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LONDON, SATURDAY, SEPTEMBER 19, 1863. Jura. He wrote a most wretched scrawl; and it
was only by calling in the aid of a distinguished CONTENTS.-N°, 90.
archæologist, and by our consulting the modern NOTES: The Swiss Ballad of " Renaud,” 221 - Sir John Henderson, 224 – “Scoticisms:" Beattie: David Hume:
printed copies, that we could decypher the minLord Hailes, 225.
strel's bieroglyphics. To translate the Romande MINOR NOTES:- Webster's " Devil's Law Case:” its. Date is no easy task, even to one who, like myself, has
Tombstones and their Inscriptions -"Quarterly Re- become somewhat familiar with it from long resiviews".- Mirabeau a Spy-Paper-Lady Madelina Palmer --Origin of the Saracen's Head - The End of Speech, 227.
dence where it predominates. There is no stanQUERIES: ."Don Quixote,” 227 The Rev. William
dard for its orthography; and then it varies in Jarvis Abdy- Rev. Richard Barry, M.A. - St. Anthony's every district, nay, almost in every parish. The Temptation - Sir Thomas Bartlet - Bible Translators - following translation is tolerably literal, and many Blount of Bitton - Thomas Brooks --Carew and Broke Carved Head in Astley Church George Edwards,
of the stanzas are word for word. In 1858, I F.R.S. - Engravings of Religious Rites Rev. William printed a few copies of my first translation. It Felton - Games: Merry-main - Heath Beer - Heraldic Herbert of Cardiff — Maxims : Newbery: Goldsmith
also appeared in the Durham Advertiser. It was "May Maids” in Ireland, France, and Belgium Me copied by several other journals, and even found diatised German Princes — Phillips Family Scottish
its way into some American papers. I also hear Games - Ancient Sundial - King William III., 227.
that it is in some "Selections.” I regret this QUERIES WITH ANSWERS:
Bishop Cox, of Ely, and Queen Elizabeth -"The Whole Duty of Man",
popularity, because I am now enabled to give a Tower - Norfolk and Suffolk Lines on London Dissent. better rendering, and would desire to cancel the ing Ministers - Calis and Island Voyages - Washington Family - Mediæval Emblems - Epitaph on Dr. Vincent,
first impression. Robert White, Esq., of New
castle-on-Tyne, the author of some of the best REPLIES:- Boswell, 232- St. Patrick and the Shamrock, ballads and songs in our language (vide Book of 233 - Toison d'Or, 16. - Titles borne by Clergymen, 235 Scottish Ballads; The Fishers' Garland, 8c., &c.), Danish Invasion, Ib. - The“ Faerie Queene” unveiled, 236 - The “ Arcadia” unveiled, 237 — St. Patrick and Ve
thus writes in the Durham Advertiser in a letter nomous Reptiles in Ireland -" He died and she married dated Dec. 28, 1858:
Pomeroy Family -- Sir Ferdinand Lee Cowthorpe Oak - A Lady's Dress in 1762 - - Randolph “ So far as my recollection serves me, the Chanson de Crewe - Mævius The Bhagavadgita, &c. Suspended Renaud' does not resemble any of the popular ballads of Animation - Jacob's Staff Patrician Families of Lou
this country. I know of none
like it, especially after the vain, 237.
earlier stanzas down towards the close. The commence
ment certainly reminds me of the beautiful dirge beNotes.
• A knight there came from the field of the slain,'THE SWISS BALLAD OF “RENAUD,"
which was written by John Finlay, and published in (FROM THE ROMANDE.)
1804. The only other resemblance is to a verse in • Lord
Randall,' in the Border Minstrelsy :The “Chanson de Renaud " is unquestionably of great antiquity, and may probably be referred
• Mother, make my bed soon.' to the Middle Ages. It belongs to the Jurassian The Song of Renaud might form a part of a much larger district of Romande Switzerland, where tradi
ballad, though in itself it may be complete. Apparently
a specimen of the right kind, it graphically depicts a tional versions are sung both in the Romande
tale, calling to remembrance some of the striking chaplanguage, and in old and modern French. The
ters of Scriptural History. Such translations must be printed copies, which vary considerably — not welcome to every lover of ballad poetry.” merely in the text of the verses, but in the num
The "resemblances" alluded to by my friend ber of them are common broadsheets, for the
Mr. White I have disposed of, by giving the oricountry people. A Swiss antiquary, in 1858, printed a copy in modern French at Lausanne, long before John Finlay was born, Dean Swift
ginal text. I will merely remark, en passant, that and said :
wrote a satiric street ballad on the Duke of Marl“ La Chanson de Renaud est encore connue, aujourd- | borough, which began with — hui, dans beaucoup de provinces du Jura. Je la donne telle que je l'ai entendu chanter dans le Jura, et sans
“ Our Johnny has come from the wars." me permettre la moindre alteration."
By turning to the first line of the “Chanson de Although I call the Lausanne copy a modern Renaud,” it will be seen that if we substitute French one, I must observe that it contains many “ Our Johnny,” for “Renaud," and put "guerre" old and obsolete French words, and also several in the plural, we have Dean Swift's line, word for Romande ones.
Another very faulty copy may word. It is not very probable that either Finlay be found in the works of the late Gerhard de or Swift was acquainted with the “Chanson de Nerval, Paris, 1856. The text varies consider- Renaud." I could point out several such resemably from the Lausanne copy, and is only about blances. Those who have paid attention to the half the length. The following translation is ballads of different countries are aware of the from a Romande traditional copy, obtained (1857) fact that there is always a remarkable similarity from a professional fiddler that I met with in the in ballad phraseology. Particular phrases and modes of expression seem to belong to no par- hero was a Swiss — Major John Reynaud-wbo ticular country; but, like certain terminations in figured in the “Thirty-years' War," and died music, to be common property. Plagiarism is an from a wound received in fight. The medieval offence that is not easily brought home to the imagery, the general structure of the composition, ballad-monger.
the various readings, and the want of any known Since the original translation of the “Chanson standard of appeal, are sufficient to make me rede Renaud," I have consulted no less than ten ject such an hypothesis ; which, by-the-bye, neither different copies, of which two MS. traditional De Nerval_nor the Lausanne editor take any ones were in the Romande. With this language notice of. I am inclined to believe, that “The (for I cannot call it a patois) I ar
am more familiar Chanson de Renaud " is much older than two than I was in 1858 ; and I have recently trans. hundred years; and that the hero was a Swiss, or lated from it another ballad, “ The Battle of La an Italian of Piedmont, who figured in some of Planta," and two or three popular songs and some the Burgundian wars of the fifteenth century. Ranz de Vaches. The result of the revision of Renaud is the French form of Rinaldo : it must, the following ballad, is, greater purity of text, of course, be pronounced Reno. I shall be glad the insertion of some verses, and the rejection of of any information as to the origin of the ballad. others. I think it right to say that I am respon- In conclusion, I have one remark to make. Of sible for the *, by which the breaks in the late years, while I have been abroad, several comnarrative are marked. They are not placed to pilers, or rather "getters up" of " selections," give a fragmentary appearance to what I consider have made very free with my labours. I have to be a perfect composition; but they seem neces- seen traditional ballads and songs, published by sary to mark the sudden transitions, and willi me for the first time, appropriated -- and often make the tale better understood. The singers in without the slightest acknowledgment; and a the Jura find it necessary to give a little verbal religious Society has even shown this want of explanation where I have placed asterisks. courtesy. I will not permit this wholesale plun
What, it may be asked, is the origin of the ballad ? der any longer. In future, if any one think my Who was Renaud ? Was he a real personage, or is “ Collections" worthy of a reprint, he must ask he a mere creation of the old trouvère? In De my permission. I have for some time past been Nerval's copy, he is everywhere styled “Jean compiling a Ballad Book, and the practice comRenaud;" but I find this “ Jean” nowhere else. plained of is calculated to affect my intended De Nerval has not stated any authority for an publication. appellation that is at variance with every other
JAMES HENRY Dixos. copy, printed or traditional ; and yet some have Via Santa Maria, Florence, Italy,; taken advantage of this, and contended that the August 13, 1863.
LA CHANSON DE RENAUD.
THE BALLAD OF RENAUD.
A mother rush'd to welcome him.
Thy ladye fair hath borne a boy."
And the life-blood flowing now?]
My boy and his mother I may not see.
Let the coverlet and the sheets be wbitc. “But spread my couch in a distant tower,
I must be far from my ladye's bower.
Her lord returns from the battle-plain.”
“Ni de ma femme, ni de mon filz,
Je ne saurais me rejouir. “ Allez, ma mère-allez devant:
Faites moi dresser un beau lit blanc. “ Mais faites le dresser si bas,
Que ma femme ne l'entende pas.
One copy reads, “d'un petit."
“Ah! dites donc, mère, m'amie,
Qu'entends-je vous pleurez ici ?” “ Ma fille, c'est un de nos blancs chevaux,
Qui à l'écurie se trouve mort. “Ah! dites donc, mère, m'amie,
Qu'entends-je donc taper ici? ” “Ma fille, c'est le charpentier,
Qui raccommode l'escalier.” | “Ah! dites donc, mère, m'amie,
Qu'entends-je donc chanter ici ?” “ Ma fille, c'est la procession,
Qui fait le tour de la maison." “ Ah! dites donc, mère, m'amie,
Quand sortirai-je de ce lit?” “Ni aujourd'hui, ni demain;
Vous en sortirez après la semaine.” “ Ah! dites donc, mère, m'amie,
Quelle belle robe mettrai-je ?” “Le blanc et le rose vous quitterez,
Le noir & et le violet vous mettrez."
“ Mother! wherefore do ye sigh,
And your band-maids standing by ? "* “ Our fair white steed lies dead in the stall
He was the bravest barb of all !” “ Mother! methinks the night-winds bring
Sounds of a distant hammering ?” “ My child! it is the carpentere,
Who mendeth the escalier."
it falls-it comes again.” “ A procession winds along,
And chanters raise the holy song." “ Mother! I fain would quit my room,
I'm sick at heart of the castle's gloom." I “ You are too feeble to quit your bed,
You must wait till a week hath fled." “ When I go out, O mother dear!
What are the robes that I shall wear?” “ The white and the red you must not put on,
But the black and the violet ye may don.”
As she rode upon the way, They met three friars T in garb of grey. “The lady is gay, and fair, and young;
“Ah! dites donc, mère, m'amie,
Le beau tombeau que voici ! ” “Ma fille! il peut bien être beau: C'est celui de mon filz Renaud." Qu'on ôte ma bague et mes anneaux : Je veux mourir avec Renaud ! “ Je veux l'espace y soit si grand, Qu'on y renferme aussi l'enfant.”
• This is the reading of a Romande copy.
This is the reading of a traditional copy.
Trois moines l'ont rencontrée."
It was for her lord that the mass was sung."
As they pass'd along the way?"
Wile the time with an old Romaunt."
In the chapel's vaulted aisle,
Were working at a marble tomb.**
What brave knight is buried there?
It is that of my son Renaud."
I soon shall rest by my Renaud's side.
also beside us sleep.”
In some modern broadsheets the friars have been changed into “ trois pasteurs.” In the Jura, where there are numerous Baptists, monks would not be tolerated even in a ballad.
** This, and the preceding stanza, are only found in the Romande copies. They seem necessary to complete the
SIR JOHN HENDERSON,
In or about the beginning of May, 1645, he
arrived in England with letters from the King of This person, who was governor of two impor- Denmark to the parliament interceding for peace tant fortresses for Charles I., is not once named with Charles I. He was also the bearer of a letter by Clarendon, whose reason for silence respecting to that monarch from the King of Denmark; he him may however be conjectured from what fol- was taken into custody, and on May 25 the Comlows :
mons sent him to the Tower for levying civil war Mr. Carlyle calls him a renegade Scot. He against the king and parliament. On Oct. 16 he was a soldier of fortune, having, according to his was required to return to Denmark in fourteen own account, spent thirty years, and lost much days, taking back with him the letter he had blood in Germany, Denmark, and Sweden. He brought for the English king, the parliament dewas Governor of Dumbarton Castle, but the king termining to send an answer to the King of Dennot being able to supply it with victuals, he was mark's letter to them by commissioners of their forced to surrender it upon articles to the Marquis of Argyle, August 24, 1640. The king's On Oct. 14, 1647, he applied to the House of instructions to him, by the name of Colonel Hen- Lords for permission to deliver letters from the dersham, as captain, and governor of the Castle of King of Denmark to the king, he having recently Dumbarton, are given by Rymer (Fædera, xx. arrived from Denmark, and having instructions to 454.)
return there in haste. The Lords acceded to the One David Alexander, a poor Scot, in October, request. 1642, gave information to the parliament that Sir He was imprisoned at Edinburgh, but obtained John Henderson had urged him to assassinate Sir his release by the favour of Cromwell. This was John Hotham, and to blow up the magazine of apparently in or before 1650. A curious letter the parliament army. The substance of the state- from him to Cromwell, dated Cannigate, Sept. 19, ment was embodied in the Declaration issued by 1650, is given in Nickolls's Original Letters and both Houses concerning the advance of the king's Papers of State, 21. army to London; it being added that they were Subsequently, going to the continent, he becredibly informed Sir John Henderson was a came a hired spy of the Protector, acquainting Papist.
his government from time to time with all the În the Declaration of the Lords and Commons, movements and designs of the Royalists abroad. Oct. 22, 1642, it is stated that Sir John Hender- Information respecting him during this period son and Col. Cockrom, men of ill report both for may be gathered from Thurloe's State Papers. religion and honesty, had, as the Houses had been Hearing of the Protector's preparation for a credibly informed, been sent to Hamburgh and foreign war, he in 1655 offered his services to Denmark to raise forces for the Earl of Newcastle. him, stating that if they were declined he intended The king in his answer alludes to this statement to address himself to the King of Sweden for enas a vile scandal.
tertainment under him, having refused a proper When Newark was garrisoned for the king, Sir employment from the emperor, from whose court John Henderson was appointed governor of the he had lately come. castle and town. Early in 1642-3 he seized Bel- When or where he died is not known, but voir Castle for the king, and in July, 1643, he amongst the petitions to Charles II., supposed to escorted the queen from Newark to Oxford. On pertain to the year 1662, are four, which are thus the way to Nottingham, the royal escort of 5000 abstracted by Mrs. Green (Cal. Dom. State Papers men was attacked by Lord Grey, whom he routed Charles II., ii. 624): – and put to flight.
“Clara Magdalena, widow of Major-General Sir John On Oct. 11, 1643, occurred the famous fight at Henderson. For relief to transport her to her native Winceby, near Horncastle, when Sir John Hen- country as promised at request of the queen- mother. Her derson was defeated by the parliament forces.
husband served the late King in the war as governor of In or shortly before Jan. 1643-4, he sent letters order for 2001., which was never paid."
Newark, agent in Denmark, Germany, &c., and had an by a trumpeter from Oxford soliciting a pass from “ The same. That 2001. due to her late husband as the parliament for himself, his wife, and children former agent in Germany may be paid from the privy to go into Holland, and settle there. The letters seal for relief of loyal sufferers.' were addressed to Lord Maitland, Alexander transport herself to her own country from the 20001. or
“The same. For payment of her debts and means to Henderson, and Sir Henry Vane, the elder. The dered by privy seal dormant of March 19 last.” latter laid the application before the House of “ The same. To the same effect,-being promised aid Commons, who refused the pass.
from the privy purse on recommendation of the queenWhen Newark was relieved by Prince Rupert mother.” in March following, he left Sir Richard Byron Lady Henderson must have had no little assur(afterwards Lord Byron) as governor. Why Sir ance in seeking favour from Charles II., for it is John Henderson was superseded does not appear. clear that she was aware of her husband's treachery
to that monarch; indeed she had herself rendered of some few individuals on whose judgment he assistance in worming out the secrets of the Roy- placed great weight.
The two brochures are of alists for transmission to Cromwell.
great rarity, and exist only in very few libraries. Sir John Henderson had six children. One son One of them is entitled, A Specimen of Notes on was taken prisoner at the battle of Worcester, the Scotish Law of Scotland, small 8vo. In the but obtained his freedom. After which, against Address, which is signed by his Lordship, he menhis father's will, he took an engagement under tions he had, without effect, called the attention Middleton on behalf of Charles II.
of the learned to an explanation of the obsolete There appear to have been four successive go- words used through the Scotch Magazine; and vernors of the royal garrison at Newark, viz. Sir only received a communication from "one” genJohn Henderson, Sir Richard Byron, Sir Richard tleman. He thereupon privately printed the Willis, and Lord Bellasis. It is very remarkable specimen ; the object of which he discloses in the that two of them (Henderson and Willis) acted following paragraph :treacherously to Charles II. when in exile.
“ My purpose is to explain uncommon and obsolete C. H. & THOMPSON COOPER. words, to offer conjectures as to the import of obscure Cambridge.
effusions, to illustrate law by history, and, as far as may be practicable, to delineate the state of Scotland and the manners of the Scotish nation, during the fifteenth and
sixteenth centuries." “SCOTICISMS:" BEATTIE: DAVID HUME: LORD HAILES.
No assistance, however, was given; and, to the Dean Ramsey, in his amusing Sketches of Sco- loss of the present race of historical students
lucubrations of this most accurate and accomtish Life, observes that he has two rather rare works on Scoticisms. One by Dr. Beattie, and plished historian went no farther.
The other work of Lord Hailes, also privately another by the late Sir John Sinclair. The former is, I presume, the following work :
printed, was A Glossary of the Scotish Language.
This was circulated in the same form ; and it is “ Scoticisms; arranged in Alphabetical Order, designed to correct Improprieties of Speech and Writing. Edin. supposed that there are not half-a-dozen copies burgh: Printed for William Creed, Edinburgh; and T. in existence. After a perusal, these two rarities Cadell, London, 1787.”
would be thrown aside; and in course of time Some months since, I picked up a very
would become almost unknown, excepting to a
fine uncut copy of the former at a stall, interleaved verified by Lord Hailes: the copy before me
few literary antiquaries. The “ specimen" is and annotated to a considerable extent by some unknown individual
, whose observations and ad- being a presentation one to“ Mr. John Douglas, ditions are exceedingly valuable. Every attempt Mr. Thomas Thomson, Deputy Clerk Registrar,
Advocate.” Of the authorship of the Glossary, to ascertain from the handwriting, the author has had no doubt. He found a copy at New Hailes, hitherto failed—a circumstance to be regretted; when contemplating a complete edition of the but the MS. additions themselves indicate that he miscellaneous works of this learned judge and must have been a person of education and research.
worthy man. The most singular circumstance, however, is this : that at the end are bound thirty or forty
Minor Aotes. pages of additional MS. material, together with a tract of eight leaves, apparently printed for WEBSTER'S “DEVIL's Law CASE;" its Date. private circulation ; bearing the title of “Scoti- This play was published in 1623, and the Rev. cisms,” but having no title-page. The last leaf is Mr. Dyce justly remarks that it must have been descriptive of “Books published by the same written but a short time before, since in Act IV. Author;" and upon investigating the contents of Sc. 2, there is an allusion to the Dutch massacre the three books described, they turn out all to be of the English in Amboyna in Feb. 1622. The from the pen of David Hume. Thus the infer- argument is the stronger in that the passage does ence is obvious, that the author of the History of not read like an after interpolation ; but as this England and the Essays was the author of the objection can always be raised against any such Scoticisms ; but why they appeared in this odd single proof, I may perhaps be allowed to form, is not very intelligible--unless it was in- strengthen it by another. In Act II. Sc. 3, tended by Hume as a sort of specimen, to be cir- Ariosto makes some remarks upon the defiant culated among his private friends, whose favour- and ill-omened names given by Romelio to his able reception might be an inducement for his ships, whence says he, he never looked they'd subsequently reproducing it in a more enlarged prosper, since they were surely cursed from their form.
cradles." Now if any one will turn to the ObSir David Dalrymple, Lord Hailes, in two in- servations of Sir Richard Hawkins in his Voyage stances adopted this mode of eliciting the opinion into the South Sea (pp. 8–10, Hakluyt Soc. edit.),