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Streptocitta (2 sp.), Celebes ; Charitornis (1 sp.), Sula Islands; Cirrus (55 sp.), universally distributed except South America and New Zealand, but found in Guatemala and the Antilles to Porto Rico; reaches the extreme north of Europe and Asia; Gymnocorvus (2 sp.), Papuan Islands; Picathartes (1 sp.), West Africa ; Corvultur (2 sp.), Tropical and South Africa.

Sub-family V. Fregilinæ (Choughs).-Fregilus (3 sp.), mountains and cliffs of Palæarctic region from West Europe to the Himalayas and North China, Abyssinia (Plate I., Vol. I., p. 195); Corcorar (1 sp.), Australia.

FAMILY 21.-PARADISEIDE. (19 Genera, 34 Species.)

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The Paradiseidæ, or “Birds of Paradise," form one of the most remarkable families of birds, unsurpassed alike for the singularity and the beauty of their plumage. Till recently the family was restricted to about eight species of the more typical Paradise birds, but in his splendid monograph of the group, Mr. Elliot has combined together a number of allied forms which had been doubtfully placed in several adjacent families. The various species of true Paradise birds, having ornamental plumes developed from different parts of the body, are almost wholly confined to New Guinea and the adjacent Papuan Islands, one species only being found in the Moluccas and one in North Australia ; while the less typical Bower-birds, having no such developments of plumage, are most characteristic of the north and east of Australia, with a few species in New Guinea. The distribution of the genera according to Mr. Elliot's monograph is as follows :

Sub-family I. Paradiseinæ. - Paradiseа (4 sp.), Papuan Islands; Manucodia (3 sp.), Papuan Islands and North Australia; Astrapia (1 sp.), New Guinea; Parotia (1 sp.), New Guinea ; Lophorhina (1 sp.), New Guinea; Diphyllodes (3 sp.), Papuan

Islands; Xanthomelus (1 sp.), New Guinea; Cicinnurus (1 sp.), Papuan Islands; Paradigalla (1 sp.), New Guinea ; Senioptera (1 sp.), Gilolo and Batchian.

Sub-family II. Epimachine.Epimachus (1 sp.), New Guinea ; Drepanornis (1 sp.), New Guinea ; Seleucides (1 sp.), New Guinea (Plate X., Vol. I., p. 414); Ptilorhis (4 sp.), New Guinea and North Australia.

Sub-family III. Tectonarchinæ (Bower-birds).--Sericulus (1 sp.), Eastern Australia ; Ptilonorhynchus (1 sp.), Eastern Australia; Chlamydodera (4 sp.), North and East Australia ; Ælurædus (3 sp.), Papuan Islands and East Australia; Amblyornis (1 sp.), New Guinea.

FAMILY 22.—MELIPHAGIDÆ. (23 Genera, 190 Species.)

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(As in the Hand List, but omitting Zosterops, and slightly

altering the arrangement.) The extensive group of the Meliphagide, or Honey-suckers, is wholly Australian, for the genus Zosterops, which extends into the Oriental and Ethiopian regions, does not naturally belong to it. Several of the genera are confined to Australia, others to New Zealand, while a few range over the whole Australian region. The genera are distributed as follows:

Myzomela (18 sp.), has the widest range, extending from Celebes to the Samoa Islands, and to Timor and Eastern Australia ; Entomophila (4 sp.), Australia and New Guinea; Gliciphila (10 sp.), Australia, Timor, New Guinea, and New Caledonia ; Acanthorhynchus (2 sp.), Australia and Tasmania; Meliphaga (1 sp.), Australia ; Ptilotis (40 sp.), Gilolo and Lombok to Australia and Tasmania, and to the Samoa and Tonga Islands; Meliornis (5 sp.). Australia and Tasmania ; Prosthemadera (1 sp.), Pogonornis (1 sp.), New Zealand ; Anthornis (4 sp.), New Zealand and Chatham Islands; Anihochora (4 sp.), Australia and Tasmania; Xan

thotis (4 sp.), Papuan Islands and Australia ; Leptornis (2 sp.), Samoa Islands and New Caledonia; Philemon = Tropidorhyncus (18 sp.), Moluccas and Lombok to New Guinea, Australia, Tasmania and New Caledonia ; Entomiza (2 sp.), Australia ; Manorhina (5 sp.), Australia and Tasmania ; Euthyrhynchus (3 sp.), New Guinea; Melirrhophetes (2 sp.), New Guinea ; Melidectes (1 sp.), New Guinea; Melipotes (1 sp.), New Guinea ; Melithreptus (8 sp.), New Guinea, Australia, and Tasmania; (397) Moho (3 sp.), Sandwich Islands; Chætoptila (1 sp.), Sandwich Islands.

FAMILY 23.–NECTARINIIDÆ. (16 Genera, 122 Species.)

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The Nectarinude, or Sun-birds, form a rather extensive group of insectivorous honey-suckers, often adorned with brilliant metallic plumage, and bearing a superficial resemblance to the American humming-birds, although not in any way related to them. They abound in the Ethiopian, Oriental, and Australian regions, as far east as New Ireland, and south to Queensland, while one species inhabits the hot Jordan Valley in the Palæarctic region. For the Eastern genera I follow Lord Walden's classification (Ibis, 1870); the African species not having been so carefully studied are mostly placed in one genus. The genera adopted are as follows:

Promerops (1 sp), South Africa; Nectarinia (60 sp.), the whole Ethiopian region ; Cinnyricinclus (5 sp.), West Africa ; Drepanornis (1 sp.), Madagascar; Arachnecthra (13 sp.), Palestine, all India to Hainan, the Papuan Islands, and North-east Australia; Athopyga (15 sp.), Himalayas and Central India to West China, Hainan, Java, and Northern Celebes; Nectarophila (5 sp.), Central India and Ceylon, Assam and Aracan to Java, Celebes and the Philippines ; Chalcostetha (6 sp.), Malay Peninsula to New Guinea; Anthreptes (1 sp.), Siam, Malay Peninsula to

Sula Islands, and Flores; Cosmeteira (1 sp.), Papuan Islands ; Arachnothera (15 sp.), the Oriental region (excluding Philippines) Celebes, Lombok, and Papuan Islands.

FAMILY 24.-DICÆIDÆ. (5 Genera, 107 Species.)

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The Dicæidæ, or Flower-peckers, consist of very small, gailycoloured birds, rather abundant over the whole Oriental and much of the Australian regions, and one genus extending over the Ethiopian region. The genera here adopted are the following:

(622) Zosterops (68 sp.), the whole Ethiopian, Oriental, and Australian regions, as far east as the Fiji Islands, and north to Pekin and Japan; (400 – 403) Diceum (25 sp.), the whole Oriental region, except China, with the Australian region as far as the Solomon Islands ; (404) Pachyglossa (2 sp. 1437 1442), Nepal and Northern Celebes ; (105) Piprisoma (2 sp.), Himalayas to Ceylon and Timor; (1450) Pardalotus (10 sp.), Australia and Tasmania; (107 — 409) Prionochilus (5 sp.), Indo-Malay sub-region and Papuan Islands.

FAMILY 25.-DREPANIDIDÆ. (4 Genera, 8 Species.)

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The Drepanididæ are confined to the Sandwich Islands, and I follow Mr. Sclater's suggestion in bringing together the following genera to form this family :

Drepanis (3 sp.); Hemignathus (3 sp.); Loxops (1 sp.); Psittirostra (1 sp.). If these are correctly associated, the great

differences in the bill indicate that they are the remains of a larger and more varied family, once inhabiting more extensive land surfaces in the Pacific.

FAMILY 26.-CEREBIDE. (11 Genera, 55 Species.)

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(According to the arrangement of Messrs. Sciater and Salvin.)

The Carebidæ, or Sugar-birds, are delicate little birds allied to the preceding families, but with extensile honey-sucking tongues. They are almost wholly confined to the tropical parts of America, only one species of Certhiola ranging so far north as Florida. The following is the distribution of the genera :

Diglossa (14 sp.), Peru and Bolivia to Guiana and Mexico; Diglossopis (1 sp.), Ecuador to Venezuela ; Oreomanes (1 sp.), Ecuador; Conirostrum (6 sp.), Bolivia to Ecuador and Columbia ; Hemidacnis (1 sp.), Upper Amazon and Columbia; Dacnis (13 sp.), Brazil to Ecuador and Costa Rica ; Certhidea (2 sp.), Galapagos Islands ; Chlorophanes (2 sp.), Brazil to Central America and Cuba; Cereba (4 sp.), Brazil to Mexico; Certhiola (10 sp.), Amazon to Mexico, West Indies, and Florida; Glossoptila (1 sp.), Jamaica

FAMILY 27.—MNIOTILTIDÆ. (18 Genera, 115 Species.)

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(Messrs. Sclater and Salvin are followed for the Neotropical,

Baird and Allen for the Nearctic region.) The Mniotiltidæ, or Wood-warblers, are an interesting group of small and elegant birds, allied to the preceding family and io the greenlets, and perhaps also to the warblers and tits of Europe.

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