« EelmineJätka »
under the power given by the Settled Land Act, 1882). an undertaking.
an undertaking. The foregoing outline of a conveyance Parties are described by their names, addresses, and will be illustrated by the following specimen of a simple occupations or titles, each person with a separate interest, purchase-deed of part of an estate belonging to an absolute or filling a distinct character, being of a separate part. owner in fee :(2) The recitals explain the circumstances of the title, the
THIS INDENTURE made the interests of the parties in relation to the property, and the between A. B. of, &c., of the one part and C.D. of, &c., of the other
day of agreement or object intended to be carried into effect by the part WHEREAS the said A. B. is seised (among other hereditaments) conveyance. Where the sale is by an absolute owner there of the messuage hereinafter described and hereby conveyed for an is no need for recitals, and they are frequently dispensed agreed to sell the same to the said C. D. for £100 Now this
estate in fee simple in possession free from incumbrances and has with ; but where there are several parties occupying INDENTURE WITNESSETH that in pursuance of the said agreement different positions, recitals in chronological order of the and in consideration of the sum of £100 paid to the said A. B. by instruments and facts giving rise to their connexion with the said C. D. (the receipt whereof the said A. B. doth hereby the property are generally necessary in order to make the acknowledge), the said A. B. as beneficial owner doth hereby deed intelligible. (3) It is usual to mention the consider- convey unto the said C. D. ALL THAT messuage or tenement situate
&c., and known as, &c. TO HOLD the premises unto and to the ation. Where it consists of money the statement of its pay- use of the said C. D. his heirs and assigns [or in fee simple) ment is followed by an acknowledgment, in a parenthesis, And the said A. B. doth hereby acknowledge the right of the said of its receipt, which, in deeds executed since the C. A., C. D. to production and delivery of copies of the following docu1881, dispenses with any endorsed or further receipt. A
ments of title [mentioning them] and doth undertake for the safe
custody thereof IN WITNESS, &c. vendor, who is the absolute beneficial owner, now conveys expressly “as beneficial owner,” which words, by virtue of It will be observed that throughout the deed there are the C. A., 1881, imply covenants by him with the purchaser no stops, the commencement of the several parts being that he has a right to convey, for quiet enjoyment, free- indicated by capital letters. The draft conveyance having dom from incumbrances, and for further assurance_limited, been approved on behalf of the vendor, it is engrossed however, to the acts and defaults of the covenantor and upon stout paper or parchment, and there remains only those through whom he derives his title otherwise than the completion of the sale, which usually takes place at by purchase for value. A trustee or an incumbrancer the office of the vendor's solicitor. A purchaser is not joining in the deed conveys “as trustee” or “as mortgagee,” entitled to require the vendor to attend personally and by which words covenants are implied that the covenantor execute the conveyance in his presence or that of his individually has not done or suffered anything to in- solicitor. The practice is for the deed to be previously cumber the property, or prevent him from conveying executed by the vendor and delivered to his solicitor, and as expressed. As to the operative words, any expres- for the solicitor to receive the purchase-money on his sion showing an intention to pass the estate is effectual. client's behalf, since a purchaser is, under the C. A., 1881,
, Since the C. A., 1881, "convey” has become as common safe in paying the purchase-money to a solicitor producing as “grant,” which was formerly used. (4) The pro- a deed so executed, when it contains the usual acknowledgperty may be described either in the body of the deed ment by the vendor of the receipt of the money. Upon or in a schedule, or compendiously in the one and the completion, the documents of title are handed over in detail in the other. In any case it is usual to annex except in the case above referred to, and any claims bea plan. Different kinds of property have their appropriate tween the parties in respect of interest upon the purchasetechnical words of description. Hereditaments is the most money, apportioned outgoings, or otherwise, are settled. comprehensive term, and is generally used either alone or The conveyance is, of course, delivered to the purchaser, in conjunction with other words more specifically descriptive upon whom rests the obligation of affixing the proper of the property conveyed. (5) The habendum begins with stamp—which he may do without penalty within thirty the words “to hold,” and the estate, on a sale in fee- days after execution (Stamp Act, 1891). It may be added simple, is limited, as already mentioned, not only to, but that, subject to any special bargain, which is rarely made, also to the use of, the purchaser. Before the C. A., 1881, the costs of the execution by the vendor and other parties it was necessary to add, after the name of the purchaser, whose concurrence is necessary, and of any act required to the words “and his heirs,” or “his heirs and assigns,” be done by the vendor to carry out his contract, are borne though the word "assigns” never had any conveyancing by the vendor. force. But since that Act it is sufficient to add “in fee- Ordinary leases at rack-rents are not generally preceded simple” without using the word “heirs.” Unless, how by a formal agreement, such as is common on a sale of ever, one or other of these additions is made, the purchaser land, or by an investigation into the lessor's title.
Leases. will even now get only an estate for his life. If the As a rule, the principal terms are arranged beproperty is to be held subject to a lease or incumbrance, tween the parties, and embodied with various ancillary or is released by the deed from an incumbrance previously provisions in a draft lease, which is prepared by the existing, this is expressed after the words of limitation. lessor's advisers and submitted to the lessee, the ultimate (6) Where any special covenants or provisions have been form and contents of the instrument being adjusted by stipulated for, or are required in the circumstances of negotiation. If an intending lessee desires to examine the the title, they are, as a rule, inserted at the end of the title he must make an express bargain to that effect, for conveyance. In simple cases none are needed. Where, under a contract to grant a lease the intended lessee is not however, a vendor retains documents of title, which he is entitled, in the absence of such express stipulation, to call entitled to do where he sells a part only of the estate to for the title to the freehold (V. and P. Act, 1874). By which they relate, it is the practice for him by the con- the Statute of Frauds all leases, except leases for a term veyance to acknowledge the right of the purchaser to not exceeding three years, and at not less than two-thirds production and delivery of copies of such of them as are of the rack-rent, were required to be in writing. And now not instruments of record like wills or orders of Court, by the Real Property Act, 1845, leases required by law to and to undertake for their safe custody. This acknow- be in writing are void at law unless made by deed. An ledgment and undertaking supply the place of the lengthy instrument, void as a lease under the Act, may, however, covenants to the like effect which were usual before the be valid as an agreement to take a lease; and since the C. A., 1881, A trustee or mortgagee joining gives an Judicature Act, 1873, under which equitable doctrines pre
, acknowledgment as to documents retained by him, but not vail in the High Court, a person holding under an agree
S. III. – 29
ment for a lease, of which specific performance would be to appoint a receiver; and (4) a power while in possession to cut granted, is treated in all branches of that court as if such
and sell timber. The Act contains ancillary provisions enabling a lease were already executed. Unless otherwise agreed, interest as is the subject of the mortgage, and to give a valid
a mortgagee upon a sale to convey the property for such estate or a lease is always prepared by a lessor's solicitor at the receipt for the purchase-money, and the purchaser is amply proexpense of the lessee; but the cost of the counterpart (i.e., tected against any irregularities of which he had no notice. There the duplicate executed by the lessee) is usually borne by and mortgagee while respectively in possession, and a power for
are also large powers of leasing conferred by the Act upon mortgagor the lessor.
the mortgagor, whilst entitled to redeem, to inspect and take Upon the sale and conveyance of a leasehold property copies of title deeds in the mortgagee's possession. The elaborate substantially the same procedure is observed as above in provisions for all these purposes which were formerly inserted in
dicated in the case of a freehold. A few mortgage deeds are now omitted ; but sometimes the operation of Assignment additional points, however, may be specially by a mortgagee is the same as in the case of any other vendor.
the Act is modified in certain respects. The procedure upon a sale mentioned. Under an open contract the
He conveys, however, “ as mortgagee,” these words implying only vendor cannot be called upon to show the a covenant by him against incumbrances arising from his own acts. title to the freehold reversion (V. and P. Act, 1874; C. A., The frame of a strict settlement of real estate, which is 1881). Accordingly, the abstract of title begins with the usually made either on marriage or by way of resettlement lease, however old; but the subsequent title need not be on a tenant in tail under an existing settlement carried back for more than forty years before the sale. The attaining twenty-one, has been much simplified ;
Settlepurchaser, apart from stipulation, must assume, unless the but such settlements still remain the most contrary appears, that the lease was duly granted, and technical and most complicated of legal instruments. By upon production of the receipt for the last payment due virtue of the Settled Land Acts, 1882 to 1890, tenants for rent before completion, that all the covenants and pro- for life and many other limited owners have extensive visions of the lease have been duly performed and observed powers of sale, of leasing, and of doing numerous other acts up to the date of actual completion. The appropriate required in a due course of management. These powers word of conveyance is “assign,” and a conveyance of lease- cannot be excluded or fettered by settlors. They are, as a holds is generally called an assignment. The vendor's rule, considered in practice
The vendor's rule, considered in practice to be sufficient, and the correcovenants for title inplied by his assigning “as beneficial sponding elaborate provisions formerly inserted in settleowner” include, in addition to the covenants implied by ments are now omitted, the operation of the Acts being those words in a conveyance of freehold, a covenant limited merely supplemented, where desirable, by some extension in manner above mentioned, that the lease is valid, and of the statutory powers, in relation, e.g., to the investthat the rent and the provisions of the lease have been ment and application of capital money. To complete the paid and observed up to the time of conveyance (C. A., statutory machinery it is desirable that persons should be 1881). Where the vendor, as is the common case, remains nominated by the settlement trustees for the purposes of liable after the assignment for the rent and the perform the Acts. Since the C. A., 1881, provisions for the proance of the covenants, the purchaser must covenant to pay tection of jointresses or persons entitled under settlements the rent, and perform and observe the covenants and pro- to rent charges or annual sums issuing out of the land are visions of the lease, and keep the vendor indemnified in no longer required, as all such persons have now powers of those respects.
distress and entry, and of limiting terms to secure their A mortgage is prepared by the solicitor of the mortgagee, respective interests. Terms for raising portions must still, and the mortgagor bears the whole expenses of the trans- however, be expressly created. The C. A., 1881, also con
action. It is seldom that there is any pre- fers large powers of management during the minorities of Mortgages.
liminary agreement, because (1) a contract to infants beneficially entitled upon persons either appointed lend money is not specifically enforceable; and (2) inas- for the purpose by the instruinent or being such trustees much as the primary object of a mortgagee is to have his as are mentioned in § 42. An estate in tail may now be money well secured, he is not, generally, willing to submit limited by the use of the words “in tail” without the words to restrictions as to title or evidence of title which might “heirs of the body” formerly necessary. And a settlor yive rise to difficulty or expense in the event of a salo generally conveys as settlor,” by which only a covenant of the mortgaged property. An intending mortgagor is for further assurance is implied under the C. A., 1881. accordingly required to show a title easily marketable, and Personal settlements are most often made upon marriage.
a to verify it at his own cost. A mortgage follows the same The settled property is vested in trustees, either by the general form as a conveyance on sale, the principal points settlement itself, or in the case of cash, mortgage debts, of difference being that the conveyance of the property is stocks or shares, by previous delivery or transfer, upon preceded by a covenant for the payment of the mortgage trusts declared by the instrument. money and interest, and followed by a proviso for recon
The normal trusts after the marriage are (1) for investment; veyance upon such payment, and by any special pro
(2) for payment of the income of the husband's property to him for visions necessary or proper in the circumstances, such as life, and of the wife's property to her for life for her separate use a covenant for insurance and repairs where the security without power of anticipation whilst under coverture ; (3) for pay
ment to the survivor for his or her life of the income of both comprises buildings. The covenants for title implied by properties ; (4) after the death of the survivor, both as to capital a mortgagor conveying “as beneficial owner” are the same
and income, for the issue of the marriage as the husband and wife as in the case of a vendor, but they are absolute and not shall jointly by deed appoint, and in default of joint appointment qualified in the manner above pointed out.
as the survivor shall by deed or will appoint, and in default of
such appointment for the children of the marriage who attain The beneficial operation of the C. A., 1881, in shortening con- twenty-one, or being daughters marry, in equal shares, with the veyances is well illustrated by a modern mortgage. For, by virtue addition of a clause (called the hotchpot clause) precluding a child of the Act, a mortgageo by deed executed after its commencement who or whose issue takes a part of the fund by appointment from has, subject to any contrary provisions contained in the deed, the sharing in the unappointed part without bringing the appointed following powers to the like extent as if they had been conferred share into account. Then follows a power for the trustees with in terms : (1) a power of sale exercisable after the mortgage money the consent of the parents whilst respectively living to raise a part has become due (a) if notice requiring payment has been served (usually a half) of the share of a child and apply iť for his or her and not complied with for three months ; (Y) if any interest is in advancement or benefit. Power to apply income, after the death arrear for two months; or (c) there has been a breach of some of the life tenants, for the maintenance and education of infants obligation under the deed or the Act other than the covenant for entitled in expectancy, is conferred upon trustees by the C. A., 1881. payment of the mortgage money or interest; (2) a power to insure The ultimate trusts in the event of there being no children who subject to certain restrictions ; (3) a power, when entitled to sell, attain vested interests are (1) of the husband's property for him
absolutely; and (2) of the wife's property for such persons as she 14 miles by rail north-east from Bangor and 225 northshall when discovert by deed, or whether covert or discovert by west from London. It is built on the side and at the foot will, appoint, and in default of appointment, for her absolutely of a hill (800
ft.) at the mouth of the river Conway, with if she survive the husband, but if not, then for her next of kin under the Statute of Distributions, excluding the husband. For Great Orme's Head and Llandudno 4 miles to the north. all ordinary purposes the trustees have now under various statutes The river is crossed by two bridges—a tubular railway sufficient powers and indemnities. They may, however, in some bridge, similar to that at Menai and only 40 feet shorter, cases need special protection against liability: A power of appoint built by Stephenson in 1846–48, and a handsome susing new trustees is supplied by the Trustee Act, 1893. It is usually made exercisable by the husband and wife during their pension bridge, designed by Telford and built of white joint lives, and by the survivor during his or her life.
stone, in keeping with the castle, in 1822-26. One of The form and contents of wills are extremely diverse.
the old houses of the town, the Elizabethan Plas Mawr, A will of, perhaps, the commonest type (a) appoints is the headquarters of the Royal Cambrian Academy of
Art. executors and trustees ; () makes a specific dis
There are still a few fragments of the Cistercian Wills.
position of a freehold or leasehold residence ; (c) abbey founded in 1185. The principal public buildings gives a few legacies or annuities; and (d) devises and are the guildhall and the market hall; and there are
d bequeaths to the executors and trustees the residue of the
a new bronze fountain, a convalescent home for children, real and personal estate upon trust to sell and cùnvert, to
and golf links. Area of the parish, 2137 acres; of the invest the proceeds (after payment of debts and funeral municipal borough, 3312 acres. Population of borough
, and testamentary expenses) in a specified manner, to pay (1891), 3412; (1901), 4660. The river Conway, about the income of the investments to the testator's widow for 30 miles long, drains the beautiful Vale of Conway, in life or until another marriage, and subject to her interest, which stand Bettws-y-Coed, Llanrwst, and Trefriw,'the to hold the capital and income in trust for his children last-named a favourite artists' haunt. who attain twenty-one, or being daughters marry, in equal Cooch (or Kuch) Behar, a native state of India, in shares, with a power of advancement. Daughters' shares are Bengal, a submontane tract, not far from Darjiling, entirely frequently settled by testators upon them and their issue surrounded by British territory. Area, 1307 sq. m. Populaon the same lines and with the same statutory incidents as tion (1881), 602,624; (1901), 567,037. The gross revenue above mentioned in the observations upon settlements; in 1897-98 was Rs.22,39,668. The present Maharaja, and sometimes a will contains in like manner a strict Nripendra Narayan, G.C.I.E., was born in 1862 and edusettlement of real estate. It is a point often overlooked cated under British guardianship at Patna and Calcutta. by testators desirous of benefiting remote descendants that He is Hon. Lieutenant-Colonel of the 6th Bengal Cavalry. future interests in property must, under what is known as In 1897–98 he served in the Tirah campaign on the staff of the rule against perpetuities, be restricted within a life or General Yeatman-Biggs, and received the distinction of a C.B. lives in being and twenty-one years afterwards. In dis- In 1878 he married a daughter of Keshub Chundra Sen, posing of real estate “devise” is the appropriate word of the Brahmo leader. His eldest son has been educated in conveyance, and of personal estate“ bequeath.” But neither England. Among other improvements, a railway has been word is at all necessary. “I leave all I have to A. B. and constructed, with the assistance of a loan from the British -appoint him my executor” would make an effectual will Government, for a length of 22 miles, which is now being for a testator who wished to give all his property, extended for a farther 12 miles. The earthquake of 12th whether real or personal, after payment of his debts, to a June 1897 caused damage to public buildings, roads, &c., in single person. By virtue of the Land Transfer Act, 1897, the state to the estimated amount of Rs. 15,00,000. Part I., real estate of an owner dying after 1897 now vests The town of Cooch BEHAR is situated on the river for administrative purposes in his executors or adminis- Torsha, and has a railway station; population, 9535. trators, notwithstanding any testamentary disposition. It remains to mention that by the Land Transfer Act,
Cook, Eliza (1818–1889), English author, was 1897, a system of compulsory registration of title, limited born in 1818, in Southwark, being the daughter of a local for the present to the county of London, has been estab- tradesman. She was self-taught, and began when a girl lished. (See LAND REGISTRATION.)
to write poetry for such periodicals as the Weekly Dispatch
and New Monthly. In 1840 she published Velaia and United States.—Conveyances of real estate in the United States are simple in form, and are often prepared by those who have had
other Poems, and from 1849 to 1854 conducted a paper no professional training for the purpose. Printed blanks, sold at for the family called Eliza Cook's Journal. She also pubthe law-stationers, are commonly employed. The lawyers in each lished Jottings for my Journal (1860), and New Echoes state have devised forms for such blanks, sometimes peculiar in (1864); and in 1864 she was given a Civil List pension of some points to the particular state, and sometimes copied verbatim from those in use elsewhere. Deeds intended to convey an absolute
As the author of a single poem, “The Old estate are generally either of the form known as warranty deed or Armchair,” Eliza Cook's name was for a generation after of that known as release deed. The release deed is often used as 1838 a household word both in England and in America, a primary conveyance without warranty to one who had no prior her kindly domestic sentiment making her a great favourite interest in the land. Uniformity in deeds is rendered particularly with the working-class and middle-class public. She died desirable from the general prevalence of the system of recording all conveyances at length in a public office. "Record books are at Wimbledon, 25th September 1889. printed for this purpose, containing printed pages corresponding to the printed blanks in use in the particular state, and the
Cook, Thomas (1808–1892), travelling agent, recording officer simply has to fill up each page as the deed of was born at Melbourne in Derbyshire on 22nd Novemsimilar form was filled up: One set of books nay thus be kept ber 1808. Beginning work at the age of ten, he was for recording warranty deeds, another for recording release deeds, successively a gardener's help and a wood - turner at another for recording mortgage deeds, another for leases, &c.
Bfelbourne, and a printer at Loughborough. At the age AUTHORITIES.-DAVIDSON. Precedents and Forms in Conreyancing. London, 1877 and 1885.—KEY and ELPHINSTONE.
of twenty he became a Bible-reader and village missionary Compendium of Precedents in Conveyancing. London, 1899. - for the county of Rutland; but in 1832, on his marriage, ELPHINSTONE. Introduction to Conveyancing. London, 1900. combined his wood-turning business with that occupation. POLLOCK. The Land Laus. London, 1896.
In 1810 he became actively associated with the temper(s. WA.; S. E. B.)
ance movement, and printed at his own expense various Conway (or ABERCONWAY), a summer resort, muni- publications in its interest, notably the Children's Tempercipal town, and parish in the county of Carnarvon, Wales, ) ance Magazine, the first of its kind to appear in England.
£100 a year.
In June 1841 a large meeting was to be held at Lough- Cook or Hervey Islands, a Polynesian archiborough in connexion with this movement, and Cook was pelago lying about the Tropic of Capricorn, some 700 miles struck with the idea of getting the railway company to run south by east of Samoa, mainly between 150°-160° E. a a special train from Leicester to the meeting. The com- long. It comprises ten partly volcanic
, partly coralline,
, pany consented, and on 5th July there were carried 570 islands, the more important of which are Rarotonga, hilly, passengers from Leicester to Loughborough and back at a fertile, and well watered, with several cones 300 to 400 shilling a head. This is believed to be the first publicly- feet high, above which towers the majestic Rarotonga voladvertised excursion train ever run in England-private cano (4000 feet), the culminating point of the archipelago; “specials,” reserved for members of institutes and similar Mangaia (Mangia); Aitaluki, with luxuriant cocoanut palm bodies, were already in use. The event caused great groves; Atui (Vatui); Mitiero; Mauki; Fenuaiti, and the excitement, and Cook received so many applications to two Hervey islets, which give an alternative name to the organize similar parties that he henceforward deserted group. The total area is 142 square miles, and the wood-turning, while continuing his printing and publishing. population in 1900 was 8400. Owing to its healthy, The summers of the next three years were occupied with equable climate, the archipelago is well suited for Euroexcursions like the first; but in 1845 Cook advertised a pean settlement; but the dangerous fringing coral reefs pleasure-trip on a more extensive scale, from Leicester to render it difficult of access, and it suffers also from the Liverpool and back, with opportunities for visiting the absence of good harbours. The natives, who are of PolyIsle of Man, Dublin, and Welsh coast. A Handbook nesian stock and speech, are nearly all Protestants, and of the Trip to Liverpool was supplied for the use of since 1890 have enjoyed a general Legislature and an travellers. A trip to Scotland followed, and the excur- Executive Council, of which the Arikis (“ Kings” and sionists were received in Glasgow with music and salute of “Queens”) are members. But all enactments are subject guns. The next great impetus to popular travel was given to the approval of the British Resident at Rarotonga, and by the Great Exhibition of 1851, which Cook helped a British Protectorate, proclaimed in 1888, was followed by 165,000 visitors to attend. On the occasion of the Paris the annexation of the whole archipelago by the Governor exhibition of 1855 there was a Cook's excursion from of New Zealand in November 1900. Leicester to Calais and back for £1, 10s. The following year saw the first grand circular tour in Europe.
Cooktown, a seaport in Queensland, Australia, of Cook's activity largely increased after 1863, when the
in the county of Banks, at the mouth of the Endeavour
It is Scottish railway managers broke off their engagements river, about 1050 miles north-west of Brisbane. with him, and left him free for more distant enterprise. visited by the ocean steamers of several lines, and is the Switzerland was opened up in 1863, and Italy in 1864.
centre of a very extensive bêche de mer and pearl fishery. Up to this time "Cook's tourists” had been personally Tin and gold are worked in the district. The population
in 1898 was estimated at 2560. conducted, but now he began to be an agent for the sale of English and foreign tickets, the holders of which travelled
Coolgardie, a town in West Australia, about 310 independently. Switzerland was the first foreign country miles by rail cast by north of Perth and Freemantle, accessible under these conditions, and in 1865 nearly and 528 miles by rail north-east of Albany. Its goldthe whole of Europe was included in the scheme. Its field, now considered a permanent one, was discovered in extension to the United States followed in 1866. For the
1891. In course of time it will probably be connected benefit of visitors to the Paris exhibition, Cook made a with Esperance, the natural port of the goldfield, by fresh departure and leased a hotel there.
In the same
railway. Its population was estimated in 1898 at 13,000; year began his system of “hotel-coupons," providing that of the goldfield at about 30,000. accommodation at a fixed charge. The year 1869 was marked by an extension of Cook's tours to Palestine, Cooper, Peter (1791-1883), American manufollowed by further developments of travel in the East, his facturer, inventor, and philanthropist, was born in New son, John Mason Cook, being appointed in 1870 agent Fork on 12th February 1791. As a boy he worked of the Khedivial Government for passenger traffic on the with his father at hat-making, brewing, and brick-making, , Nile. The Franco-Prussian war of 1870–71 was expected and had little opportunity for attending school. At the to damage the tourist system, but, as a matter of fact, age of seventeen he was apprenticed to a carriage-builder. encouraged it, through the demand for combination, inter- When he became of age he engaged in the manufacture of national tickets enabling travellers to reach the south of machines for shearing cloth, and during the war of 1812 Europe without crossing the belligerent countries. At the his business was very profitable. Later he took up with termination of the war a party of American freemasons success the manufacture of glue. About 1828 he erected visited Paris under Mr J. M. Cook's guidance, and became the Canton Iron Works at Baltimore, Md., and in this the precursors of the present vast American tourist traffic. enterprise laid the foundations of his fortune. In 1830 At the beginning of 1872 Mr J. M. Cook entered into he designed and constructed the first locomotive built in formal partnership with his father, and the firm first took America. He subsequently sold his works at Baltimore, its well-known appellation of Thomas Cook and Son. In and erected at Philippsburgh, Pa., the largest blast 1882, on the outbreak of Arabi Pasha's rebellion, Cook and furnaces erected in America up to that time, and enlarged Son were commissioned to convey Sir Garnet Wolseley and his enterprise by purchasing iron mines in the vicinity and his suite to Egypt, and to transport the wounded and sick building a railway to transport their ore to his furnaces. up the Nile by water, for which they received the thanks He was actively interested in the laying of the first of the War Office. The firm was again employed in 1884 Atlantic cable. His memory is perpetuated in the Cooper to convey General Gordon to the Sudan, and the whole of the Union for the Advancement of Science and Art, which he men (18,000) and stores necessary for the expedition after founded in New York in 1854. This splendid institution wards sent to relieve him. In 1889 Cook and Son acquired is designed especially to furnish educational opportunities the exclusive right of carrying the mails, specie, soldiers, to the working classes. Its principal features are a free and officials of the Egyptian Government along the Nile. library and reading-room, lecture courses, and night and In 1891 the firm celebrated its jubilee, and on 19th July day classes. In the election of 1876 he was the candidate of the following year Thomas Cook died. He had been of the National Independent party for the presidency. afflicted with blindness in his declining years. (J. MʻF.)
He died in New York, 4th April 1883.