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FAMILY 14.-ORIOLIDÆ. (5 Genera, 40 Species.)

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The Orioles, or Golden Thrushes, are a small group characteristic of the Oriental and Ethiopian regions, migrating into the western Palearctic region, and with some of the less typical forms in Australia. The genera are :

Oriolus (24 sp.), Central Europe, throughout Africa, and the whole Oriental region, northward to Pekin, and eastward to Flores ; (1073) Analcipus (3 sp.), Himalayas, Formosa, Java and Borneo; Mimeta (9 sp.), the Moluccas and Australia; Sphecotheres (3 sp.), Timor and Australia. Artamia (1 sp.), Madagascar,perhaps belongs to the next family or to Laniidæ.

FAMILY 15.—CAMPEPHAGIDÆ. (3 Genera, 100 Species.)

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The Campephagidæ, or Cuckoo Shrikes, (Campephaginæ of the Hand List, with the addition of Cochoa) are most abundant in the Australian region (especially in the Austro-Malay subregion) less so in the Oriental, and still less in the Ethiopian region. The genera, for the most part as adopted by Dr. Hartlaub, are as follows:

Pericrocotus (22 sp.), the whole Oriental region, extending north to Pekin, and east to Lombok; (1242 — 1244) Lanicterus (4 sp.), West and South Africa ; (1245 1246) Graucalus (25 sp.), the whole Oriental region, and eastward to Austro-Malaya, the New

Hebrides, and Tasmania; Artamides (1 sp.), Celebes ; Pteropo. docys (1 sp.), Australia ; (1248 1250 1257 1258) Campephaga (16 sp.), Austro-Malaya, and New Caledonia, Philippines, the Ethiopian region; Volvocivora (8 sp.) the Oriental region (excluding Philippines); Lalage (18 sp.), the whole Malay Archipelago to New Caledonia and Australia; Symmorphus (1 sp.), Australia; Oxynotus (2 sp.), Mauritius and Bourbon ; (1204) Cochoa (3 sp.), Himalayas, Java. The position of this last genus is doubtful. Jerdon puts it in the Liotrichidæ; Sundeval in the Sturnidæ ; Bonaparte in the Dicruridæ; Professor Newton suggests the Pycnonotidæ ; but it seems on the whole best placed here.

FAMILY 16.-DICRURIDÆ. (6 Genera, 58 Species.)

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The Dicruridæ, or Drongo Shrikes (Dicruridæ of the Hand List, omitting the genus Melanornis), have nearly the same distribution as the last family, with which they are sometimes united. They are, however, most abundant and varied in the Oriental region, much less so both in the Australian and Ethiopian regions. The distribution of the genera is as follows :

Dicrurus (46 sp., in several sub-genera), has the range of the whole family, extending east to New Ireland, and one species in Australia ; Chætorhynchus (1 sp.), New Guinea; Bhringa (2 sp.), Himalayas to Borneo (Plate IX. vol. i. p. 339); Chibia (2 sp.) Himalayas eastward to North China; Chaptia (3 sp.), all India to Malacca and Formosa; Irena (4 sp.), Central India, Assam, and Burmah to Borneo and the Philippine Islands. This last genus is placed by Jerdon among the Pycnonotidæ, but seems to come most naturally here or in the last family.

FAMILY 17.-MUSCICAPIDÆ. (44 Genera, 283 Species.)

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The Muscicapidæ, or Flycatchers (Muscicapinæ and Myiagrinæ of the Hand List, omitting Cochoa and including Pogonocichla) form an extensive family of usually small-sized and often brightcoloured birds, very abundant in the warmer regions of the Old World and Australia, but becoming scarce as we approach the temperate and colder regions. They are wholly absent from North and South America. The genera, many of which are not well defined, are distributed as follows :

Peltops (1 sp.), Papuan Islands; Monarcha (28 sp.), Moluccas to the Carolines and Marquesas Islands, Australia and Tasmania; Leucophantes (1 sp.), New Guinea ; Butalis (4 sp.), Ethiopian and Palæarctic regions, Moluccas and Formosa ; Muscicapa (12 sp.), Europe and Africa ; Muscicapula (6 sp.), India to Western China; Alseonax (1 sp.), South Africa; Erythrosterna (7 sp.), Europe to China and Java; Newtonia (1 sp.), Madagascar; Xanthopygia (2 sp.), Japan, China, Malacca ; Hemipus (1 sp.), India and Ceylon ; Pycnophrys (1 sp.), Java; Hyliota (2 sp.), West Africa; Erythrocercus (2 sp.), West Africa and Zambesi; Micræca (6 sp.), Australia, Timor, and Papuan Islands ; Artomyias (2 sp.), West Africa; Pseudobias (1 sp.), Madagascar; Hemichelidon (3 sp.), the Oriental region and North China ; Smithornis (2 sp.), West and South Africa; Megabias (1 sp.), West Africa ; Cassinia (2 sp.), West Africa; Bias, (1 sp.), Tropical Africa; Niltava (3 sp.), Himalayas to West China ; Cyornis (16 sp.), the whole Oriental region ; Cyanoptila (1 sp.), Japan, China, Hainan; Eumyias (7 sp.), India to South China, Ceylon, and Sumatra ; (1213 and 1216) Siphia (8 sp.), North India, Formosa, Timor ; Anthipes (1 sp.), Nepal ; Seisura (5 sp.), Australia and Austro

Malaya (excluding Celebes); (Myiagra (16 sp.), Australia and Moluccas to Caroline and Samoa Islands : Hypothymis (2 sp.), Oriental region and Celebes ; Elminia (2 sp.), Tropical Africa ; Muscitodus (2 sp.), Fiji Islands ; Machorirhynchus (4 sp.), Papuan Islands and North Australia ; Platystira (12 sp.), Tropical and South Africa; Rhipidura (45 sp.), the Oriental and Australian regions to the Samoa Islands and Tasmania ; Chelidorynx (1 sp.), North India; Myialestes (2 sp.), India to Ceylon, China, Java and Celebes ; Tchitrea (26 sp.), the entire Ethiopian and Oriental regions, and to North China and Japan; Philentoma (4 sp.) Malacca, Sumatra, Borneo, and Philippine Islands; Todopsis (6 sp.), Papuan Islands; (838) Pogonocichla (1 sp.), South Africa; (1061 — 1063) Bradyornis (7 sp.), Tropical and South Africa; (1460) Chasiempis (2 sp.), Sandwich Islands.

FAMILY 18.-PACHYCEPHALIDÆ. (5 Genera, 62 Species.)

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The Pachycephalidæ, or Thick-headed Shrikes (Pachycephaline of the Hand List omitting Colluricincla, Cracticus, and Pardalotus) are almost confined to the Australian region, a single species extending to Java and Aracan, and another (?) to Madagascar. The family has generally been united with the Laniidæ, but most modern ornithologists consider it to be distinct. The distribution of the genera is as follows :

Orecca (1 sp.), Australia ; Falcunculus (2 sp.), Australia ; Pachycephala (44 sp.), Sula Islands (east of Celebes) to the Fiji Islands, and Australia ; Hylocharis (4 sp.), Timor, Celebes, IndoMalaya, and Aracan; Calicalicus (1 sp.), Madagascar; Eopsaltria (14 sp.), Australia, New Caledonia, and the New Hebrides ; Artamia (4 sp.), Madagascar,—may belong to this family, or to Lanijdæ, Oriolidæ, or Artamidæ, according to different authors

FAMILY 19.—LANIIDÆ (19 Genera, 145 Species.)

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The Laniidæ, or Shrikes (Lanjinæ and Malaconotinæ of the Hand List, and including Colluricincla), are most abundant and varied in Africa, less plentiful in the Oriental, Australian, and Palæarctic regions, with a few species in the Nearctic region as far as Mexico. The constitution of the family is, however, somewhat uncertain. The genera here admitted are :

Colluricincla (4 sp.), Australia and Tasmania ; Rectes (18 sp.), Papuan Islands, North Australia, to Pelew and Fiji Islands ; (1462 — 1464 1466 1470 1471 – 1473) Lanius (50 sp.), the whole Nearctic, Palæarctic, Ethiopian, and Oriental regions, one species reaching Timor, none in Madagascar; Laniellus (1 sp.), Java; Hypocolius (1 sp.), Abyssinia and Upper Nile; Corvinella (1 sp.), South and West Africa; Urolestes (1 sp.), South and East Africa; Tephrodornis (4 sp.), Oriental region to Hainan and Java ; Hypodes (1 sp.), West Africa; Fraseria (2 sp.), West Africa; Cuphopterus (1 sp.), Princes' Island; Nilaus (1 sp.), South and West Africa; Prionops (9 sp.), Tropical Africa; Eurocephalus (2 sp.), North, East, and South Africa, and Abyssinia ; Chaunonotus (1 sp.), West Africa; Vanga (4 sp.), Madagascar (Plate VI. vol. i. p. 278); Laniarius (36 sp.), the whole Ethiopian region; Telephonus (10 sp.), all Africa and South Europe; Meristes (2 sp.), Tropical and South Africa ; Nicator (1 sp.), East Africa.

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