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The best work on Roger Bacon is undoubtedly that of E. Charles, ing to Persian tradition, it became the seat of the Iranian Roger Bacon, sa Vie, ses Ouvrages, ses Doctrines d'après des textes in

wanderers, who established the religion of Zoroaster, and édits, 1861. Against the somewhat enthusiastic estimate and modern interpretation given in this work, Schneider in his Roger Bacon, Eine expelled the Vedic inhabitants of the country. In the 7th Monographie, Augsburg, 1873, has reclaimed. He points out very century B.c. it passed under the dominion of the Medes, clearly certain aspects in which Bacon appears as a mere scholastic. and not long after formed part of the conquests of Cyrus. The new matter contained in the publications of Charles and Brewer In the reign of Dariusoit ranked as the twelfth satrapy was summarised by H. Siebert, Roger Bacon : Inaugural Dissertation, Marburg, 1861. Cf. also, J. K. Ingram, On the Opus Majus of of the empire, and furnished valuable contingents to the Bacon, Dublin, 1858 ; Cousin, Fragments

, Phil. du Moyen Age (re- imperial army; these are described at a later date by printed from Journal des Savans, 1848); Saisset, Précurseurs et Herodotus as wearing the Median head-dress, and making Disciples de Descartes, pp. 1-58 (reprinted from Revue de Deux use of their native bows and short spears. Like the rest Mondes, 1861); Prantl, Gesch. der Logik, iii. 120-129 (a severe criticism of Bacon's logical doctrines).

(R. AD.)

of Western Asia, Bactria was subjugated by Alexander, and

formed part of the empire of the Seleucids; but in the 3d BACONTHORPE, or Bacon, John, called The Resolute century B.c. it was raised to the rank of an independent Doctor, a learned monk, born towards the end of the 13th kingdom by the successful revolt of Diodotus, the Greek century, at Baconthorpe, a village in Norfolk. After spend satrap. There thus arose a remarkable dynasty-if ing the early part of his life in the convent of Blakeney, dynasty it can be called—of Græco-Bactrian kings, who near Walsingham, he removed to Oxford, and from that city have been the object of much modern investigation, but are to Paris, where he obtained great reputation for his learn

not as yet arranged in any satisfactory order. The names ing, and was esteemed the principal of the Averroists. In of seven or eight of them are known from the Greek and 1329 he returned to England, and was chosen twelfth pro- Roman historians, and upwards of forty are preserved on vincial of the English Carmelites. In 1333 he was sent

their coins. The great problem to be solved by numismafor to Rome, where, we are told, he first maintained the tists is how to dispose of so many claimants in the comparaPope's sovereign authority in cases of divorce; but this tively narrow space of time at their disposal. It is highly opinion he is understood to have afterwards retracted. He probable that many of them held contemporaneous sway died in London in 1346. His chief work was published in in different parts of the Bactrian region, sometimes with a 1510, with the title Doctoris resoluti Joannis Bacconis distinct preponderance on the part of one, and sometimes Anglici Carmelitæ radiantissimi opus super quattuor sen- with practical equilibrium of power ; but their geographical tentiarum libris, 4 vols. folio; it has passed through several distribution can only be conjectured from what are undereditions. The little that is known of this schoolman, who stood to be mint-marks on their coins. The period of the in his own day and order had a reputation rivalling that of final disintegration of the Græco-Bactrian power is not Thomas Aquinas, may be seen in Brucker, Hist. Crit., iii. definitely ascertained; but as early as the time of Eucratides 865 ; Stöckl, Phil. d. Mittel. ii

. 1044–5; Hauréau, Phil. (160 b.č.) there appears on the coinage the so-called BacScol., ii. 476; Prantl, Ges. d. Logik, iii. 318.

trian Pali, a language cognate with Sanskrit but written BÁCSANYI, JANOS, a Hungarian poet, was born at Tapo- in characters of seemingly Phænician origin. Besides these leza, May 11, 1763, and died at Linz, May 12, 1845. In monetary legends, several Bactrian inscriptions have been 1785 he published his first work, a patriotic poem, The Valour recently discovered, among the most important of which of the Magyars. In the same year he obtained a situation

are the “ Taxila” copperplate, which has furnished the key as clerk in the treasury at Kaschau, and there, in conjunc- to the Bactrian numeral system, the Peshawur vase, the tion with other two Hungarian patriots, edited the Magyar Manikyala cylinder, the Bimaran vase, and the Wardak Museum, which was suppressed by the Government in 1792.

urn, but none of them are of very much historical value. In the following year he was deprived of his clerkship ; | Bactria seems to have passed successively under the power and in 1794, having taken part in the conspiracy of Bishop of various Saca and Parthian and so-called Indo-Scythian Martinovich, he was thrown into the state prison of the rulers, and during the first six or seven centuries of the Spielberg, near Brünn, where he remained for two years. Christian era it became one of the most important centres After his release he took a considerable share in the of Buddhistic monasticism. (See BALKH.) Its modern Magyar Minerva, a literary review, and then proceeded to history is of but little importance, as it has never formed Vienna, where he obtained a post in the bank, and married. an independent kingdom of any power or stability. In 1809 he translated Napoleon's proclamation to the

See Bayer, Hist. Reg. Græco-Bactr., Petrop., 1738; Köhler, Méd, Magyars, and, in consequence of this anti-Austrian act, had

grecques des Rois de la B., St Pet., 1822-3; Tychsen, Comm. Recen. to take refuge in Paris. After the fall of Napoleon he was Götting., v. vi.; Tod, in Roy. Asiat. Soc. Trans., 1824 ; Schlegel, given up to the Austrians, who allowed him to reside at in Journ. Asiat., 1828 ; Prinsep, in J. of Asiat. Soc. Bengal, 1833

38; Raoul-Rochette, in Jour. des Sarants, 1834-39 and 1844 ; Linz, on condition of never leaving that town. He pub-Jacquet, in J. Asiał., 1836 ; Masson, in J. of Asiat. Soc. Bengal, lished a collection of poems at Pesth, 1827 (second edition, 1836; K. O. Müller, in Göttingen Anzeigen, 1835 and 1838; Mionnet, Buda, 1835), and also edited the poetical works of Anyos in Supplément viii. to his Description, &c., 1837; Lassen, Zur Gesch. and Faludi.

der Griech. u. Indoskyth. Kön., Bonn, 1838 ; Grotefend, Die Münzen BACTRIA, or BACTRIANA, an ancient country of Central | Cunningham, Numism. Chron., viii. 1843; Lassen, Indische Alter

der Kön. v. Bactr., Hanover, 1839; Wilson, Ariana Antiqua, 1841; Asia, lying to the south of the River Oxus, and reaching to thumskunde, vol. ii., 1852 ; Babu Rajendra Lal, in J. Asiat. Soc. of the western part of the Paropamisan range, or Hindu Kush. Bengal, 1861; E. Thomas, “Bactrian Coins," in J. Roy. Asiat. Soc. It was sometimes regarded as including the district of Gr. Brit. and I., 1873; Dowson, “B. Pali Inscr.,ibidem. Margiana, or Merv, which was more frequently considered BACUP, a town of England, in Lancashire, 20 miles N. as distinct. The character of the country is very various, from Manchester. It is situated in a beautiful valley on and has been well described by Curtius, whose account is the River Speddon, and is a station on the East Lancashire confirmed by the few modern travellers who have passed railway. It is chiefly important for its factories, foundries, through it. Some portions are remarkable for the beauty and mills, as well as for the coal-mines in the neighbourof their scenery, or the fertility of the soil, evidenced by hood. Since 1841, when the population of the chapelry was a rich and varied vegetation, while other parts are stretches only 1526, Bacup has rapidly increased, and its sanitary of barren and drifting sands. In early history Bactria is condition has been greatly improved by the exertions of a connected with some of the most important movements of local board. The river has been deepened for a mile above the Indo-European races, and has no small claims to be the town, and a water supply has been secured by means regarded as the cradle of our present civilisation. Accord- of a reservoir at Higher Stacks. There are two Episcopal churches and several dissenting places of Worship, a lated, the former by Tajiks, and the latter by Turks of the mechanics' institute and library, and various other institu- Jakha Moghal tribe ; and the plateaus of Argú and Shewa, tions. A new market-ball was built in 1867. Population of which the former is somewhat higher than the plain of of local board district in 1871, 17,199.

Faizabád, about 15 miles in length by about 8 in breadth, BADAJOS, a province of Spain, forming, by the division and well cultivated, while the latter is still higher, and of 1833, the southern half of the old province of Estrema- forms the best and largest pasture ground in Badakhshan. dura, or what is generally called Lower Estremadura. It is A lake named Sir-í-kol, about 20 miles in circumference, bounded on the N. by Caceres, E. by Ciudad Real, S. and is situated on the Shewa plateau. In and around Faizabád S.E. by Cordova, Seville, and Huelva, and W. by Portugal, there are numerous excellent fruit and flower gardens; the embracing an area of 8687 square miles. See ESTREMADURA. principal manufactures are cast-iron pots, boots and shoes,

BADAJOS, the capital of the above province, is a fortified and a material woven from silk and cotton, called ilacha. city, and the see of a bishop. It is situated about 5 miles The district of Jirm, also subject to Mahmúd Shah, comfrom the Portuguese frontier, on a slight elevation near the prises numerous rich valleys, as well as the famous mineral left bank of the Guadiana, and is one of the principal region called Yamgan, or "all mines.” The mines yield stations on the railway between Madrid and Lisbon. The rubies, lapis lazuli, lead, alum, sal-ammoniac, sulphur, height is crowned by the ruins of a Moorish castle. A strong copper, &c. The annual yield of lapis lazuli averages wall and bastions, with a broad moat and outworks, and forts about £1500, which is sold at the rate of seven shilon the surrounding heights, make the city a place of great lings per pound; it is exported to Russia, Kashmir, and China. strength. The river is crossed by a magnificent granite The Dasht-Bala-rak is an extensive plain in this district, bridge, originally built in 1460, repaired in 1597, and on which was formerly situated a large city, once the rebuilt in 1833. The city is well built, and contains an capital of Badakhshan. There are several villages on it, as arsenal, a cathedral, built like a fortress and bombproof, also the summer residence of the Mír. The caravan route several churches, hospitals, and schools. Its monasteries are from India to Faizabád passes over this plain. The districts all secularised, one being occupied as infantry barracks; and of Rustak, Ragh, Kishm, Daraim, and Shahr-i-buzurg are some of its nunneries are closed. Badajos was finally taken next in importance as regards fertility and population. from the Moors in 1235 by Alphonso IX., and from its They abound in fertile hills and plains. The principal importance as a frontier garrison has since been the scene cultivated products are wheat, rice, Cicer arietinum, Phaseolus of numerous sieges. The last and most severe was in Mungo, cotton, linseed, poppy, sesame, apples, grapes, mul1812, when it was stormed by the British troops under berries (which form the principal article of food in these Wellington and carried with dreadful loss. The town was regions), pears, apricots, walnuts, melons, gourds, turnips, delivered up to a two days' pillage. It had been surrendered radishes, carrots, spinach, leeks, as also numerous garden the previous year to Soult by the treachery of Imaz, the flowers and timber trees. The districts of Minjan and commander of the garrison. The trade and manufactures Rushan are more mountainous, have a cooler climate, and of Badajos are considerable, and much contraband traffic is are more sparsely populated than the foregoing. Their carried on with Portugal. Badajos is the birthplace of the inhabitants are also distinct, differing in physical features, painter Luis de Morales and of Manuel Godoy. Pop. 22,895. creed, language, and habits. The celebrated ruby mines are

BADAKHSHÁN, a country of Central Asia, situated in in Ishkashm; they have not been worked for more than 30 the upper valley of the Kokcha river, one of the principal years, except temporarily in 1866. It is, however, suspected head streams of the Oxus. The name has been variously that they are worked surreptitiously by the people. They spelt Badascian, Balacian, Balakhshan, Balashan, Balaxien yield the well-known Balas (i.e., Badakhshan) ruby. and Balaxia. Including Wakhan, it lies between 35° 50' The principal domesticated animal is the yak. There are and 38° N. lat., and between 69° 30' and 74° 20' E. long. also large flocks of sheep, cows, goats, ponies, numerous The chief ascertained positions are as follows: Faizábád, fine dogs, and Bactrian camels. The more important wild 37° 2' N., 70° 36' E. ; Ishkashm, 36° 45' N., 71° 38' E.; animals are a large wild sheep (Ovis poli), foxes, wolves, Punja, 37° 5' N., 72° 39' E.; and Karkat Yassin lake, jackals, bears, boars, deer, and lions; amongst birds, there 37° 14' N., 74° 18' E. Its extent from east to west is are partridges, pheasants, ravens, jays, sparrows, larks, a about 200 miles, and from north to south about 150 miles. famous breed of hawks, &c. On the north it is bounded by Kulab and Darwaz; on the Badakhshan proper is peopled by Tajiks, Turks, and east by the lofty table-land of Pamir; on the south by the Arabs, who speak the Persian and Turki languages, and Hindu Kush range; and on the west by Kunduz. The profess the orthodox doctrines of the Mahometan law Pamir land is the principal watershed of Asia, and adopted by the Sunnite sect; while the mountainous Badakhshan forms part of the western water slope consti- districts are inhabited by Tajiks, professing the Shia creed, tuting the basin of the Oxus. The country is for the and speaking distinct dialects in different districts. most part mountainous, but there are numerous plains and Badakhshan was visited by Hwen Thsang in 630 and fertile valleys. The general slope of the country is great, 644. The Arabian geographers of the 10th century speak of since Kunduz is probably not more than 500 feet above the its mines of ruby and azure, and give notices of the level of the sea, while Lake Victoria, close to the principal flourishing commerce and large towns of Waksh and Khotl, watershed, is estimated at 15,600 feet.

regions which appear either to have in part corresponded Badakhshan comprises 16 districts. The principal district with or to have lain close to Badakhshan. In 1272–73 called Faizabád is under the rule of the Mír Mahmúd Marco Polo and his companions stayed for a time in BadakhShah; the others are dependencies ruled by relatives of the shan. During this and the following centuries the country Mír, or by hereditary feudatories. Each ruler is inde- was governed by kings who claimed to be descendants pendent, but is bound to aid the Mír of Faizabád in time of Alexander the Great. The last of these kings was Shah of need. The Mír himself pays tribute to the Amir of Mahomet, who died in the middle of the 15th century, Cabul. The other districts besides Faizábád are Daraim, leaving only his married daughters to represent the royal Shahr-1-buzurq, Gumbuz, Farakhar, Kishm, Rustak, Rushán, line. Early in the middle of the 16th century the Uzbeks Shighnán, Ishkáshm, Wakhán, Zebak, Minján, Ragh, Daung, obtained possession of Badakhshan, but were soon expelled, and Asiábá. Each district has its sub-divisions. In Faizá- and then the country was generally governed by descendbád there are several fertile tracts; amongst them are the ants of the old royal dynasty by the female line. About hilly regions of Yaftal and Shewa, which are thickly popu- | the middle of the 18th century the present dynasty of

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Mirs established its footing in place of the old one which an extreme of 1980. Lying between the Rhine and the had become extinct. In 1765 the country was invaded Dreisam is the Kaiserstuhl, an independent volcanic group, and ravaged by the ruler of Cabul. During the first three nearly 10 miles in length and 5 in breadth, the highest decades of the present century it was overrun and depopu- point of which is 1760 feet. lated by Kokan Beg and his son Murad Beg, chiefs of the Kataghan Uzbeks of Kundus. The country was still suffering from these disasters when Wood visited it in 1837. When Murad Beg died, the power passed into the hands of another Uzbek, Mahomet Amir Khan. In 1859

EES the Kataghan Uzbeks were expelled; and Mir Jahander Shah, the representative of the modern royal line, was reinstated at Faizabád under the supremacy of the Afghans. In 1867 he was expelled by the Afghans and replaced by the present ruler, Mír Mahomet Shah, and (to Bavaria) other representatives of the same family. According to the latest accounts the country was reviving from its past

BRUCHSAU misfortunes, and the towns were again rising. Badakhshan owes part of its prosperity to the baneful traffic in slaves. A strong man is considered a fair exchange for

PFORZHEIM

CANNSTADT a large dog or horse, and a fine girl for about four horses.

STUTTCART The district is of some political interest in connection with

Hornliginda the frontier line of Afghanistan, which has recently been

ÜYR TE

RG the subject of discussion between the Russian and British Governments.

In 1867 a report on Badakhshan was drawn up by the Pundit Mun-phool after a sojourn of two or three years in the country. For further information, see the Book of Ser Marco Polo, vol. i. 1871,

vitance edited by Col. Yule ; A Journey to the Source of the River Ocus, by Capt. J. Wood, edition of 1872 ;" Report on the Mirza's Exploration

ASUTLINGER from Cabul to Kashgar," by Major Montgomerie, in the Journal

Feldbergo of Roy. Geo. Soc.,” vol. xli. p. 132 ; " A Havildar's journey through Chitral to Faizabád in 1870,” by Major Montgomerie, in journal last mentioned, vol. xlii. p. 180 ; Papers connected with the Upper

SCHSALI Oxus Regions," by Col. Yule, in the same volume, p. 438; "Monograph LÖRRACH on the Oxus," by Maj.-Gen. Sir H. C. Rawlinson, in the same

thout volume, p. 482 ; and a paper by the writer last mentioned,

WIT ŽERLAND Badakhshan and Wakhán,” in the Proceedings of the Roy. Geog.

Sketch Map of the Grand Duchy of Baden. Soc., vol. xvii. p. 108.

The greater part of Baden belongs to the basin of the BADALOCCHIO, SISto, surnamed Rosa, a painter and Rhine, which receives upwards of twenty tributaries engraver, was born at Parma in 1581, and died in 1641 or from the highlands of the duchy alone ; a portion of the 1647. He was of the school of Annibale Carracci, by territory is also watered by the Main and the Neckar. A whom he was highly esteemed for design. His principal part, however, of the eastern slope of the Black Forest engravings are the series known as The Bible of Raffaelle, belongs to the basin of the Danube, which there takes its which were executed by him in conjunction with Lanfranc, rise in a number of mountain streams. Among the numeranother pupil of Carracci's. The best of his paintings, ous lakes which belong to the duchy are the Mummel, which are few in nuniber, are at Parma.

Wilder, Nonnenmattweiher, Titti, Eichener, Schluch, &c., BADEN, THE GRAND DUCHY OF, is situated in the S.W. but none of them are of any size. The Lake of Constance, of Germany, between 47° 32' and 49° 52' N. lat., and be- or Boden See, belongs partly to Bavaria and Switzerland. tween 7° 27' and 9° 50' E. long. It is bounded on the N. From 1819 to 1832 Baden was divided into six circles, by Bavaria and Hesse-Darmstadt; W. by Rhenish Bavaria, which were reduced in the latter year to the four followAlsace, and Lorraine ; S. by Switzerland ; and E. by ing :The Lake Circle or Constance, the Upper Rhine or Würtemberg and part of Bavaria. At the commencement Freiburg, the Middle Rhine or Carlsruhe, and the Lower of the present century Baden was only a margraviate, with Rhine or Manheim. This division, though still employed, an area little exceeding 1300 square miles, and a popula- has been legally supplanted by one into the eleven circles tion of 210,000. Since then it has from time to time of Constance, Villingen, Waldshut, Freiburg, Lörrach, acquired additional territory, so that its area now amounts Offenburg, Baden, Carssruhe, Manheim, Heidelberg, and to upwards of 5800 square miles, and its population to Mosbach. The capital of the duchy is Carlsruhe, which in nearly a million and a half.

1871 had a population of 36,582; the other principal towns It consists of a considerable portion of the eastern half are Manheim (39,614), Freiburg (24,599), Heidelberg of the fertile valley of the Rhine, and of the mountains (19,988), Pforzheim (19,801), Rastadt (11,559), Baden which form its boundary. The mountainous part is by far 10,083), Constance (10,052), Bruchsal (9786), and the most extensive, forming, indeed, nearly 80 per cent. of Lahr (6710). The population is most thickly clustered in the whole area. From the Lake of Constance in the south the north and in the neighbourhood of the Swiss town of to the River Neckar is a portion of the so-called Black Basel. Forest or Schwarzwald, which is divided by the valley of The mineral wealth of Baden is not very great ; but the the Kinzig into two districts of different elevation. To the mines of Oberwert, Kandern, &c., produce excellent iron; south of the Kinzig the mean height is 3100 feet, and the there are two zinc mines and one of lead; coal is worked loftiest summit, the Feldberg, reaches about 4780 feet ; while at Diesburg, Zunsweier, Baden, &c.; and silver, copper, to the north the mean height is only 2100 feet, and the gold, cobalt, alum vitriol, and sulphur are also obtained in Belchen, the culminating point of the whole, does not ex- small quantities. Gold washing, at one time extensively ceed 4480. To the north of the Neckar is the Odenwald carried on along the Rhine, is now little practised. Peat range, with a mean of 1440 feet, and, in the Katzenbuckel, is found in abundance, as well as gypsum, china-clay, and

race.

potter's earth. The duchy was formerly dependent on France Meersburg, besides upwards of 2000 common schools estabfor its salt supply, but extensive salt works have for a num- lished throughout the country. There is an institution in ber of years been maintained by the Government at Dürr- Pforzheim for the deaf and dumb, and one in Freiburg for the heim and Rappenau. In 1874 the amount produced was blind. The polytechnic school at Carlsruhe is among the of the value of £54,880. The mineral springs of Baden most efficient institutions of the kind in Germany. The are very numerous, and have acquired great celebrity,- preparatory course extends over three years, and includes those of Baden-Baden, Badenweiler, Antogast, Griesbach, French, German, English, special history, mathematics, Friersbach, and Petersthal, being the inost frequented. drawing, modelling, chemistry, mineralogy and geology,

The inhabitants of Baden are of various origin,--those mechanics, &c. The special courses are engineering, to the N. of the Murg being descended from the Alemanni, architecture, forestry, chemistry, mechanics, commerce, and those to the S. from the Franks, while the Swabian and post-office service, and extend over from one to four plateau derives its name and its population from another years. The ducal family of Baden belong to the Pro

This distinction is still marked in the manners, the testant section of the Church, but the majority of the language, and the dress of the different districts. The ma- population are Roman Catholics. The returns of the jority of the people are engaged in agricultural and pastoral census of 1871 are as follows :—Catholics, 942,560; Propursuits, for which much of the country is well adapted. testants, 491,008; other sects, 2265; and Jews, 25,703. In the valleys the soil is particularly fertile, yielding The district where the Roman Catholic preponderance was luxuriant crops of wheat, maize, barley, spelt, beans, greatest was Constance, while the Protestants were potatoes, flax, hemp, hops, beet-root, and tobacco; and slightly more numerous in the district of Manheim, even in the more mountainous parts rye, wheat, and oats The government of Baden. is an hereditary monarchy, are extensively cultivated. There is a considerable extent with the executive power vested in the grand duke, and of pasture land, and the rearing of cattle, sheep, pigs, and the legislative authority in a Parliament consisting of two goats is largely attended to. The culture of the vine has Chambers. The upper Chamber is composed of all the recently been increasing, and the wines, which are charac- princes of the reigning line who are of age, the chiefs terised by a mildness of flavour, are in good demand. of ten noble families, the possessors of hereditary landed The gardens and orchards supply abundance of fruits, estates worth £25,000, the Roman Catholic archbishop especially almonds and walnuts; and the keeping of bees of Freiburg, the president of the Protestant Church, a is common throughout the country. A greater proportion of deputy from each of the universities, and eight nominees Baden than of any other of the South German states is of the duke. The lower Chamber consists of 63 repreoccupied by forests. In these the predominant species sentatives, of whom 22 are elected by the burgesses of cer are the fir and pine, but many others, such as the chestnut, tain towns, and 41 by the inhabitants of the bailiwicks. are well represented. A third, at least, of the annual The parliamentary candidate must possess tax-paying prosupply of timber -is exported, the chief consumer being perty of the value of 10,000 florins (£833), or derive a salary Holland, though of late years Paris has derived a con- of at least £125 from a public office. Every citizen, if siderable supply from this source.

neither criminal nor pauper, has the right of voting, but The manufactures of Baden were formerly very insig-only in the choice of deputy-electors, by whom the real nificant, but have greatly increased since its accession to election of the representatives is decided. The members of the Zollverein in 1835. They are, however, chiefly con- the lower House are elected for eight years, and meetings fined to iron and hardware goods, and the spinning of Parliament must take place every two years. and weaving of cotton. The latter industry is principally The budgets are granted by Parliament for a term of

on at Ettlingen, Offenburg, St Blaise, Zell, two years. In 1875 the ordinary expenses were rated at Schopfheim; Manheim has an extensive manufacture of £1,572,959, and the ordinary receipts at £1,557,108. mirrors, and Carlsruhe of machines ; while Pforzheim is The total public debt on the 1st of January 1874 was famous for its production of jewellery and goldsmiths' £12,985,067. work. Beet-root sugar is manufactured at Waghäusel more Since the organisation of 1864 courts are held at Conlargely than anywhere else in Germany. Paper, leather, stance, Freiburg, Offenburg, Carlsruhe, and Manheim, and tobacco are also important objects of industry. The the supreme court being in the city last named. Manheim inhabitants of the Black Forest have long been celebrated is also the seat of the central commission for the navigafor their dexterity in the manufacture of wooden orna- tion of the Rhine. ments and toys, watches, clocks, musical boxes, organs, The ducal family of Baden traces its descent from the &c. Of clocks alone about 600,000 are made every counts of Zähringen, who flourished in the 11th century, year.

and derived their title from what is now a little town to The exports of Baden, which coincide largely with the the north of Freiburg. Hermann I., the second son of industries just mentioned, are of considerable import- Count Berthold I., took the title of margrave of Hochance, but the bulk of its trade consists in the transit of berg in Breisgau, and was succeeded in 1074 by his son goods. The country is well furnished with roads and Hermann II., who was the first to style himself margrave railways, the greater proportion of the latter being in the of Baden. On the death of the Margrave Christopher hands of the state. A line runs the whole length of the in 1527, his estates were divided among his three sons, land, for the most part parallel with the Rhine, while but one of them having died soon after, the two survivors branches cross obliquely from east to west.

became the sole inheritors, and founded the two lines of The educational institutions of Baden are numerous and Baden-Baden and Baden-Durlach. The former of these, flourishing, and public instruction is largely subsidised by which produced one of the most famous generals of the the Government. There are two universities, the Protestant 17th century, became extinct by the death of Augustus one at Heidelberg, founded in 1386, and the Catholic one George in 1771, and its possessions were united with at Freiburg, founded in 1457. The library at Heidelberg Baden-Durlach under Charles Frederick. By the treaty of numbers 150,000 volumes, and that at Freiburg 100,000, Lunéville in 1801, Baden acquired a considerable addition while there is another of almost equal size at Carlsruhe. of territory; in 1803 the margrave received the title of There are also lyceums at Carlsruhe, Constance, Freiburg, Elector; and by the treaty of Presburg in 1805 his domains Heidelberg, Manheim, Rastadt, and Wertheim ; several were still further increased by the accession of Breisgau. gymnasiums; normal schools at Carlsruhe, Ettlingen, and on the dissolution of the empire in 1806, the elector

III.

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joined the Confederation of the Rhine, and received

In 1849 the duke was constrained to flee, and the title of Grand Duke, with 1950 square miles of Brentano, the democratic leader, took possession of Carlsadditional territory. Shortly after this extension and ruhe in the name of the national committee. By the consolidation had taken place, Bavaria laid claim to a 25th of June, however, the Prussian forces, after portion of the duchy, but her demands were indignantly several severe engagements with the revolutionists, rejected, and in 1818 the grand duke bestowed on the effected the restoration of the duke, who returned to his country a political constitution, the fundamental principle of capital on 18th August ; and it was not long before the which was the territorial integrity of Baden. In the fol- country began to recover from the effects of the outbreak. lowing year this integrity was guaranteed by the Frankfort Not, indeed, that it became quiescent; for Baden has had Commission. The first session of the Baden parliament its full share in the political and ecclesiastical disputes fell into disputes and had to be dissolved; but the second, that have been so rife throughout Germany during recent in 1820, commenced the work of reform by the complete years. The Roman Catholic clergy, with the bishop of abolition of serfdom and the establishment of ministerial Freiburg at their head, have maintained an obstinate responsibility. In 1821 the union of the two Protestant struggle with the Liberal party, which is now predomichurches in Baden was brought about. Other questions nant. The separation of church and state has been of importance, such as trial by jury, freedom of the press, established; the Jews have been admitted to full civic abolition of tithes, and extension of education, became sub- rights; freedom of trade has been promulgated, and a jects of interest and debate; but, unfortunately, the influence number of minor reforms successfully carried through. of the French revolution of 1830 led the democratic party to In the German war of 1866 Baden sided against Prussia; excesses, which the Government met with acts of ill-advised but in 1870 it joined in the formation of the new German repression. Matters were beginning to readjust themselves empire, and its troops are incorporated in the 14th corps when the revolution of 1848 again aroused the opposing of the imperial army.

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BADEN (or BADEN-BADEN, to distinguish it from other Americans, Russians, and English are all numerously repreplaces of the name), a town and celebrated watering-place sented. The hot springs, which were among the earliest of Germany, in the grand duchy of Baden. It stands on attractions of the place, are twenty-nine in number, and the side of a hill, near the Oos or Oel, in a beautiful valley vary in temperature from 37° to 54° Ř., i.e., from 115°to 153° of the Black Forest, 18 miles S. W. of Carlsruhe ; and it is Fahr. They flow from the castle rock at the rate of 90 gallons connected by a branch with the Manheim and Basel railway. per minute, and the water is conveyed through the town The superiority of its situation, its extensive pleasure-grounds, in pipes to supply the different baths. The town proper is gardens, and promenades, and the brilliancy of the life that on the right bank of the Oos, but the principal resorts of is led during the season, have for a long series of years con- the adventitious population are on the other side. A tinued to attract crowds of visitors from all parts of the Conversationshaus and a Trinkhalle or pump-room (1842), a world. The resident population amounts to about 10,000, theatre (1861), and a picture gallery, are among the chief but that number is frequently augmented fourfold. The fashionable buildings, to which may be added the library prevailing nationality is, or rather was, the French, but I and reading-room. The gaming-tables, which for so many

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