minute and indicate nothing in the way of a disturbance in the balance of employment that has obtained between the three classes of workers for years; but so far as unemployment is concerned, a substantial reduction—2 per cent., is shown in the proportion of temporarily idle employees in 1909, as compared with 1908. The trifling differences in the percentages relating to labor show at once the care bestowed on the preparation of reports by manufacturers, and on the compilation of the data which they contain. The percentage of men employed is only two-tenths of one per cent. less, and that of women and of children only onetenth of i per cent. greater in 1909 than in 1908.

The following table shows all the industries—sixty-five in number, in which the labor of women or children is employed in the processes of manufacture; the number of men, women and children is given separately for each occupation, and also by corresponding percentages.

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16 years.

1.1 5.7 4.8 0.4 3.4 3.8 2.4 2.1 1.2 3.9 0.3 8.7 4.7 2.2 5.3 0.9

0.4 2.0 1.2 0.1

0.7 1.2 4.9 9.3 4.3 0.5

2 Artisans' tools... 3 Art tile.. 4 Boxes (wood and paper). 7 Brick and terra cotta. 8 Brushes.. 9 Buttons (metal). 10 Buttons (pearl). 11 Carpets and rugs. 13 Chemical products. 14 Cigars and tobacco. 15 Clothing 16 Confectionery. 18 Corsets and corset waists. 19 Cutlery.... 20 Cotton goods.. 21 Cotton goods (finishing & dyeing). 22 Drawn wire and wire cloth.. 23 Electrical appliances. 25 Food products. 26 Foundry (brass). 27 Foundry (iron). 28 Furnaces, ranges and heaters.. 29 Gas and electric light fixtures. 30 Glass (cut table ware). 31 Glass (window and bottle). 32 Glass mirrors. 33 Graphite products. 34 Hats (fur and felt) 35 Hats (straw).... 36 High explosives. 38 Jewelry. 39 Knit goods. 40 Leather.. 41 Leather goods. 42 Lamps. 44 Machinery.. 45 Mattresses and bedding. 46 Metal goods. 47 Metal novelties.. 49 Musical instruments. 50 Oilcloth (floor and table). 51 Oils... 52 Paints. 53 Paper. 55 Pottery. 56 Printing and book binding. 59 Rubber goods (hard and soft). 61 Saddlery and harness hardware.. 62 Scientific instruments. 64 Shoes. 65 Shirts.. 66 Shirt waists (women's) 68 Silk (broad and ribbon). 69 Silk dyeing. 70 Silk throwing. 71 Silk mill supplies. 72 Silver goods. 74 Soap and tallow. 78 Textile products.

698 29 2,444 1,452 22 607 2,515 5

14 597 182 11,064 11,000 22 5, 008 590 32 676 1,051 17 564 148 18. 950 245 19

1,419 471 9

842 455

9,195 19.1 77.0
4 1,171 43.6 56.1
41 472 38.1 53.2
102 2,159

7.8 87.5
28 1, 266 87.1 10.7
376 7,001 25.7 69.0
39 4,055 81.9 17.2
5
9,482 92.8

7.2
25 6,010 84.8 14.8
59 2,915 79.2 18.8
15

1,263 94.7 4.1
10
8,177 98.8

1.1
3 1,794 94.9 5.1
3 453 92.7 6.6

4 347 87.6 11.2 267 5,423 93.1 2.0 14 150 79.4 11.3 83 1,922 46.1 49.6 25 4,556 75.2 24.3

206 51.0 49.0 4 1,720 97.5 2.3 99 3,501 73.5 23.7 280 4,034 24.6 68.5 26 5,801 98.4 1.2 54 1,086 58.8 36.2 43 4,573 28.8 70.3 34 18,161 96.2 3.6

2 515 85.1 14.5 135 7,464 76.2 22.0 30 1,078 78.9 18.3 16 1,683 82.6 16.4 27 2,102 97.9 0.8 54 7,153 99.0 0.2 14 1,153 91.0 7.8 42 3,083 89.8 8.8 77 5,069 82.3 16.2 12 1, 247 64.8 34.2 84 7,450 83.2 15.7 36 777 81.4 14.0 66 4,944 84.6 14.1 115 4,011 60.9 36.2 127 3,249 18.777.4

23 634 2.2 94.2 743 22,807 48.6 48.1

15 5,613 89.2 10.5 154 1,881 35.9 55.9 31 743 75.9 19.9 29 1,224 77.6 20.0 38 1,928 73.6 24.4 87! 1,384 60.8 32.9

0.2 2.8 6.9 0.4 5.0 0.9 0.2 0.4 1.8 2.8 1.0 1.3 0.8 1.2 1.4 1.5 1.0 1.1 4.6 1.3 2.9 3.9 3.6 3.3 0.3 8.2 4.2 2.4 2.0 6.3

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The sixty-five industries presented in the above table include all but 346 of the entire number of establishments considered; all but 30,711 of the entire number of men; all but 197 of the entire number of women; and all but 57 children of the totals of "all industries.” As the labor of women, and in a lesser degree of children also, is a distinguishing feature of this large group of industries, the proportion of men employed is, as a matter of course, smaller, and that of women and children proportionately greater than in "all industries" without such distinction. As is shown by this table, in the 346 establishments included in "other industries," which, in this case, means those not employing women or children, 99.2 per cent. of the employees are men, 0.6 per cent. women, and only 0.2 per cent. children under 16 years old. The table is therefore a most accurate chart of employment by sexes and ages in the factory industries of New Jersey, showing the occupations in which women and children in varying proportions are regularly employed in the processes of manufacture. The proportion of these two classes of labor is very small in the case of many of the industries, but without their inclusion, the list of occupations employing women and children, would not be complete. Besides which the fact of sociological interest is that they—the women and children, have secured a foothold in these lines of manufacture, the growth or decline of which may be determined by future comparisons with these figures.

In seventeen of the sixty-five industries, the proportion of women and children employed is more than 50 per cent., and in several of these, the percentage ranges upward from that figure to 94 per cent. The totals of these sixty-five industries show that of every 1,000 wage earners employed, 693 are men, 16 years old and over, 283 are women, 16 years old and over, and 24 are children below the age of 16 years. This is a record in no way discreditable to the industries of New Jersey, and the fact that the relative proportions of the three classes of labor have not materially changed for many years past, proves that their record in the matter of child labor is, and always has been, as free from reproach as that of the most advanced and progressive State of the Union.

To extend the analysis of these sixty-five occupations any further would necessarily take the form of a mere repetition of the figures on the table, without adding in any to their significance. Sufficient to say that at a glance those who are interested may identify the industries in this State which utilize the labor of women and children, and also note how many of these are employed in each particular occupation and in all occupations.

Resuming the study of employment without reference to sex or age, the number of persons employed in each of the “twenty-five selected industries;" the number in "other industries," and in "all industries," is given on the following table for 1909, in comparison with 1908. The increases and decreases are shown in absolute numbers and by percentages.

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Twenty-three of the twenty-five specially selected industries show increases in the number of wage earners, that are with few exceptions, very large. The greatest is shown by the occupations chiefly concerned in the building and construction trades, that is—“brick and terra cotta,” 48.0 per cent. ; “steel and ironstructural,” 36.1 per cent.; and “electrical appliances,” 41.6 per cent. The only industries showing decreases, are the manufacture of "glass—window and bottle," "hats—men's,” and “oil refining."

The increase in the average number of wage earners employed in the "twenty-five selected industries” is 14.7 per cent. ; in "other industries” the increase is 12.2 per cent., and "all industries” combined—that is, the entire 2,291 establishments show for 1909 an increase in the aggregate average number of wage earners employed, of 33,639, or 13.7 per cent.

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