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Ceylon, Andaman Islands, Formosa, and Borneo ; (794 — 799) Thamnobia (10 sp.), Ethiopian region and India to foot of Himalayas; (977) Gervasia (2 sp.), Madagascar and Seychelle Islands ; (845 847) Dronnolæa (18 sp.), Africa to South Europe, Palestine, Northwest India, and North China; (842 843 846) Saxicola (36 sp.), Africa, North-west India, whole Palæarctic region, migrating to Alaska and Greenland ; (848849) Oreicola (5 sp.), Timor, Lombok, and Burmah; (844) Cercomela (6 sp.), North-east Africa to North-west India ; (850) Pratincola (15 sp.), Europe, Ethiopian, and Oriental regions to Celebes and Timor; (917) Ephthianura (3 sp.), Australia ; (851 – 856) Petræca (17 sp.), Australian region, Papua to New Zealand, Chatham and Auckland Islands, and Samoa ; (857) Miro (2 sp.), New Zealand (doubtfully placed here).
7. ACCENTORINÆ.—(771) Cinclorhamphus (2 sp.), Australia ; . (860) Origma (1 sp.), East Australia; (859) Sialia (8 sp.), United States to Guatemala; (861) Accentor (12 sp.), Palæarctic region to Himalayas and North-west China ; (103) Orthonyx (4 sp.), East Australia and New Zealand (doubtfully placed here).
The following two genera, which have been usually classed as Ampelidæ, are arranged by Messrs. Sclater and Salvin in the Sylviidæ :
(1382) Myiadestes (8 sp.), Peru and Bolivia, along the Andes to Mexico and California, also the Antilles ; (1364) Cichlopsis (1 sp.), Brazil.
FAMILY 3.—TIMALIIDÆ. (35 Genera, 240 Species.)
NEOTROPICAL NEARCTIC PALÆARCTIC ETHIOPIAN I ORIENTAL AUSTRALIAX SUB-REGIONA. SUB-REGIONS. SUB-REGIONS. SUB-REGIONS. SUB-REGIONS. SUB-REGIONS.
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The Timaliidæ, or babbling thrushes, are a group of small strong-legged active birds, mostly of dull colours, which are especially characteristic of the Oriental region, in every part of which they abound, while they are much less plentiful in i the genera prefixed to the whole duinea ;
Australia and Africa. The Indo-Chinese sub-region is the head quarters of the family, whence it diminishes rapidly in all directions in variety of both generic and specific forms. Viscount Walden has kindly assisted me in the determination of the limits of this family, as to which there is still much difference of opinion. The distribution of the genera here admitted is as follows; and as the genera are widely scattered in the Hand List, reference numbers are prefixed in every case.
(1023 — 1028 1008) Pomatorhinus (27 sp.), the whole Oriental region (excluding Philippines), Australia and New Guinea ; (1027) Pterohinus (3 sp.), North China, East Thibet; (1029 1030) Malacocircus (9 sp.), Continental India and Ceylon, Arabia, Nubia; : (1031) Chatarrhæa (5 sp.), Abyssinia, Palestine, India, Nepal,
Burmah, and Philippines ; (1032) Layardia (3 sp.), India and Ceylon ; (1033) Acanthoptila (1 sp.), Nepal ; (1034) Cinclosoma (4 sp.), Australia and Tasmania : (1035 1036) Crateropus (18 sp.), all Africa, Persia; (1037) Hypergerus (1 sp.), West Africa : (1088) Cichladusa (3 sp.), Tropical Africa ; (1030) Garrulax (23 sp.), the Oriental region (excluding Philippines); (1040) Janthocincla (10 sp.), Nepal, to East Thibet, Sumatra, Formosa ; (1041 1042) Gampsorhynchus (2 sp.), Himalayas ; (1049) Grammatoptila (1 sp.) North India ; (1043 – 1045) Trochalopteron (24 sp.), all India to China and Formosa ; (1040) Actinodura (4 sp.), Nepal to Burmah, 3,000 - 10,000 feet; (1047) Pellorneum (4 sp.), Nepal to Ceylon, Tenasserim; (1158 1159) Timalia (12 sp.), Malaya ;' (1160) Dumetia (2 sp.), Central India and Ceylon; (1162) Stachyris (6 sp.), Nepal to Assam, Sumatra, Formosa ; (1164) Pyctorhis (3 sp.), India to Ceylon and Burmah; (1166) Micornis (8 sp.), Himalayas and Malaya ; (1167) Malacopteron (3 sp.), Malaya; (1168 1169) Alcippe (15 sp.), Ceylon and South India, Himalayas to Aracan, Malaya, Formosa, New Guinea ; (1170) Macronus (2 sp.), Malaya; (1171) Cacopitta (5 sp.), Malaya ; (1172) Trichastoma (11 sp.), Nepal, Burmah, Malaya, Celebes; (1173) Napothera (6 sp.), Malaya; (1174) Drymocataphus (8 sp.), Burmah, Malaya, Ceylon,
1 The term “ Malaya” is used here to include the Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, Borneo, and Java, a district to which many species and genera are confined. “Malay Archipelago " will be used to include both Indo-Malaya and Austro-Malaya.
Timor ; (1175) Turdinus (5 sp.), Khasia Hills, Malacca, Tenasserim; (1176) Trichixos (1 sp.), Borneo, Malacca ; (1004) Sibia (6 sp.), Nepal to Assam, Tenasserim, Formosa ; (1177 1178) Alethe (4 sp.), West Africa; (1178) Oxylabes (1 sp.), Madagascar; (1050) Psophodes (2 sp.), South, East, and West Australia ; (1048) Turnagra (3 sp.), New Zealand.
FAMILY 4.—PANURIDÆ. (4 Genera, 13 Species).
This new family is adopted, at the suggestion of Professor Newton, to include some peculiar groups of Himalayan birds whose position has usually been among the Timaliidæ or the Paridæ, but which are now found to be allied to our Bearded Reedling. The supposed affinity of this bird for the Tits has been long known to be erroneous, and the family Panuridæ was formed for its reception (Yarrell's British Birds, 4th edit. p. 512). The genera having hitherto been widely scattered in systematic works, are referred to by the numbers of Mr. G. R. Gray's Hand List.
(1901) Paradoxornis (3 sp.), Himalayas and East Thibet; (1904) Conostoma (1 sp.), Himalayas and East Thibet; (876) Suthora (8 sp), Himalayas to North-west China, Formosa; (877) Chlenasicus (1 sp.), Darjeeling ; (887) Panurus (1 sp.), Central and Southern Europe ; (1902) Heteromorpha (1 sp.), Nepal, 10,000 feet altitude; Cholornis (1 sp.), Moupin in East Thibet.
FAMILY 5.-CINCLIDÆ. (4 Genera, 27 Species.)
NEARCTIC PALÆARCTIC ETHIOPIAN I ORIENTAL I AUSTRALIAN SUB-REGIONS. SUB-KEGIONS. SUB-REGIONS. SUB-REGIONS, SUB-BEGIONS.
The Cinclidæ consist of a number of more or less thrush-like ground-birds, of which the most remarkable are the Dippers, forming the genus Cinclus. These are curiously distributed, from the Palæarctic region as a centre, to the alpine districts of North and South America; while the three genera which are here included as somewhat allied to Cinclus, all inhabit the Oriental region. The genera which I class in this family are the following :
(978) Cinclus (9 sp.), Palæarctic region to West China and Formosa, Rocky Mountains, and Mexico in North America, and southward to the Andes of Peru ; (916) Enicurus (9 sp.), Himalayas to Java and West China ; (979) Eupetes (4 sp.), Indo-Malay sub-region and New Guinea ; (971) Myiophonus (5 sp.), Himalayas to Ceylon, Java, South China, and Formosa.
(981) Mesites (1 sp.), Madagascar, is an anomalous bird placed with Eupetes by Mr. G. R. Gray, but of very uncertain affinities.
FAMILY 6.—TROGLODYTIDÆ. (17 Genera, 94 Species.)
NEOTROPICAL NEARCTIC | PALÆARCTIC ETHIOPIAN I ORIENTAL I AUSTRALIAN SUB-REGIONS. SUB-REGIONS. SUB-NEGIONS. SUB-REGIONS. | SUB-REGIONS. SUB-REGIONS.
The Troglodytidæ, or Wrens, are small birds, rather abundant and varied in the Neotropical region, with a few species scattered through the Nearotic, Palæarctic, and parts of the Oriental regions, and one doubtful genus in Africa. The constitution of the family is by no means well determined. The South American genera are taken from Messrs. Sclater and Salvin's Nomenclator Avium Neotropicalium.
Tesia (2 sp.), Eastern Himalayas, Pnoepyga (6 sp.), Himalayas to East Thibet, Java; (716 and 723) Troglodytes (15 sp.), Neotropical, Nearctic, and Palæarctic regions to the Higher Himalayas ; (697) Rimator (1 sp.), Darjeeling ; Thryothorus (13 sp.), South Brazil to Mexico, Martinique, and Nearctic region ; Thryophilus (13 sp.), Brazil to Mexico, and North-west America; Cistothorus
(5 sp.), Patagonia to Greenland; Uropsila (1 sp.), Mexico; Donacobius (2 sp.), Tropical America ; Campylorhynchus (18 sp.), Brazil, and Bolivia to Mexico and the Gila valley; Cyphorhinus (5 sp.), Equatorial South America to Costa Rica; Microcerculus (5 sp.), Brazil and Peru to Mexico; Henicorhina (2 sp.), Peru and Guiana to Costa Rica; Salpinctes (1 sp.), High Plains of Rocky Mountains; Catherpes (1 sp.), Mexico and Rio Grande; Cinnicerthia (2 sp.), Ecuador and Columbia. (760) Sylvietta (2 sp.), Tropical and South Africa,—is placed in this family by Mr. Tristram.
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The bird which forms the genus Chamæa inhabits California ; and though allied to the wrens it has certain peculiarities of structure which, in the opinion of many ornithologists, require that it should be placed in a distinct family.
FAMILY 8.–CERTHIIDÆ. (6 Genera, 18 Species.)
The Certhiidæ, or Creepers, form a small family whose species are thinly scattered over North America from Mexico, the Palæarctic region, parts of the Oriental region, and Australia, where they are somewhat more abundant. The distribution of the genera is as follows:
Certhia (6 sp.), Nearctic and Palæarctic regions, Nepal, and Sikhim; Salpornis (1 sp.), Central India; Tichodroma (1 sp.), South