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No. 1001.—8 August, 1863.

CONTENTS:

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1. Frisky Matrons, . . . . . 2. Was Nero a Monster? . . 3. Pollard's First Year of the American War 4. Mignet's Speech on Macaulay, 5. Mr. Glashier's last Balloon Åscent, . . 6. Mr. Church's “ Icebergs," . . 7. Searches for the Source of the Nile, 8. Zadkiel, :. 9. Darkness in High Places, . 10. A Winter Cruise on the Nile, . . 11. Dr. Lankester on the Microscope, 12. Decimal Weights and Measures, 13. Vegetable Morphology, , : 14. Wild Scenes in South America, . . 15. American Cotton by Free Labor, . . 16. George Cruikshank's Works, 17. John T. Sullivan, Esq., . . .

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POETRY.- A Soldier's Wreath, 242. Imitated from the Troubadour Sordel, 242. July, 242. Faith, 242. Pin and Needle Money, 266. Past and Present, 287. For Shame, 288. Nile, 288.

SHORT ARTICLES.-New Materials for the History of Men, 257. The Romish Church on Beards, 265. Fog Signals, 265. Charles Kingsley's Sermons on the Pentateuch, 265. Literary Items, 286. Locusts in the East, 286.

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A SOLDIER'S WREATH.

Kind eyes, unto your tale half-told,

Ye speak because ye must ! O PUREST lilies, leading low,

Too oft will heavy laws constrain Rouse from your languor pining !

The lips, compelled to bear O red, red roses, lend your glow

A message false ; too often fain With summer sunlight shining !

To speak but what they dare ;
O bluest harebells, listlessly,

Full oft will words, will smiles betray,
No longer silent quiver,
Your fairy chimes ring full and free

But tears are always true ;

Looks ever mean the things they say : Above the singing river !

Kind eyes, I trust to you! Sweet blossoms, ye, of peace and love,

Her looks were kind-oh, gentle eyes,
And types of beauty royal,

Love trusts you! Still he sends
To-day all others prized above-
A triad brightly loyal.

By you his questions, his replies,

He knows you for his friends. The red, the blue, the white we trace,

Oh, gentle, gentle eyes, by Love A soldier's wreath to fashion,

So trusted, and so true And twine about a pictured face.

To Love, ye could not if ye would With sighs of deep compassion.

Deceive, I trust to you!

DORA GREENWELL. Fair river, in thy careless glee Of joy and glory singing,

-Cornhill Magazine. Thy current to the summer sea

Goes tidal treasures flinging ;
Would that upon thy bosom cast

JULY.
These purslings of the arbor,
All ports and treacherous bayous past,

TO-DAY, the meek-eyed cattle on the hills
Might reach a distant harbor !

Lie grouped together in some grateful shade ;

Or slowly wander down the grassy glade, Might carry to a sufferer pale

To stand content, knee-deer, in glassy rills. A balm of surest healing,

The wandering bee, in far-secluded bowers, A breeze from Northern homesteads hale

Hums its low cheerful anthem, free from care ; Through the miasma stealing.

Great brilliant butterflies, fragile as fair, So we to-day our garland twine,

Float gracefully above the gorgeous flowers. The while petitions breathing,Like votaries at a saintly shrine,

The sun pours down a flood of golden heat The cherished semblance wreathing.

Upon the busy world ; so hot and bright,

That the tired traveller, longing for the night, Though uttered not a single word,

Seeks some cool shelter from the dusty street. The prayer Heaven's temple reaching, The red rose, health and love restored, The cricket chirrups forth its shrill refrain ; The lily, peace beseeching ;

The grass and all green things are sear and The harebell blue, the leal and true,

dry; From all estrangement keeping ;

The parched earth thirsts for water, and men To bind the ties of home anew, And give us song for weeping:

For cooling showers. All nature waits for rain.

ANNE G. HALE. -New England Farmer.

FAITH. IMITATED FROM THE TROUBADOUR

God's Truth for steady North-point-nothing SORDEL.

Not lightning, darkness, beasts, or evil men, HER words, methinks, were cold and few ; Wanderings in forest or in trackless fen, We parted coldly ; yet

Nor through the fury of the floods to steer Quick-turning after that adieu,

Where land is not remembered. Tongue or How kind a glance I met! A lcok that was not meant for me,

May scatter folly : be thou tranquil then ; Yet sweeter for surprise,

Bear griefs, wrongs, pains, or want that biteth As if her soul took leave to be

near. One moment in her eyes;

The Maker of the World doth hold tbee dear. Now tell me, tell me, gentle friends,

As Day, above all cloud, walks down the west Oh, which shall I believe,

On silent floor of many-colored flame, Her eyes, her eyes that bid me hope, So shall thy life seem when thou seest it best, ller words that bid me grieve ?

1 Lifted to view its warrant and its claim.

I tell thee God Almighty is thy friend ; . Her words, methinks, were few and cold : Angels thy lying down and rising up attend. What matter! Now I trust,

Macmillan's Magazine.

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From The Saturday Roview. where piquant gossip is always to be had, and FRISKY MATRONS.

rose-colored chintzes make perpetual youth. IMPERIALISM and the dowager have con- . Here the hunted heir finds the safe retreat for spired to bring about a very abnormal state which he has vainly sighed. However nerof things in London society. Together with vous about marriage, he has no fear of being cheap silks and wines, we appear to be im- entrapped into bigamy. Once more he may porting genuine French notions about the bring into action his flirting powers, almost status of young married women. The old- rusty from disuse. Once more he may enjoy fashioned idea was that a young lady married the luxury of whispering soft nonsense withwas a young lady shelved. In her new char- out being misunderstood, and paying a few acter of a wife, she retired from the fray in compliments without being asked his " intenwhich husbands are fought for, more or less tions." Meanwhile, his baffled pursuer has to content with her share of the spoil. “Called endure a double mortification. It is bad to other functions " was the motto she hence-'cnougb to see her victim slip through her finforward inscribed on her banner. With the gers. It is still worse to know that he has cares of household and nursery in full view, reached a secure asylum, from which he canshe submitted cheerfully to a protracted not be dislodged except with his own coneclipse, which lasted until, in the fulness of sent. Ilenceforward toe conditions of the time, she emerged once more, with ampler contest are wholly altered. Instead of having proportions and a more majestic front, to a poor, simple, unsophisticated male to cope attract young men-to her daughters. Now with, she finds herself face to face with an we have changed all that. A youthful ma- allied force, skilfully manœuvred by an antron is no longer a withdrawn competitor for tagonist of her own sex, with every advantage the attentions of the male sex, but a danger- of youth, beauty, and animal spirits on her ous, almost irresistible rival, released from side, and pledged by self-interest to the most all the disabilities under which young ladies determined resistance. This formidable colie, and armed with new powers to dazzle alition the dowager owes to her own mingled and enslave. This is just what the custom clumsiness and avidity. of our lively neighbors countenances, al But all this does not fully account for the though, under the Second Empire, the theory new position which married women are asof post-nuptial license has received an alarm- 'suming in society. Their use as buffers being development. After years of semi-con- tween eldest sons and dowagers is intelligible ventual retirement, a French girl is pitch- enough. But how is it that they are willing forked into matrimony, and finds herself all to act in a capacity which, to say the least, of a sudden at full liberty to please as she does not fulfil the highest ideal of woman's lists ber roving fancy. No wonder, under work? How is it that they desert the duties these circumstances, that Paris has become of their station, to lead the van of frivolity the natural home of Milly Nesdale. But it and excess? Bad example in a quarter to will be a surprise to many to learn that the which English women look with servile obsefascinating and circumspect young wife has quiousness for the decrees of fashion, bas, we lately crossed the channel, and invaded with repeat, had much to do with this. But there triumphant success the soil of sober, respect- is a cause which lies decper. It is to be found able, domestic England.

in the decline of that remarkable outburst of And now for the part which the dowager religious enthusiasm, which thirty years ago has played in bringing about a state of things inflamed the zeal of many, and inlicenced in 60 destructive of her scheines. Her tactics a special manner the mind and daily life of have been absolutely suicidal. She has hope- Woinen. The Oxford movement owed its suclessly damaged her own market. By her in- cess in no slight degree to the ardent sympacessant persecution of oldest sons, by her thy of its female adherents, and these it atarrogance and importunity, she has created a tracted chiefly by supplying them with plenty demand for married sirens of the Milly Nes- of congenial work. The young lady of the dale type. To escape the fangs of a blood- period we speak of bad hardly a thought or hound in moire anti,ue, a man will do many feeling in common with the young lady of the more strange things than take refugo with a present day. She lived in one prolonged gush charming woman in a charming boudoir, of sentiment and hero-worship. But it juwed in a definite and practical channel. She vis- | or stay at an English country-house. Let us ited the poor, she taught in schools, she dec- accompany him in fancy to the first of those orated churches, she embroidered altar-cloths, festive scenes. He will find the conditions she carved poppy heads, she scrubbed brasses, which are supposed to govern such an entershe dipped into the Fathers, and was tolera- tainment more or less reversed. Whoever bly conversant with the stock arguments had charge of the Japanese ambassadors last against Geneva and Rome. Her patristic re- year must have attempted to explain to their searches may have been shallow, and her puzzled excellencies the object and meaning æstheticism may have now and then moved a of a ball. It is intended, he probably said, smile, but, upon the whole, they refined and to enable the youth and beauty of each sex to idealized her nature, and added to her mental mingle in the dance. Hither fair maidens culture. The collapse of transcendentalism, Aock, for the purpose of captivating their fuand the loss of a sphere of useful employ-ture husbands. Their mothers attend at the ment, have left an aching void in many a fe- cost of much physical suffering, not so much male bosom. The young lady of our time from the promptings of parental instinct, as lives more in and for the immediate present. from a high, perhaps an exaggerated, sense M. Victor Hugo would discern no touch of of decorum. The active element is the marthe Infinite about her. She has little to draw riageable element in the assemblage. The her out of herself and her own concerns. lovely and animated teetotums that spin Earnestness has given place to well-bred apa- round the room do so out of pure girlish glee. thy and cynicism. The nearest approach to The graceful-beings that thread the maze of enthusiasm she can conjure up is on the sub- Lancers or quadrille are all fancy-free, and ject of dress. Her manners have undergone own as yet no lord and master. It is, in short, a remarkable alteration, which would siinply the single young ladies in England who dance, make her grandmother's hair stand on end. while the married are content to guard the They have become exceedingly frank and public morals by lining the walls, and peepopen. To talk slang is as much a feminine ing at the performance through any chink in accomplishment as to play the piano, or war the wedge of palpitating humanity in their ble a ballad. In short, young ladies are many front. If this be an item in the latest report degrees more like their brothers than they on English customs carried back to Jeddo, were twenty years ago. Of their own ac- nothing can be more fallacious. It has ceased cord they are divesting themselves of that air to be a correct description of a fashionable of mystery and romance with which, from the ball. Now-a-days, it is the married women days of chivalry down wards, the other sex who dance, while the young ladies too often has surrounded them, and revealing to their sit unasked. Twenty or thirty years ago, a admirers the grosser and least ethereal side dancing matron was a rarity. One saw, inof their nature, with all the pitiless exacti- deed, occasionally, a married couple complatude of a photograph. The service which cently gyrating round the room, locked in a they thus unconsciously render to the study sort of Darby and Joan embrace. But, as a of peychology is considerable, but it does not rule, married women abandoned the service add to their attractiveness. But these are the of Terpsichore to their younger and more shortcomings of young ladies, it may be said, supple sisters. Now, they are to be seen in not of young wives. Nevertheless, it is im- any ball-room capering about like so many possible to produce a satisfactory article out frolicsome lambkins. If it is the exercise of a raw material of inferior quality. Young merely which attracts them, it would be easy ladies are the raw material out of which to provide some better valve for letting off wives and mothers are to be formed ; and if their exuberant activity. Let us have gymin the former capacity they are giddy, selfish, nasia, where married women, who find a and frivolous, there is too much reason to ex- life of domestic repose rather slow, may pripect that they will continue so in the latter. vately resort for the purpose of indulging in There are no miracles wrought at the shrine feats of agility. The same sort of apparatus of St. George in Hanover Square.

which exists at the foot of Primrose Hill If anyone doubts whether the growing prom- might be established in a more fashionable inence of married women in society be a fact quarter. With a due supply of poles to or not, be has only to attend a London ball, climb, and circular swings to fly round upon, they would by nightfall have so far reduced brains to discover whether Miss A. knew Mr. their muscular force as to be able to adopt B., and whether Miss C. would like to meet in the ball-room a more quiet and matronly Captain D. To ask a young lady without deportment. At all events, we should be providing a beau for her was considered very spared the ludicrous exhibition of married much like obtaining her company on false women, nearing their grand climacteric, ven- pretences. In short, to take care of the turing to disport themselves on the anything young ladies, and to let the married women but light fantastic, toe. It would be absurd take care of themselves, was the principle to speak of self-respect to the woman who, kept steadily in view in dispensing country being the mother of daughters “ out," can house hospitalities. Now it is altogether permit a foppish stripling, young enough to discarded. A hostess who wants her party be her son, to wbisk her off her legs in a fast to go off well thinks only of getting as many and furious galop. Such a spectacle pro- pretty, well-dressed, and fashionable young duces on a bystander the impression that a married women as she can muster, not overlaw of nature is being actually contravened burdened with any exuberant fondness for before his very eyes. One would be glad to their husbands, with whom they are on the believe that her physician had prescribed footing so well described by Millamant in The rapid and exhilarating motion for the benefit Way of the World" as strange as if they of her health. But, alas, there is no such had been married a great while, and as wellexcuse. She is only an extreme instance of bred as if they had never been married at the license conceded by the fashion of the all.” They come down and settle like a blight day to wives. She could not play these an- on the budding hopes and nascent flirtations tics if society frowned on them. It is be- of spinsterhood. They have every advantage cause married women have been allowed to on their side — beauty, wealth, knowledge set up an impudent, but successful, claim to of the world, a semi-independent position. all the privileges of young ladies, in addition Against such a combination, no young lady to those of wives, that matrons of middle can stand. One by one, her fickle admirers age are to be seen waltzing with all the ardor desert her standard, and pass over to the of a debutante, and mothers are not ashamed enemy. In vain does she display her many to stand up in the same set of Lancers as and varied accomplishments. No one cares their daughters with the younger and hand- to look at her sketch-book, and just as she is somer partner of the two.

| beginning to deliver herself of an impassioned The same sort of wife-errantry, which is bravura from Didone Abbandonata, all the at its height in town in the summer, has be- world slips away to play croquet with one or come a periodical feature of the English coun- other of the piquant brides of last year. try house. In inviting an autumnal party From first to last, the married women monopof friends, there was no point which the mis olize the attention of the male portion of the tress of the hall or park used to revolve more circle. The eye is ravished with the exquisite anxiously than the ways and means for mak- taste and variety of their dresses. What ing their stay agreeable to her young lady they wore yesterday, and what they will wear visitors. About the married women she took to-morrow, are topics of absorbing interest to no thought — they would, of course, be the whole household. How their hair is wrapped up in their husbands. The soul of done, is a problem which baffles the united young maternity would overflow with sym- ingenuity of both sexes. As nothing else is pathy and delight at the sight of her well- talked about, so no one's pleasure is consulted appointed nurseries, and would never weary but the young matron’s. And her pleasure of their inspection. What with children and is to flirt. Flirting, in all its branches, is servants and governesses to gossip about, the the only thing she understands or cares for. matrons, young or old, could never lack She must have an outer circle of handsome amusement. But with the young ladies it young men to dance attendance upon her. In was different. They were more difficult to the park, or at a flower show, or a fancy fair please, and only to be satisfied in one way for the Irremediables, she would be content by the society of a certain number of agree- upon an average with fifteen. In her box at able young gentlemen. Before filling her the opera, or at a private ball, five or six of house, therefore, the hostess had to rack her her special favorites would suffice. Such are

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