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LONDON, SATURDAY, MARCH 25, 1893.
CONTENT 8.-N° 65.
with nursery rhymes and games. Thus he writes (vol. ii.
January 29, 1768, Goldsmith's play of 'The Good
NOTES:-Goldsmith and Newbery, 221-Glasgow University Mace, 222-Books on Navigation, 223-Unlucky Houses-Hernshaw," 224-Germ Theory-Cherry Stone -The Miller's Tomb-Belinda-Dr. John Burton, 225friends after it. Nay, to impress his friends still more Torchlight Burial-Palfrey and Post-Tennyson, 226-natured Man' was produced. He went to dine with his "Preventative," 227. forcibly with an idea of his magnanimity, he even sung his favorite song, which he never consented to sing but on special occasions, about An old Woman tossed in a Blanket seventeen times as high as the Moon, and was altogether very noisy and loud."
Our readers will find this identical favorite song' in the preface to Newbery's 'Mother Goose's Melody,' p. 7, dragged in without any excuse, but evidently because it was familiar to the writer. This coincidence is certainly of some force."
QUERIES:-Octagonal Fonts-Loops-Children of the
Whether or no," 238.
"Preface, by a very Great Writer of very Little Books.-Much might be said in favour of this collection, but as we have no room for critical disquisitions we shall only observe to our readers, that the custom of singing these songs and lullabies to children is of great antiquity: It is even as old as the time of the ancient Druids. Charactacus, King of the Britons, was rocked in his Cradle in the Isle of Mona, now called Anglesea, and tuned to sleep by some of these soporiferous sonnets. As the best things, however, may be made an ill use of, GOLDSMITH AND NEWBERY. satirical manner of which we have a remarkable instance Mr. Austin Dobson, in his essay on 'An Old so, this kind of compositions has been employed in a so far back as the reign of King Henry the fifth. When London Bookseller' in 'Eighteenth Century Vignettes,' has lightly touched upon the question of the that great monarch turned his arms against France, he assistance which, according to some writers, was composed the preceding march to lead his troops to rendered by Oliver Goldsmith in the composition Battle, well knowing that musick had often the power men. Of this his enemies took advantage, and as our of Newbery's nursery books. Most people will of inspiring courage, especially in the minds of good agree with Mr. Dobson that the so-called "evidence happy nation, even at that time, was never without a of style" is often entirely misleading. It is, how-faction, some of the malcontents adopted the following ever, pleasant to think of Goldsmith occasionally devoting a spare evening to the service of the little masters and misses whom he loved, and any scrap of evidence that bears upon the subject is not to be neglected. One of Newbery's little Dutch-paper-bound publications was a collection of nursery rhymes, called 'Mother Goose's Melody, or Sonnets for the Cradle.' No copy of the original, which must have been published by Newbery before his death in 1767, appears to be extant, but last year Mr. W. H. Whitmore, of Boston, edited a facsimile of an American reproduction of the book which was published about the year 1785 by Isaiah Thomas, of Worcester, Mass. From Mr. Whitmore's interesting and exhaustive preface I extract the following passage, which has reference to Goldsmith's alleged collaboration in these little
"Forster, in his 'Life of Goldsmith,' gives proof that Goldsmith was very fond of children, and was familiar
words to the king's own march, in order to ridicule his
There was an old woman toss'd in a blanket,
gaged in a pursuit the most absurd and extravagant
* The music of this march is given in the text.
So vast is the prowess of Harry the Great,
He'll pluck a Hair from the pale-fac'd moon; Or a lion familiarly take by the tooth,
And lead him about as you lead a baboon. All Princes and potentates under the sun, Through fear into corners and holes away run, While no dangers nor dread his swift progress retards, For he deals about kingdoms as we do our cards. When this was shewn to his majesty he smilingly said that folly always dealt in extravagances, and that knaves sometimes put on the garb of fools to promote in that disguise their own wicked designs. The flattery in the last (says he) is more insulting than the impudence of the first, and to weak minds might do more mischief; but we have the old proverb in our favour-If we do not flatter ourselves, the flattery of others will never hurt us.'
"We cannot conclude without observing, the great probability there is that the custom of making Nonsense Verses in our schools was borrowed from this practice among the old British nurses; they have, indeed, been always the first preceptors of the youth of this kingdom, and from them the rudiments of taste and learning are naturally derived. Let none therefore speak irreverently of this ancient maternity, as they may be considered as the great grandmothers of science and knowledge."
This passage should have its value in the eyes of the Porson of the nursery as giving probably the earliest reading of a rhyme which dates back at least a hundred years before Newbery published his collection. Halliwell, in his 'Nursery Rhymes,' second edition, 1843, p. 244, says that in 'Musick's Handmaid,' 1673, the air to which the rhyme is sung is called 'Lilliburlero, or Old Woman, whither so high.' In a notice of Mr. G. F. Northall's recently published English FolkRhymes,' which appeared in the Athenæum of Jan. 21, the reviewer says:— "In our youth
There was an old woman thrown up in a blanket Three or four times as high as the moon; and surely that is better than having her drawn up. If the rhyme was taken down by a South-Country man, in a part of England where thrown is pronounced thrawn, the change can readily be accounted for."
It will, however, be seen that neither Mr. Northall (who quotes from 'N. & Q.,' 7 S. i. 154) nor the reviewer is correct, and that the old woman was not drawn up nor thrown up, but tossed in a blanket.*
Mr. Dobson shows in the same paper that the rhyme of "Three children sliding on the ice" could not have been written by Goldsmith, as it is found in publications long anterior to his time. The original ballad on which the lines are founded has been reprinted by Halliwell, from a work entitled 'Ovid de Arte Amandi, &c., Englished, together with Choice Poems, and rare Pieces of This reading is also confirmed by an old version which will be found in 'N. & Q.,' 3rd S. iii. 11.
GLASGOW UNIVERSITY MACE AND STAFF. In the histories of St. Andrews, Fife, it is stated that the exquisite black marble tomb of Bishop James Kennedy, in St. Salvator's College to have been found hid therein, three of which Chapel, was opened in 1683. Six maces are said were retained at St. Andrews, and one was presented to each of the other three Scottish universities. Now, this is a sheer historical falsity; for there is no written record in any form of such a gift at or from St. Andrews, nor is there notice of any such costly articles in the archives of the Universities of Glasgow, Aberdeen, or Edinburgh. The last two possess no maces at all, while the inscription upon the Glasgow College mace negatives the erroneous historical tradition.
Bishop Kennedy's unique crocketed silver-gilt mace is superb in design, while the other two silver ones, made in Paris in 1451, and kept in St. Mary's College, South Street, founded by Archbishop James Bethune in 1537, are far inferior to the former, but superior in workmanship to the Glasgow mace.
In 1460, ten years after the foundation, David Cadzow, precentor of the Cathedral and first rector of the University, on the occasion of his being elected to this latter office that year, gave twenty nobles (about forty pounds sterling), towards the manufacture of the Glasgow mace. Moreover, by common consent the members of all the "nations" in the statutory congregation of the university submitted to a tax for the same end, dated on the usual day of SS. Crispin and Crispiana, in 1455.
Finally, in 1490 directions were given for the reforming and correction of the silver mace at the expense of the University. It would appear that this emblem of office was now perfected, as no more collections nor taxes are notified. 1519 Robert Maxwell, Chancellor of the See of But in the safety of the more precious mace used only on Moray, being elected rector, and having regard to the higher occasions, presented to the University 66 a cane staff set with silver at the extremities and middle, to be in all time coming borne before the rector on the smaller feasts and at common meetings.' Alas! this elegant "cane staff" (like other the largest in some heads. bequests) is no more. The bump of destruction is
not in use, in an oblong box, in the Faculty Room The college silver mace was of old kept, when of the old Pedagogy, in High Street, now utterly demolished for railway offices. This mace is four feet nine and three-quarters inches in length, and weighs eighty-one pounds one ounce. top is hexagonal, with a shield on each side. On
the first shield are the arms of the city; on the third are the arms of Douglas of Dalkeith, as borne by the Regent Morton, the restorer of the college; the fourth has the coat of Hamilton, the first endower; the fifth has the royal arms of Scotland; the sixth has the episcopal and family arms of Bishop William Turnbull, the founder. The second shield is occupied with this inscription in modern italics : "Hec Virga empta fuit publicis Academia Glasguensis Sumptibus, A.D. 1465, in Galliam ablata, A.D. 1560; et Academic restituta, 1590." In rough off-hand translation this means: This rod or verge (hence verger, one who carries) was bought with the public gatherings or taxes of the University of Glasgow 1465, was renewed or overhauled in France 1560, and restored to the University 1590.
The statement that the whole half-dozen maces were discovered in Bishop Kennedy's tomb in 1683, together with the St. Andrews University donations to the other three universities in Scotland, does not coincide with the inscription upon the Glasgow University mace, whereupon is the word empta, i. e. purchased, in 1465. This engraved fact manifests and proves that the Glasgow mace was bought by and in possession of the University 218 years before the said gift came from St. Andrews. J. F. S. GORDON, D.D.
BOOKS ON NAVIGATION.
A large map representing the several possessions of Spain and Portugal. It was sent from Lisbon to Hercules d'Este, Duke of Ferrara, before November 19, 1502, and is now preserved at Modena. A facsimile of it is exhibited in the King's Library, British Museum. It shows parts of Europe, Africa, and America, the several possessions of the rival countries being indicated by their respective flags. As a sea chart it could have been of very little use; but it serves to show the ideas that prevailed on the subject of map-making at the beginning of the sixteenth century. It is generally believed that seamen used globes in preference to charts, as being more correct, until the latter end of that century. A good authority on this subject of maps is M. Lelewel in his Géographie du Moyen Age,' in which many of the earliest maps and charts are reproduced. Most of them were included in such works as Ptolemy's Geography,' but I have not thought it necessary to pad out this bibliography with every edition of that celebrated work, for the sake of perhaps one map of the world that was full of errors. From the days of Mercator onwards there will be more to say of them.
1502. Libre de co'solat tracta't dels fets maritims, &c. Colophon Fon acabada de stampar la present obra a xiiij de setembre del any. MDij en Barcelona, per Johan Luschner Allamany Stampador.-Pet, in-fol. goth. à 2 col. Édition fort rare, qui paraît être une copie de celle de 1494. Le titre et la table forment 6 f. préliminaires; le corps de l'ouvrage a 88 f. chiffrés, a la fin desquels se partie de 13 f. non chiffrée, ayant pour titre: Capitols del Rey en pere sobre los fets e actes maritims. Vendu 60 fr. Gohier.-Brunet's 'Manuel du Libraire,' tom. ii. p. 234.
No copy of this in either B. M. or Bodleian. Sir Travers Twise, Q.C., D.C.L., in his introduction to vol. iii. of 'The Black Book of the Admiralty,' published for the Rolls Series, states that this edition differs slightly from that of 1494. A copy of this edition is in the Bibliothèque Nationale in Paris. Press mark, *E 284/A.
Those who wish for further information respect-lit la souscription de l'imprimeur. Vient ensuite une ing the series of ancient laws known as the "Libre de Consolat" or 66 Book of the Consulate" cannot do better than study the introduction to the third volume of 'The Black Book of the Admiralty,' edited by Sir Travers Twiss for the "Rolls Series of Chronicles and Memorials." They will find there a clearly-written and interesting account of the origin of these and kindred bodies of marine law, and of the various manuscripts and printed editions in which they are found. They related not only to the merchandise carried by the ship, but also to the proper handling of the ship herself, and captains, pilots, and harbour masters, as well as owners and freighters, were bound to know and obey them. I judge then that they have an absolute right to be included in a bibliography of navigation, indeed more right than some perhaps for
gotten treatise on fixed stars.
Circa 1500. Routier (Le) de la mer jusques au fleuue de jourdain, nouuellement imprime a Rouen. (A la fin:) Cy finissent les iugemens de la mer, des nefs, des maistres, des marinniers, de marcha's & de tout leur estre auecques le Routier. Imprime a Rouen par Jacques le Forestier demourant audict lieu deuant Nostre dame a lenseigne de la fleur de lis.-Pet. in-8 goth de 29 f. Petit livre très-rare, impr. dans le commencement du xvi siècle. C'est probablement un des plus anciens traités de ce genre qui aient paru en français.-Brunet's Manuel du Libraire.'
1502. Carta da navigar per le Isole novam' tr... in le
1505. Dat hogheste Gotlansche Water-Recht gedrucket to Koppenhaven. Anno Domini MDV.
A Saxon or Low German text of a collection of
sea laws, printed for the first time in 1505 by Godfrey de Gemen at Copenhagen. There are two copies in the Royal Library there, both without title-page; but upon a blank leaf which occupies the place of frontispiece in one of them the above title has been inserted with a pen, in alternate lines of black and red ink, and there has also been added on the first page of the text the introductory title, "Her beghynt dat hogheste Water-Recht" (here begins the supreme sea law). The collection comprises sixty-six articles, which are derived from three distinct sources, a Lübeck, an Oléron, and an Amsterdam. The work is mentioned by
Panzer in his Typographical Annals,' and y Sir Travers Twiss in his introduction to the third volume of 'The Black Book of the Admiralty,' b there does not appear to be any copy of it in this country.
term, as applicable to piety as to prejudice. But let that pass. I wish to state a fact, and not to preach a sermon. There are, within my knowledge, three houses in London that are fateful to the last degree. I do not know what their previous records may have been, but having observed these houses with passive curiosity for some years, I notice that they constantly change owners, while neighbouring dwellings do not, and that their occupants are soon involved in disaster. For the sake of convenience, I will designate these houses as A, B, and C. In A, during the past six years, Neither of them was in three persons have died. It records the
1507. Cosmographise Introductio, cum quibus | dam geometriae | ac astronomiae principiis ad eam rem necessariis. [By Martinus Hylacomylu.] Insuper quatuor Americi Vespucci nauigationes. [Written by himself, and translated from French into Latin by Joanres Basinus.] Gualterus Lud: Saint Dié, Lorraine vij kl' Majj, 1507, 4to.-British Museum, press mark C. 40 g. 12. This is the first edition of this work, which is of especial interest from two reasons. means used by Vespucci during his voyages to ascertain his longitude, and it also proposed to call the newly-discovered land in the west America. There were a great many editions of this work subsequently printed, both from the above-mentioned press and from those of Strasbourg, Lyons, and Venice. They differ very much from each other, some being greatly falsified.
1507. Cosmographiæ | Introductio | cum quibus- dam geome- triæ ac astrono- miæ principiis ad | eam rem necessariis. [By Martinus Hylacomylus.] Insuper quatuor Americi Veepuci nauigationes. [Written by himself, and translated from French into Latin by Joannes Basinus. End: [Sig. F. 4 recto]: Lud. Saint Dié. Lorraine, 29 Augt. 1507. 4to.-Copy in Gualterus British Museum, press mark C. 20 b. 39.
This copy has fifty-four leaves, with signatures A—D, A, b—f, the folding map in signature c being counted as two leaves. It differs from the earlier editions in the following particulars: The verses addressed by Philesius to the emperor are omitted, and the verso of the title is occupied by Hylacomylus's dedication to the emperor, in which the name of the Gymnasium Vosagene is substituted for that of M. Hylacomylus.
1508. Unterweisung und Auslegungen der Charta Marina oder der Meeres Karten, mit Figuren......(Lorenz Friess). Nirnberg. Folio.-Murhard's 'Bibl. Math.,' iv. p. 89.
The earliest edition of this atlas, if correct; but the earliest copy I have been able to find is for the year 1527, and Brunet mentions nothing before 1539 (q.v.).
1509. Cosmographiæ Introductio, &c. Martinus Hylacomylus, Grüniger. Argento. (Strasbourg). 1509. 4to.-Copy in the British Museum, press mark 571 d. 1. HENRY R. PLOMER.
18, Eresby Road, West Hampstead. (To be continued.)
UNLUCKY HOUSES.-In Catholic countries one not infrequently sees a priest, attended by acolytes, in the act of blessing a house prior to its adoption as a residence. On these occasions Protestants are apt to smile at what they are pleased to consider a remnant of the age of superstition. I am not so sure of this. "Superstition" is a relative
rumours in connexion with it. I have said that
failing health previous to occupation, nor did he die from an accident, nor from any malady caused by defective drainage. The greatest possible care was taken to ensure the sanitary condition of that house, and its inmates were unaware of any three persons died. I may add that two of them actually died on the same day. In course of time the remainder of the lease was sold to an officer, then in the prime of life and in perfect health. He resided in that house for two years, and died there, somewhat suddenly, last year. Although B is situated in a fashionable quarter and is a bright not, within my knowledge, been occupied for more and pleasant dwelling, it is but rarely occupied. It has than twelve months at a stretch by any one family, and yet, during the past six years, two persons, previously in affluent circumstances, have been financially ruined. C has a mystery of another kind. Although of tempting appearance, and situated in a favourite quarter in the West End of London, it has been tenantless for the past sixteen years. The house has often been painted and redecorated, as well as structurally improved, but hitherto in vain. The bill "To Let" stands in the window, and is only removed occasionally to make room for a fresher announcement. I may add that there is not the faintest suspicion of a ghost about the house. similar experiences. I am not superstitious, but Possibly other readers of N. & Q' could give in my humble opinion it would not be altogether unreasonable to employ a clergyman as an exorcising medium in dwellings where misfortunes so Haunted houses have of late years occupied general unaccountable are of such frequent occurrence. attention; and in some cases a cure has been effected. But unlucky houses, though possibly far more numerous, have escaped notice.
2, Reichs Strasse, Dresden.
"HERNSHAW."-The following paragraph, from a worth placing on permanent record in 'N. & Q.': recent number of the Morning Post, seems to me
"A recent writer on words and phrases peculiar to particular districts gives hernshaw as a Suffolk term, but Surely this word is—or was-common in many parts of England. It is an interesting expression to those who
of God; granted by William Westbrook Richard-
share Hazlitt's views regarding notes on Shakespeare-reception of John Oliver, when deceased to the will viz., that if we wish to know the force of human genius we must read Shakespeare, but if we wish to see the insignificance of human learning we must study his commentators.' In Alexander Chalmers's edition of the plays, published in 1811, and in which the combined intelligence of Johnson, Steevens, Malone, and various others tinkers of the text besides the editor himself are represented, Hamlet's remark, 'I am but mad north-northwest; when the wind is southerly, I know a hawk from hernshaw,' is given-as in all old editions-with the last word as bandsaw,' and in a foot-note it is stated, with laconic wisdom, that 'to know a hawk from a handsaw' is a proverbial speech.' With the exception, perhaps, of Theobald, whose claims have recently received some tardy recognition, the older editors of Shakespeare never seem to have looked beyond their own minds for explanations of obscurities. Surely, before stating that this was a proverbial speech' these annotators might have found out what the proverb really was. In Shakespeare's time 'heron shaw,' shortened into hernshaw, was a common word enough, and was familiar, at any rate, to Spenser and other contemporary writers. In the very edition of the plays referred to above Dr. Burney's contemptuous allusion to commentators, who, regarding a certain passage in King Lear,' which to a musician was clear enough, perhaps, as unintelligible nonsense, have therefore left it as they found it, is quoted with approbation by an editor who left handsaw' when the real word was almost forced into the page by
GERM THEORY OF DISEASE.-De Foe seems to have been acquainted with this theory, and not to have thought much of it. In his 'Journal of the Plague Year' he refers to the talk there was "of infection being carried on by the Air only, by carrying with it vast Numbers of Insects, and invisible Creatures, who enter the Body with the Breath, or even at the Pores with the Air, and there generate, or emit most accute Poisons, or posionous Ovæ, or Egge, which mingle themselves with the Blood, and so infect the Body."
71, Brecknock Road.
THE NAME BELINDA. (See 8th S. ii. 364; iii. 66).-Let me thank MR. ADAMS for setting me right, and let me say that the Latin couplet was taken from Gilfillan's edition of Pope's' Works,' vol. i. p. 53. The name certainly does not come from the quiver of Martial; perhaps it owes At any rate, it seems its paternity to Pope.
a favourite with Pope; for not only is the name
Thus Churchill's race shall other hearts surprise,
Vv. 59-62. Pope has passed through many editions, and it would be interesting to know whether this error has been perpetuated in them all.
JOHN PICKFORD, M.A. Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge.
JOHN BURTON, M.D. (1710-1771), ANTIQUARY AND PHYSICIAN.-It may be noted, as an addition to the account of him appearing in 'Dict. Nat. Biog., vol. viii. p. 10, that he was born at Colchester, Essex, on June 9, 1710, the son of John Burton, previously a merchant in London, by his wife Margaret, the daughter of the Rev. John Leake, for fifty-six years Vicar of Warmfield, otherwise Kirkthorpe, in the West Riding of Yorkshire. She died at an early age, and was buried in the parish church of All Saints, Colchester, in the month of January, 1712/13. John, their eldest son, who entered Merchant Taylors' School in 1725, was on June 19, 1727, admitted a pensioner of St. John's College, Cambridge, and in 1733 obtained the degree of M.B. in that university. Subsequently he pursued his medical studies at the University of Leyden, and ultimately proceeded to the degree of M.D. in the University of Rheims. His marriage is thus recorded in the register of York Minster, under date Jan. 2, 1734/5: “John