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working days, broken only by Sundays, upon which day where seen, that a turbulent mob, whether of ne does no work."

soldiers or civilians, did visit the Chartreuse, and Upon that calculation, Mr. Marion Crawford that their leader or officer, opening the album on must have written 'Don Orsino' in twenty-nine the first words of the ode, "o tā severi relligio days, exclusive of Sundays. A remarkable record! loci," and mistaking their drift, or being unable RICHARD EDGCUMBE.

to construe them, said, “ Apparemment ce livre-ci 2, Reichs Strasse, Dresden.

est quelque chose d'hérétique," or something of the sort. I should be much obliged to any reader of

'N. & Q.' who will give me chapter and book for Queries. this story as soon as possible.

D. C. T. We must request correspondents desiring information on family matters of only privato interest to affix their

“THE REPUBLIC OF LETTERS.” — Seeing this names and addresses to their queries, in order that the phrase used by Tom Paine in 1783, Mr. Moncare answers may be addressed to them direct.

Cunway asked me how old it was in English : did

it come in about Paine's time? No dictionary LADY OF THE BED-CHAMBER.-In an old num- gave any help save Littré, whose earliest extract ber of 'N. & Q.' (if any number ever is old), 7th for France is Montesquieu's 'Lettres Persanes.' S. v. 289, I find the remark, “Philippa Cbaucer Prof. S. R. Gardiner now sends me the phrase was a lady of the bed-chamber (domicella camerce from a letter by W. King, Archbishop of Dublin, Regine), and therefore married, in 1366.” Why dated January 7, 1719 : “The death of Dr. Hud" therefore"? I do not dispute it; but I desire son is a loss to the republick of letters.” This is the proof, or a reference to some authority. I may from the new 'Catalogue of Rawlinson Documents add that I believe it to be right. But we are con- in the Bodleian,' MS. in vol. 742, No. 40. Can any tually being told that Philippa was not married 'N. & Q.' man give an earlier instance of this till later. A reply, with a reference, will much phrase ?

F. J. F. oblige. WALTER W. SKEAT.

HERALDRY. – What family in England bears “JOSEPA DICKEN, of Burmingbim, co. Warwick, the following arms : Three greyhounds courant short cutter.” This is from a will made 1722, and argent, on a field azure; and were they borne by I would like to appeal to a local antiquary for the Barons D'Yvetot in Normandy? information, first, as to what is a “short cutter ";

SNAPDRAGON. and, secondly, is it likely that any entry as to the parents of Joseph Dicken may be found in the to editions of De Commines's "Mémoires,' printed

COMMINES.—I am searching for information as books of a local guild? I am supposing that he out of France or the United Kingdom, either in would probably serve an apprenticeship either at French or translated. The particulars desired are : Birmingbam or Sheffield. F. HASLEWOOD.

title, date, place and printer, number of volumes, 2, King Edward Road, Rochester.

format, collation, and name of translator or of ENGLISHMEN WHO DIED AT CONSTANTINOPLE IN editor ; but I shall be glad of any details and 1640–50.-Is there any record now in existence thankful to all who will communicate with me at which shows the exact dates (during that period) the address given below. of their deaths and burials; if so, where is it; and

W. ALEXANDER SMITH. what is it? Where would their wills have been Red House, North Collingham, Newark, proved ?


SIR RALPH ASHTON.-Will some one kindly 29, Emperor's Gato, S.W.

tell me where Sir Ralph Ashton, Sheriff of Yorks GRAY's AưCAIC ODE WRITTEN IN TEE ALBUM 1472–3, lived ?


Salton Vicarage, York. “the original of this, which was much valued by GESTRUM.—Will some one tell me the meaning the monks, was destroyed during the French of gestrum, “ gestrum vel aliud defensibile trahere Revolution by a mob from Grenoble." I find this infra ecclesiam"? It is found in the account of the both in Mr. Gosse's and Dr. Bradshaw's editions Visitation 1473.

R. J. Hill. of the poem, and believe I have seen it also else

Salton Vicarage, York, wbere." Mitford, however, says: “When I spent a day at the monastery, I looked over

ADAMS OF GORE HALL, KENT. – Will some the album, and inquired anxiously for the original ontry, one kindly give me information concerning this but found that it had long disappeared. The collectors, family ?

BEAULIEU. who like vultures followed the French revolutionary armies over the Continent, swept away everything that CELTIC. —Can anybody kindly indicate to me ignorance and barbarity had previously spared." the book which best shows (wbat no book can, of I cannot reconcile these statements ; but I have a course, show well) the true pronunciation of the recollection of an anecdote, which I have some-Celtic language?' The Gaelic will do. The Rov.

Wm. Neilson wrote in 1808 an Irish grammar, "The address only to be written on this side." but his orthographical instructions are simply Might not this mean that the address may be ridiculous and impossible. He says, for instance, written, but not printed? And would it not have that every letter in Irish is sounded except f and been more correct to say, “Only the address to be s before I or r, and then he says ea short is pro- written on this side”? The placing of the adverb nounced as in heart; he gives ceart just as the ex-"only " has become so varied in our speaking and ample, so this would be pronounced cart; that is writing now, that an authoritative opinion on the to say, the e is not pronounced at all. He pretends point would be of service.

A. W. B. there are thirteen diphthongs, and half of them,

[The use of the word “only” is discussed 7th S. ii. as be indicates, either drop one of the vowels 406, 501; iv. 405.] entirely or are pronounced each separately. These are only a few of the absurd contradictions in his "CYNEGAN'S FEAST."—What is the story of this book. It is quite bad enough to be bored with feast? It is alluded to in chap. xxvi. of Miss the natural difficulties, but if you import them Broughton's 'Red as a Rose is She': “At Mas grammar grows impossible. O. A. WARD.

Berwyn it is generally a case of 'Cynegan's Feast,'”

or enough and no waste. JAMES HOOPER. BRIDGE AND COLVERT.-Will one


your readers be so kind as to explain the precise difference between these ? I ask because a dispute local topographer, 1839, tells us that this village

BANGOR, PRESTON CANDOVER, HANTS.—A has arisen in a certain county as to whether a particular structure is or is not a bridge. If it is, then road passes over the tract of land which was down

“has in its neighbourbood several barrows, and a the County Council are bound to take it over and keep it in order. If not, then its maintenance falls been of Roman origin, leading from their numer

before the enclosure, and which may possibly have on the parish. The county surveyor reports that it is a culvert, on the ground (which seems some

ous stations in the north-western parts of the what arbitrary) that its diameter is only two feet Whether Mr. Duthy is right

in this identification

country towards Farnbam, the ancient Vindomis." nine inches, whereas he has never known a bridge of Farnham as Vindomis of course is doubtful, less than three feet in diameter. The use of the but the existence of many barrows near the drove structure is twofold. It takes under the road the surplas water from some marshes adjoining, way is a fact, and the survival of a name Bangor and it empties the tidal waters, which not only go the late Lord Carnarvon tells us in his lecture

attached to a wood near this road reminds as (as under it, but occasionally over it as well, road and all. But the use of the dyke which it serves to upon Hampshire) that “the Candovers with their empty is not very apparent, and possibly, it might The word is said to denote the high or conspicuous

Bangor copse is a name breathing Druidism." be filled up with advantage, though only at very choir. Bangor in Preston Candover is on the great expense. The structure has brick wings, which make it look something greater than a culvert ; but highest ground of the immediate neighbourhood; whether it may be dignified with the title of bridge

as the Bangor in Carmarthen is said to have been is the question at issue. The 'N. E. D.' does not If Draid or early Christians, before the arrival of

a college of the mysterious priests called Ouldees. help me, as it defines a bridge as "a structare priests from Rome, inhabited such a place, it is forming or carrying a road over a river, ravine, possible that the name Preston or Priest Town &c.” The “ &c.” makes the definition indefinite,

H. I.

may have bad an earlier explanation than that of

the clerici and presbyter mentioned in Domesday ANNE KIRKEET.-It is stated that the third Book. Are there any references in Anglo-Saxon wife of Sir Thomas Chamberlayne, of Prestbury, records or charters to such a college in the co. Glouc., who died temp. Elizabeth, was Anne country of the Belgæ, or in a district which may Kirkeet, half sister to Anthony Monk, of Pothe- be referred to North Hants, or, indeed, in the ridge, Devonshire. Further information regard- south of England ; and if so, where? What is ing this lady is desired. As Thomas Monk, father the accepted derivation at the present time of the of Anthony, had married Frances (Plantagenet), word Bangor; and what modern book gives the widow of John Basset, of Umberleigh, it may latest views of the early inhabitants of the country be presumed that Anne Kirkeet was Basset's by whom these places were so named ? VICAR. daughter.

C. H. MAYo. Long Burton, Sherborne.

COFFEE.—Is there any reference to coffee in any

English writer before Parkinson ? He describes it Post-OFFICE GRAMMAR.—I should like to be (Theatrum Botanicum, London, 1640, p. 1622), informed if the Postmaster-General of the day was under the head of “Strange and Outlandish correct in his grammar when on the back of the Plantes," as “ Arbor Bon cum suo Buna. The postcard he placed the word “only” where it is. Turkes Berry drinke." His work being somewhat As the instruction reads at present we are told that rare, the description may perhaps be quoted here:

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“Alpinus, in his Booke of Egiptian plants, giveth us a description of this tree, which as hee saith, he saw in

Beylies. the garden of a certaine Captaine of the Ianissaries, which was brought out of Arabia felix, and there planted

CHAUCER'S “STILBON.” as a rarity, never seene growing in those places before. The tree, saith Alpinus, is somewhat like unto the

(8th S. iii. 126.) Evonymus Pricketimber tree, whose leaves were thicker, Stilbon appears to be a mediæval form of Stilpo. harder, and greener, and alwayes abiding greene on the Cooper’s ‘Thesaurus' (1587) has, “Stilbo, a Phitree; the fruite is called Buna, and is somewhat bigger losopher, looke Stilpo," who, it appears, was a at the one end, furrowed also on both sides, yet on one Stoic pbilosopher of Megara. He flourished 336

B.C. side more conspicuous then the other, that'it might be (see Lemprière). The name occurs also in the parted in two, in each side whereof lyeth a small long Entheticus' of John of Salisbury, 1. 211:– white kernell, flat on that side they joyne togetber,

Transit in Amplexus Stilbontis Philologia. covered with a yellowish skinne, of an acid taste, and somewhat bitter withall and contained in a thinne shell, It is just possible that Chaucer may have seen the of a darkish asb.colour : with these berries generally in name there, as he appears to have been well Arabia and Egipt, and in other places of the Turkes acquainted with the Polycraticus '; and I am Dominions, they make a decoction or drinke, which is in inclined to think that the influence of the Latin the stead of wine to them, and generally sold in all their writers of the twelfth and thirteenth centuries on tappe houses, called by the name of Caova ; Paludamus saith Choava, and Rauwolfius Charbe. This drinke the writings of Chaucer seems scarcely to have hath many good physicall properties therein : for it been fully realized by bis comme tators.

For strengtheneth a weako stomacke, helpeth digestion, and instance, the deification of Nature, which forms the tumours and obstructions of the liver and spleene, the subject of more than one note in Bell's edition being drunke fasting for some time together."

of Chaucer, is largely traceable to the influence of He adds more to the effect that the berry is an Alanus de Insulis. In his work 'De Planctu emmenagogue and a purgative, and gives an ex: Naturæ,' Nature appears in gorgeous apparel, and cellent figure of a branch of the plant, with fruit complains of the depravity of the human race. detached. This appeared some ten years before coffee She is addressed as Regina coelestis," itself was introduced into England. Rauwolff's danæ regionis regina,” &c., and declares herself to account of coffee occurs in bis Travels' (p. 92 of be “Dei gratia mundanæ civitatis vicaria proStaphorst's translation, Ray's' Collection,' London, curatrix” and “ vicariam sui.” Compare Chaucer 1693). He says it is

(Bell's ed., vol. ii. p. 58):"a very good Drink, by them called Chaube, that is

For He that is the Former principal almost as black as Ink, and very good in illness, chiefly

Hath maad me his viker general. of the Stomach ; of this they drink in the Morning early and vol. ii. p. 375:in open places before everybody, without any fear or regard out of China Cupe, as hot as they can, they put

Nature, the vicar of the Almightie Lord. often to their Lips but drink but little at a time, and let In the Assembly of Foules,' Chaucer appears to it go round as they sit.”

have been further indebted to His description of the plant agrees with that of Alain in the Plaint of Kinde, Alpinus, quoted by Parkinson, but be calls the for his list of birds, although, as was his wont, fruit bunru, and says it comes from “the Indies." he has made large omissions and alterations. Thus In the catalogue of Egyptian plants given by Alan: “Illic Babo, propheta miseriæ psalmodias Ray at the end of his Collection the coffee-plant funereæe lamentationis præcinebat.” Chaucer: is included, with a reference to Parkinson : "Ban vel Bon arbor J. B. Item Buda, Bundu, &

The oul eke, that of deth the bodo bringeth. Buochos Arabum ejusdem. Bon arbor cum fructu Alan : "Illic gallus, tanquam vulgaris astrologus Buo Buna, Park., &c."

C. C. B.

suæ vocis horologio horarum loquebatur discrimina.”

Chaucer:(Purchas, under the head of Observations of Mr. Finch, Merchant,' says: “ Their best entertainment is a

The Cocke, that horiloge is of thorpes lite. china dish of Coho, a blacke bitterish drinke, made of a Alad: “Illic olor, sui funeris præco." Chaucer :berry like a Bayberry, brought from Mecca, supped off

The jelous swan, ayonst his deth that singeth. hot, good for the head and stomache." The date of the voyage was 1607. Bacon, in Sylva Sylvarum, written Alan: " Illic gallus silvestris, privatioris galli in 1624, says " They have in Turkey a drink called diridens disidiam, peregro proficiscens, nemorales Coffee made of a berry of the same name, as black as peragrabat provincias." Chaucer substitutes the soot,” &c. See Robinson's 'Early History of Coffee pheasant for the woodcock; but if this may be Houses England.')

considered as the original of the lineST. THOMAS OF WATERING. - How did this The fesaunt, scorner of the cocke by night dame arise ? I have seen two derivations sug- both the sense of the line and the character of the gested—a translation of Aquinas and a well dedi- “ fesaunt" will be clearer, cated to Becket. Is the derivation known with The quaint expression of the “smale foules" certainty ?

BRMENTRUDE. defiance of the fowler and his “sopbistrye,” in the

'Legende of Goode Women,' may perbaps have its version of the same reception by his servant, origin in Alan's “ Illic perdix, nunc aeriæ potes- George Tectander von der Jabel

, who has left also tatis insultus, nunc venatorum sophismata, nunc an account of the audience of Henri de Logau, canum latratus propheticos abhorrebat."

ambassador from the same emperor to the same Chaucer appears to have been well acquainted czar, in 1604. All these descriptions, like Horsey's with the works of John of Salisbury, Nigellus own of Sir Jerome Bowes's audience, are silent on Wireker, Alanus de Insulis, Geoffrey of Vinsauf, the alleged custom of delivering the sword. and other Anglo-Latin writers (I am inclined Probably, therefore, Horsey's statement in this strongly to the opinion that the reference to “Ber- matter was only a diplomatic” one, such a one narde the Monke," Prologue 'Leg. of G. Women,' a8 does occasionally fall from the lips of clever applies to the English-born Bernard of Morlaix, diplomats and courtiers brought up in the school but Prof. Skeat will none of it), a careful study of initiated by Ananias, developed by Macchiavelli, whose works would probably elucidate many pas- and brought to perfection by Talleyrand. Sir sages in Chaucer.

E. S. A. Jerome Bowes had several audiences, and it seems

strange that it should have been at the very last SIR JEROME Bowes (8th S. ii. 382).—I find I that the Russian courtiers should have thought it have overlooked an important letter in Martens. It necessary to teach bim the rules of etiquette folis Queen Elizabeth's reply to the Czar, dated March, lowed at the Czar's Court.

L. L. K. 1686, which Sir Jerome Horsey took back with him on his return to Moscow. The queen, in this HARVEY FAMILY (5th S. xi. 449 ; xii. 32).—The letter, refers once more to the sword incident, and Sir John Scott in question was a wealthy "mertells the Czar that in England it would be considered chant” (“Cit. and Soapmaker") and D.L. of great dishonour if a gentleman were obliged to London, who resided at Entield, co. Middlesex, give up his sword, and that the treatment received and was knighted at Windsor Castle March 18, at the hands of the Czar's servants has deeply 1707/8. He died Oct. 10, 1719. Will dated wounded her ambassador's (Bowes's) feelings, who Aug. 28, 1719, with codicil Sept. 10 following ; has not yet got over the affair. However, con. proved P.C.C., Feb. 24, 1719/20 (Skaller, 43). tioues the queen, as Horsey tells her that it is the original of the MS. pedigree referred to is customary in Russia to give up the sword before among our old family papers, now in my posan audience, she will forget the incident and not session ; but the statement therein that Catherine dwell further thereon (vol. ix. (X.) p. xlix). It is Harvey married “a son of Sir John Scott," is diffi cult to reconcile this statement by Horsey with apparently incorrect. Her husband, John Scott, the account given in his book of Bowes's first also “ of London, Soapmaker," being his nephew. reception at the Russian Court. We are told that She died March 1719/20, æt. twenty-five, and the streets were lined with people and a thousand was buried at Uxbridge Chapel, co. Middlesex gunders from the ambassador's lodgings to the (Admon. P.C.C., 23 same montb). He died Czar's palace. A “duke” called for the English Feb. 24, 1722/3, æt. thirty, and was buried near ambassador, but as the horse ridden by the "duke" bis wife, both with M.I.; will dated Feb. 16, was a better one than the one intended for Bowes, 1722/3, and proved P.C.C., 25 same month our expert in etiquette best suited for semi-|(Richmond, 39). These Scotts appear to have barbarian courts point-blank refused to accept the descended from a family of the same name at borse, and mounted on his own foot-clothe," as Stapleford-Tawney, co. Essex, whose arms were, Horsey puts it, that is, preferred to walk. The according to Warburton, Per pale indented arg. populace, displeased with his message, the purport and sa., & saltire counterchanged. of which they guessed, jeered at him, and received

W. I. R. V. him with shouts of " carluke,” which Horsey WILLIAM ELAND (8th S. iii. 48).-All that translates as crano's legges,

"' but which was

appears in Watt’s ‘Bibliotheca Britannica' reprobably, intended for the Russian word for specting William Eland's work is : "Tator to

dwarf “mandikin.” Arrived at the palace, Astrology; with an Ephemeris for the Years another “duke" received Bowes, and intimated to 1694-5-6, Lond., 1694, 12mo. ; Tutor to Astrohim that he bad kept the Czar waiting ; to which logy, by G. Parker, Lond., 1704, 12mo." Sir Jerome bluntly replied that be bad come as

J. F. MANSERGH, fast as he could. And so forth; every small in- Liverpool. cident is mentioned, but not a single word about a demand for his sword. We have very detailed JOHN NEWTON (8tb S. iii. 125).--I was under descriptions of the receptions of other ambassadors the impression that Newton felt great sorrow in at the Russian Court, as, e.g., those of Herberstein after life for his connexion with the slave trade; in 1517 and 1526, related by himself ; of Stephen but if I am mistaken, and, as the writer in the Kakas, Rudolf Il.'s ambassador to Boris Fédo- Record says, he exhibited " no signs whatever of rovitch, in 1602, related by himself, and another compunction on the subject,” it is an indirect


injustice to “that excellent man and excellent The above is written in a tolerably good handpoet William Cowper,” as Macaulay rightly calls writing, and is addressed to a viscount, in Bolton him, to say that “it was the immortal labours of Street, who succeeded to the peerage July 23, Clarkson, Wilberforce, and others, that first 1810. It is endorsed, in his wife's handwriting, awakened the national conscience to the iniquities Aug. 28, 1810." It was folded and fastened with of the traffic in human beings." The Task' was a red wafer. It seems to show that musical perfinished in 1784 ; and near the beginning of formances with marrow-bones and cleavers were book ii. Cowper denounces the slave trade, and not only given by butchers nor confined to wednobly says he would much rather be


H. W. M. bimself the slave,

3, Pump Court, Temple. And wear the bonds, than fasten them on him, In 1784, Wilberforce was twenty-five, Clarkson

“ BROUETTE" (8th S. iii. 27, 70).—The following twenty-foar, Zachary Macaulay sixteen, and Sir item from the ' Àlmanach du Voyageur à Paris? T. Fowell Buxton was not

born. See
also Cowper's lumber) is, I trust

, sufficiently interesting to

for 1785 (which I have just disentombed from my poems, 'The Negro's Complaint,' 'Pity for Poor

deserve addition to my note :Africans,' and 'The Morning Dream,' written at the request of Cowper's relative General Cowper, sortento quiere de la ville : elles se prennent à l'heure, à

Brouettes et Chaises à Porteurs.-Ces voitures ne the first in 1788, the two others about the same time. When were these three last - mentioned la première heure, & 16 sous pour les suivante [sic]. La

la journée & à la course. Leur prix est de 18 sous pour poems first published ? No doubt it was Wilber- course se paye 18 sous. force and bis colleagues who first fully "awakened “Les Chaises à Porteurs se payent 30 sous par course, the national conscience to the iniquities of the & autant pour la première houre, & les suivantes à 21 traffic in human beings,” but I think Cowper also

sous." deserves to be honourably remembered in con- This appears at p. 104, and at p. 106 we learn Dezion with the matter. Heaven bless the gentle that there was actually a Bureau des Brouettes in poet's memory!

the Rue Saint-Victor. When, one by one, sweet sounds and wandering lights replies he has received, but his picture of the

MR. BOUCHIER must be quite satisfied with the departed, He wore no less a loving face because so broken-hearted.

female markis” in a wheelbarrow is not 80 JONATHAN BOUCHIER.

visionary as may be thought. Génio, who has a Ropley, Alresford.

lengthy note on the brouette at the place cited in

my previous note, says that once when he was MISTAKE: MISTAKEN (8th S. ii. 404 ; iii. 19). turning over a manuscript of the Bibliothèque -The use of mistaken in the sense of being in Impériale — the prose romance, he thinks, of error, or guilty of a mistake, is older than Milton's 'Merlin'-he noticed a miniature representing a time. Shakespeare has the word more than once :

woman seated on a wheelbarrow which was drawn How will this fadge? My master loves her dearly;

along by a young man.

Let MR. BOUCHIER note And I, poor monster, fond as much on him;

here that a wheelbarrow is poussée or traînée And she, mistaken, seems to dote on me.

according to the whim of the mover. As to the Twelfth Night,' II. ii. 34-6. other brouette—the "petit carrosse à deux roues You are mistaken.

• Cymbeline,' I. iv. 89. qu'un homme traîne au lieu de cheval,” to quote I beseech you, pardon me, my lord, if I be mistaken. Cormon's description of it in 1789—it has long • King Lear,' I. iv, 69-70.

vanished from use, says Génin, and almost from I have used the Globe edition of Shakespeare's memory.


MR. BOUCHIER asks, “Are not wheelbarrows MARROW-BONES AND CLEAVERS (1• S. x. 87; used at the present day as a means of personal 3rd S. v. 356, 467, 624 ; vi. 40, 158, 275 ; 76 s. convoyance in China ?" They are. The present xi. 287, 478).—The following document, which I writor in 1890 saw them at Shanghai in every found amongst some old family papers, may, I think, street. They were wider than the common Ameinterest the readers of N. & Q.':

rican pattern, so that two passengers could sit My Lord, - May it Please your Lordship with Per- abreast, or a man would have his trunk carried mission. We, the Kings Royal Bell Ringers and the beside him. A French traveller of the same year Marrowbones and Cleavers Pages our Usal and Cus- described this vehicle as a brouette. It seemed to tomary Respects in Wishing your Lordship Joy of be viewed as a more plebeian carriage than a Comenge to your Titles and Estates and your Safe jin-rik-sha, and was built just after the English arrival to Toun hoping to Receve a Token of your Lord.


of wheelbarrow. ships Goodness as We bave from other Noblemen on the

JAMES D. BUTLER. Like Honourable Occasione. Being in Waiting your

Madison, Wis. Lordships Goodness and have our Book of other

Noble. men's Names to Show. Having our Marrowbones &

PARISH EKE-NAMES (8th S. iii. 46, 132).— I wish Cleavers all Ready to perform if Reqired."

to supplement what other correspondents have said

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