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HOWARD'S MONUMENT. In Henderson's Biblical Researches in Russia, we find the following description of the monument, erected over the remains of Howard the Philanthropist.

At the distance of five versts* to the north of Kherson, stands ine original monument of the prince of Christian philanthropists, the illustrious Howard, who, after travelling fifty thousand Brie miles, to investigate and relieve the sufferings of humanity, fel! a victim, near this place, to his unremitting exertions in tl.cs benevolent cause. It is situate a little east of the public road leading from Nikslaief to Kherson, near the southern bank of a small stream, which here diffuses a

verst is about one mile and a half English,

partial verdure across the steppe.

On the opposite bank are a few straggling and ruinous huts, and close by is a large garden, sheltered by fine lofty trees, which have been planted to beautify the villa once connected with it, but now no more. The spot itself is sandy, with a scanty sprinkling of vegetation, and is only distinguishable from the rest of the steppe by two brick pyramids, and a few graves in which the neighboring peasantry have interred their dead-attracted, no doubt, by the report of the singular worth of the foreign friend whose ashes are here deposited. One of the pyramids is erected over the dust of the Philanthropist, and the other over the grave of a French gentleman who revered his memory, and wished to be buried by his side.

The genuine humility of Howard prompted him to choose this sequestered spot, and it was his anxious desire that neither monument nor inscription, but simply a sundial, should be placed over his grave. This cenotaph is erected at a short distance from the Russian cemetery, and close to the public road. It is built of a compact white freestone, found at some distance, and is about thirty feet in height, surrounded by a wall of the same stone, seven feet high, by two hundred in circumference. Within this wall, in which is a beautiful cast iron gate, a fine row of Lombardy poplars has been planted, which, when fully grown, will greatly adorn the monument. On the pedestal is a Russian inscription of the following import :

Died, Jan. 28, 1790, aged 65, Howard. The sun dial is represented near the summit of the pillar, but with this remarkable circumstance--that the only divisions of time it exhibits are the hours from X to II, as if to intimate that a considerable portion of the morning of life is past, ere we enter on the discharge of its active duties, and that, with many, the performance of them is closed, even at an early hour after the meridian of their days. In a subsequent number we design to furnish the reader a brief biographical sketch of the illustrious Philanthropist.

A steppe is a high, uncultivated plain, and for the most part, destitute of inhabitants.



There is a very interesting class of grubs which live under water, where they construct for themselves moveable tents of various materials as their habits direct them, or as the substances they require can be conveniently procured. Among the materials used by these singular grubs, well known to fishermen by the name of caddisworms, and to naturalists as the larvæ of the four-wing. ed flies in the order Trichoptera, we may mention sand, stones, shells, wood, and leaves, which are skilfully joined and strongly cemented. One of these grubs forms a pretty case of leaves glued together longitudinally, but leaving an aperture sufficiently large for the inhabitant to put out its head and shoulders when it wishes to look about for food. Another employs pieces of

Leaf Nest of Caddis-Worm. reed cut into convenient lengths, or of grass, straw, wood, &c., carefully joining and cementing each piece to its fellow as, the work proceeds; and he frequently finishes the whole by adding a broad piece longer than

Reed Nest of Caddis-Worm.

the rest to shade his door-way over-head, so that he may not be seen from above. A inore laborious structure is reared by the grub of a beautiful caddis-fily (Phryganea,) which weaves together a group of the leaves of aquatic plants into a roundish ball, and in the interior of this forms a cell for its abode. The following figure from Roesel will give a more precise notion of this structure than a lengthened description.

Another of these aquatic architects makes choice of the tiny shells of young fresh water mussels and snails (Planorbis,) to form a moveable grotto, and as these litile shells are for the most part inhabited, he keeps the poor animals close prisoners, and drags them without

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Shell Nest of Caddis-Worm, mercy along with him. These grotto-building grubs are by no means uncommon in ponds; and in chalk districts.

One of the most surprising instances of their skill occurs in the structures of which small stones are the principal material. The problem is to make a tube about the width of the hollow of a wheat straw or a crow quill, and equally smooth and uniform. Now the materials being small stones full of angles and irregularities, the

Stone Nest of Caddis-Worm.

difficulty of performing this problem will appear to be considerable, if not insurmountable; yet the little architects, by patiently examining their stones and turning them round on every side, never fail to accomplish their plans. This, however, is only part of the problem, which is complicated with another condition, and which we have not found recorded by former observers, namely, that the under surface shall be flat and smooth, without any projecting angles which might impede its progress when dragged along the bottom of the rivulet where it resides. The selection of the stones, indeed, may be accounted for, from this species living in streams where, but for the weight of its house, it would to a certainty be swept away. For this purpose, it is probable that the grub makes choice of larger stones than it might otherwise want; and therefore also it is that we frequently find a case composed of very small stones and sand, to which, when nearly finished, a large stone is

Sand Nest balanced with a Stone. added by way of ballast. In other instances, when the materials are found to possess too great specific gravity, a bit of light wood, or å hollow straw, is added to buoy up the case.

Nest of Caddis-Worm balanced with Straus. It is worthy of remark, that the cement, used in all these cases, is superior to pozzolana* in standing water, in which it is indissoluble. The grubs themselves are also admirably adapted for their mode of life, the portion of their bodies which is always enclosed in the case, being soft like a meal-worm, or garden caterpillar, while the head and shoulders, which are for the most part projected beyond the door-way in search of food, are firm, hard, and consequently less liable to injury than the prolected portion, should it chance to be exposed.

We have repeatedly tried experiments with the in

A cement prepared of volcanic earth or lava.
Vol. II.


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