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4. SYLVIINÆ.-(193) Aedon (9 sp.), Spain and Palestine, to East and South Africa; (858) Drymodes (2 sp.), Australia ; (800) Pyrophthalma (2 sp.), South Europe and Palestine; (801) Melizophilus (3 sp.), South-west Europe and North-east Africa; (802 804) Sylvia = Alsecus (8 sp.), Palæarctic region to India and Ceylon, and North-east Africa ; (806 809) Curruca (7 sp.), Central and South Europe, Madeira, Palestine, Central India, North-east Africa, and South Africa.
5. RUTICILLINÆ.—(827) Luscinia (2 sp.), West Asia, Europe, North Africa ; (839) Cyanecula (3 sp.), Europe, North-east Africa, India, Ceylon, and China ; (30) Calliope (2 sp.), North Asia, Himalayas, Central India, and China; (838) Erithacus (3 sp.), Europe, North-east Africa, Japan, and North China ; (828 830 837 Ruticilla (20 sp.), Palæarctic and Oriental regions to Senegal and Abyssinia, and east to Timor; abounds in Himalayas ; (820) Chamarrhornis (1 sp.), Himalayas; (831 832 834) Larvivora (10 sp.), Oriental region and Japan; (833) Notodela (3 sp.), Himalayas, Pegu, Formosa, Java; (835) Tarsiger (2 sp.), Nepal; (841) Grandala (1 sp.), High Himalayas of Nepal.
6. SAXICOLINÆ.—(975) Copsychus (7 sp.), all Oriental region and Madagascar; (976) Kittacincla (5 sp.), Oriental region to
enumeration of the species which in his view properly belong to them, by the numbers in that work :
Ceylon, Andaman Islands, Formosa, and Borneo ; (794 — 700) Thamnobia (10 sp.), Ethiopian region and India to foot of Himalayas ; (977) Gervasia (2 sp.), Madagascar and Seychelle Islands; (845 847) Dromolæa (18 sp.), Africa to South Europe, Palestine, Northwest India, and North China ; (842 843 846) Saricola (36 sp.), Africa, North-west India, whole Palæarctic region, migrating to Alaska and Greenland; (543 849) Oreicola (5 sp.), Timor, Lombok, and Burmah; (344) Cercomela (6 sp.), North-east Africa to North-west India ; (850) Pratincola (15 sp.), Europe, Ethiopian, and Oriental regions to Celebes and Timor; (917) Ephthianura (3 sp.), Australia ; (851 – 836) Petræca (17 sp.), Australian region, Papua to New Zealand, Chatham and Auckland Islands, and Samoa; (857) Miro (2 sp.), New Zealand (doubtfully placed here).
7. ACCENTORINÆ.-(171) Cinclorhamphus (2 sp.), Australia ; (860) Origma (1 sp.), East Australia ; (859) Sialia (3 sp.), United States to Guatemala; (801) Accentor (12 sp.), Palæarctic region to Himalayas and North-west China ; (103) Orthonyx (4 sp.), East Australia and New Zealand (doubtfully placed here).
The following two genera, which have been usually classed as Ampelidæ, are arranged by Messrs. Sclater and Salvin in the Sylviidæ :
(1362) Myiadestes (8 sp.), Peru and Bolivia, along the Andes to Mexico and California, also the Antilles ; (1364) Cichlopsis (1 sp.), Brazil.
FAMILY 3.-TIMALIIDÆ. (35 Genera, 240 Species.)
The Timaliidæ, or babbling thrushes, are a group of small strong-legged active birds, mostly of dull colours, which are especially characteristic of the Oriental region, in every part of which they abound, while they are much less plentiful in
Australia and Africa. The Indo-Chinese sub-region is the head quarters of the family, whence it diminishes rapidly in all directions in variety of both generic and specific forms. Viscount Walden has kindly assisted me in the determination of the limits of this family, as to which there is still much difference of opinion. The distribution of the genera here admitted is as follows; and as the genera are widely scattered in the Hand List, reference numbers are prefixed in every case. (1023
1026 1008) Pomatorhinus (27 sp.), the whole Oriental region (excluding Philippines), Australia and New Guinea; (1027) Pterohinus (3 sp.), North China, East Thibet; (1029 1030) Malacocircus (9 sp.), Continental India and Ceylon, Arabia, Nubia; (1031) Chatarrhæu (5 sp.), Abyssinia, Palestine, India, Nepal, Burmah, and Philippines ; (1032) Layardia (3 sp.), India and Ceylon; (1033) Acanthoptila (1 sp.), Nepal; (1034) Cinclosoma (4 sp.), Australia and Tasmania : (1035 1030) Crateropus (18 sp.), all Africa, Persia; (1037) Hypergerus (1 sp.), West Africa : (1038) Cichladusu (3 sp.), Tropical Africa ; (1039) Garrulaic (23 sp.), the Oriental region (excluding Philippines) ; (1040) Janthocincla (10 sp.), Nepal, to East Thibet, Sumatra, Formosa ; (1041 1042) Gampsorhynchus (2 sp.), Himalayas ; (1049) Grammatoptila (1 sp.) North India ; (1043 – 1045) Trochalopteron (24 sp.), all India to China and Formosa; (1046) Actinodura (4 sp.), Nepal to Burmah, 3,000 - 10,000 feet; (1047) Pellorneum (4 sp.), Nepal to Ceylon, Tenasserim; (1158 1159) T'imalia (12 sp.), Malaya ;' (1160) Dumetia (2 sp.), Central India and Ceylon; (1162) Stachyris (6 sp.), Nepal to Assam, Sumatra, Formosa ; (1164) Pyctorhis (3 sp.), India to Ceylon and Burmah; (1186) Micornis (8 sp.), Himalayas and Malaya; (1167) Malacopteron (3 sp.), Malaya; (1168 1169) Alcippe (15 sp.), Ceylon and South India, Himalayas to Aracan, Malaya, Formosa, New Guinea; (1170) Macronus (2 sp.), Malaya; (1171) Cacopitta (5 sp.), Malaya ; (1172) Trichastoma (11 sp.), Nepal, Burmah, Malaya, Celebes; (1173) Napothera (6 sp.), Malaya; (1174) Drymocataphus (8 sp.), Burmah, Malaya, Ceylon,
1 The term Malaya” is used here to include the Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, Borneo, and Java, a district to which many species and genera are confined. “Malay Archipelago” will be used to include both Indo-Malaya and Austro-Malaya.
Timor; (1175) Turdinus (5 sp.), Khasia Hills, Malacca, Tenasserim; (1176) Trichicos (1 sp.), Borneo, Malacca ; (1004) Sibia (6 sp.), Nepal to Assam, Tenasserim, Formosa ; (1177 1178) Alethe (4 sp.), West Africa; (1178 a) Oxylabes (1 sp.), Madagascar; (1050) Psophodes (2 sp.), South, East, and West Australia ; (1048) Turnagra (3 sp.), New Zealand.
FAMILY 4.-PANURIDAE (4 Genera, 13 Species).
This new family is adopted, at the suggestion of Professor Newton, to include some peculiar groups of Himalayan birds whose position has usually been among the Timaliidæ or the Paridæ, but which are now found to be allied to our Bearded Reedling. The supposed affinity of this bird for the Tits has been long known to be erroneous, and the family Panuridae was formed for its reception (Yarrell's British Birds, 4th edit. p. 512). The genera having hitherto been widely scattered in systematic works, are referred to by the numbers of Mr. G. R. Gray's Hand List.
(1901) Paradoxornis (3 sp.), Himalayas and East Thibet ; (1904) Conostoma (1 sp.), Himalayas and East Thibet; (876) Suthora (8 sp), Himalayas to North-west China, Formosa; (877) Chlenasicus (1 sp.), Darjeeling ; (887) Panurus (1 sp.), Central and Southern Europe ; (1902) Heteromorpha (1 sp.), Nepal, 10,000 feet altitude; Cholornis (1 sp.), Moupin in East Thibet.
FAMILY 5.-CINCLIDE. (4 Genera, 27 Species.)
The Cinclidæ consist of a number of more or less thrush-like ground-birds, of which the most remarkable are the Dippers, forming the genus Cinclus. These are curiously distributed, from the Palæarctic region as a centre, to the alpine districts of North and South America; while the three genera which are here included as somewhat allied to Cinclus, all inhabit the Oriental region. The genera which I class in this family are the following:
(978) Cinclus (9 sp.), Palæarctic region to West China and Formosa, Rocky Mountains, and Mexico in North America, and southward to the Andes of Peru ; (916) Enicurus (9 sp.), Himalayas to Java and West China ; (979) Eupetes (4 sp.), Indo-Malay sub-region and New Guinea ; (971) Myiophonus (5 sp.), Himalayas to Ceylon, Java, South China, and Formosa.
(981) Mesites (1 sp.), Madagascar, is an anomalous bird placed with Eupetes by Mr. G. R. Gray, but of very uncertain affinities.
FAMILY 6.-TROGLODYTIDA. (17 Genera, 94 Species.)
The Troglodytidæ, or Wrens, are small birds, rather abundant and varied in the Neotropical region, with a few species scattered through the Nearctic, Palæarctic, and parts of the Oriental regions, and one doubtful genus in Africa. The constitution of the family is by no means well determined. The South American genera are taken from Messrs. Sclater and Salvin's Nomenclator Avium Neotropicalium.
Tesia (2 sp.), Eastern Himalayas; Pnoepyga (6 sp.), Himalayas to East Thibet, Java; (716 and 723) Troglodytes (15 sp.), Neotropical, Nearctic, and Palæarctic regions to the Higher Himalayas ; (697) Rimator (1 sp.), Darjeeling; Thryothorus (13 sp.), South Brazil to Mexico, Martinique, and Nearctic region ; Thryophilus (13 sp.), Brazil to Mexico, and North-West America; Cistothorus