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interest may dictate.

terprise the production of cotton or corn as self

treasures of its territory, leaving to individual en

That Great Britain has ceased to possess exclusive knowledge and skill in the art of manufacturing cotton, as in other branches of industry, is a fact established by the comparison with the manufactured products of all other countries in the Great Exhibition of last year; and that the great cotton-growing country, the United States, has become a great manufacturing country, is not the least alarming symptom. Hence, with the present ad litional difficulties arising from increased compecontined supply of cotton, may be anticipated the tition. The contemplation of these difficulties may maintain and increase the industrial celebrity of be of signal benefit to those especially who desire to Great Britain ; for with the knowledge of approximating and rival skill, the exercise of a cool and fecting mechanical agents, of increased intelligence

suber judgment will prompt the necessity of permaster manufacturers of a complete theoretical and and attention in the workmen, and on the part of practical acquaintance with the principles on which sound manufacturing operations are founded, together with the most economical and best engineering ustangements for conducting with success the large concerns embarked in manufactures.

With raw material abundantly supplied—with mechanical and moral progress-with intelligence, skill, industry, and probity, combined, and these high qualifications discreetly directed in our sea-girt land, free and unsettered, ages yet to come may witness the growing historian of honest labour's dignity; and the future achieved than was "dreamt of in our philosophy," record that even

more has been unexplored fields for science, art, and Subdue, for the benefit of the human Ramining the department in the Exhi1851, in which were displayed the

may still leaving industry to

rze! On bition of

[graphic]

contributions illustrative of the cotton manufacturing proficiency of Great Britain and of the world at large, it was evident that high merit and skill have been attained by every country from which specimens appeared. It was most remarkable that the general features of all the contributions, except those from the East, seemed to have a common origin; and the various productions might, from the absence of any very striking nationalities, have been taken from the stores of some great warehouse which had been filled from the same locality. Samples of raw cotton were exhibited, among which, as usual, the United States took the highest, and the British East Indies the lowest rank. Perhaps, in the whole Exhibition, no machines for productive purposes were shown to possess greater intrinsic merit than those sent to illustrate the spinning and manufacturing operations ordinarily performed in cotton mills. Cotton machinery was most extensively contributed by British makers, and of very superior and improved construction. To some extent, in anticipation of the rival display then about to be made, the machinemakers stimulated improvements; and in all their contributions they evinced great practical skill and perfection; and it may be safely asserted that no existing manufacturing concern contains at the present time a combination and concentration of all the ingenious mechanical applications, with their highly-finished workmanship, as there displayed. The cleaning, carding, drawing, roving, and spinning machines were generally of a very superior class, and the self-acting mules in particular were very excellent. In the construction of the power-loom, with its recent appliances, great and economical progress was most evident; and the extending nisefulness of the jacquard, as now connected with every class of loom, is exceedingly gratifying. The impulse given to the development

of improvement, in connection with the cotton trade, may truly be

stated to be most advantageous, machine makers

in ring, in the first place, from a desire to display Dachinery of the most perfect and improved construction, been induced to exert themselves to send contributions altogether of a higher order than had ordinarily been previously produced; and, Second place, rivals being ignorant of their competitors' recent improvements and workmanship, the results of the combination of these improvements could only be subsequently known; but they will be lastingly beneficial. New principles were scarcely to be expected; but in the finer department of cotton spinning an important improvement will be effected from the combing of fine cotton, instead of carding it, as formerly, and a method for accomplishing which was then exposed to public view. This combing principle did not originate with the Exhibition, but iis accelerated application has resulted from it, and more perieet lace and finer muslin will hereafter be a most valuable acquisition it may be regarded, as produced by its aid. Of machine-makers, it may be nical elements used in one branch of industry to

are continually applying mecha, as the combing machine, hitherto confined to sheep's wool, may be hereafter applied to cotton; 23 sme parts of cotton machines are already used apothecaries make new medicines by pouring out of

are accused of making new books as

,—so do machinists, by new arran

new characters and uses to mechanical that if the space for invention be diminished, there

same common origin: hence we infer,

a vast extension of new and useful foreign construction also appeared in the Exhibition, greatly promoted. Some very excellent machines of

and which the Exhibition will havo the practical value which characterised Contributions.

Ovserved, that they

another,

and as authors

one into

anothers gements, give agents of the

atill may be eombinations,

but not of the British

To detail manufacturing processes, and to attempt to describe mechanical functions at the present moment, would probably be unwise, and after the working of the machinery of the Exhibition, may be unnecessary.

Of the actual manufactures found in the cotton department of the Exhibition, many articles were of great merit, but as a whole it would be difficult to determine from what precise country the most meritorious product was derived, though it may be assumed, from good evidence, that in many fancy fabrics, where beauty of design, and of colour, and of refined taste appeared, the French and other continental manufacturers took deservedly the highest position; whilst in useful goods, adapted rather for comfort than ornament, British manufactures were pre-eminent, especially if the qualities of the latter be associated with their cheapness. Here, however, a word of advice or of admonition may be offered to both British manufacturers and merchants; there is unquestionably a cheapening tendency pursued by them which, with its consequent deterioration, must inevitably lead to an ultimate diminution of business, and which it is feared is already damaging om national character, and giving to foreign rivals, for their superior productions, fame and profit exceeding our own. Cotton yarns and thread of British and foreign production, from the coarsest to the finest, were shown, establishing great equality of merit, though the actually finest counts were spun in Manchester. Fustians, sheetings, shirtings, calicoes, ginghams, cambrics, muslins, laces, quiltings, and bed and table covers, were exhibited in great variety; but of the improved in this class, figured laces take the highest stand, and bed quilts and table covers may be placed next. Printed muslins, cambrios, and calicoes, for dresses, of great excellence and beauty, were displayed, as also were furniture prints; but for perfection in colours, and good taste in

ELEMENT OF INDUSTRY.
designs, the foreign goods generally were regarded

241

all excellent and

Lyon; nor Glasgow

sound position of the British print trade there can be

most attractive, though of the improving and no question. As specimens, however, of personal afford the proof of superiority which the East Indies skill in manipulation, Europe and America do not have established in spinning and weaving cotton, when the means of the former are compared with those of the latter. For pictorial effect, from arrangement of colours, nothing can exceed the beauty yar span by hand there, a quality is produced which, of the textile manufactures of the East; and in the by the aid of machinery, from the inferior cotton used, would be impossible; but the filmy muslin of exquisite delicacy remains the triumph of manufacturing art. The domestic fabrics of the East are given praise which neither the manufacturers of

useful, but to its muslin must be

can so deservedly aspire to. Actual investigation proves that India has long produced a fineness of fabric which has only of late years been approached in France and in Scotland; but in Tarare and in Glasgow there has certainly been manfactured, from English spun yarn, muslin magical hand of the Hindoo has wrought. No yarn

fineness and delicacy all that the has been spun and woven in the East; but England finer than No. 350, or, at the very utmost, than 400, has spun beyond No. 600 for useful application, and Henry Houldsworth, has ascertained that there are up to No. 2,000 experimentally. My friend, Mr. only four fibres of cotton in the thickness of a single of these fibres would extend in length to 960 yards. thread of No. 2,000, and that a single grain in weight Errors having

appeared in the Exhibition Catalogue not acquainted with the fineness of cotton yarn, this

Cotton,'') which might mislead parties
It is stated that muslin was exhibited

of correcting them may perhaps be

exceeding in

(Class XI i

opportunity

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