« EelmineJätka »
a further political allusion (No. 9). It is very skilfully arranged | carly in the morning, a patch of wet stucco was laidl, about enough to fit in the awkward space round the window, and is remarkable to serve for the day's painting ; this of course obliterated the outfor an attempt, not much suited for fresco-painting, to combine line on the wall, and the part covered by the patch was again anıl contrast the three different qualities of light coming from the sketched in by freehand, with a point on the wet stucco, so as to moon, the glory round the angel, and the torches of the sentinels. be a guide for the outline traced with the brush and the subsequent
For rooin C Raphael designed and partly painted the Incendio del painting. A line impressed on the wet stucco was easily smoothel Borgo (No. 11), à fire in the Borgo or Leonine City, which was out, but a touch of the brush full of pigment sank devply into the iniraculously stopped by Leo IV. appearing and making the sign moist stucco, and could not easily be effaced. It will thus be seen of the cross at a window in the Vatican. In the background is that in fresco painting the only use of pouncing the whole design shown the facade of the old basilica of St Peter, not yet destroyed on to the wall was to keep the general positions of the figures right, when this fresco was painted. One group on the left, in the fore and was no guidle as to the drawing of each separate part. Fig. 5 ground, is remarkable for its vigour and powerful drawing; the shows the portrait-heads of himself and Perugino, at the extreme inotive is taken from the burning of Troy; a fine nude figure of left of the School of Athens ; on this are visible many of the Eneas issues from the burning houses bearing on his back the old impressed sketch-lives, and also part of the "fresco edge” of the Anchises and leading the boy Ascanius by the land. Some of the patch on which this part is painteil. The heads in this figure are female figures are designed with much grace and dramatic power. less than one day's work. It will be seen that there is no attempt Many studies for this picture exist. This is the last of the stanze at any accuracy of drawing in the impressed lines. Raphael, especi. frescos on which Raphael himself worked. Others designed by ally in his later frescos, worked with wonderful rapidity: three him and painted by Giulio Romano, Gianfrancesco l'enni, and other life-sized busts, or half a full-length figure, more than life-size, pupils were the Battle of Ostia (No. 12), a very nobly composed was a not unusual day's work. In some of the frescos the edges picture, and the Oath of Leo III. before Charlemagne (No. 14). of each day's patch of stucco can easily be tracel, especially in the 'The other great picture in this room (No. 13), the Coronation of Incendio del Borgo, which has a strong sidle light. In the Disputa Charlemagno (a portrait of Francis I. of France), is so very inferior | much use was made of tempera in the final touches, but less was in composition that it is difficult to believe that Raphael even made useil in the subsequent frescos, owing to his increasing mastery of a sketch for it. The enormous fresco of the Defeat of Maxentius the difficulties of the process. by Constantine (room D, No. 17) was painted by Giulio Romano,
The paintings in the stanze were only a small part of soon after Raphael's death, from a sketch by the latter; it is even nioro harsh and disagreeable in colour than most of Giulio Romano's Raphael's work between 1509 and 1513. To this period carly frescos. Among the other very inferior frescos in this great belong the Madonna of Foligno (Vatican), painted in 1511 hall are two female figures (Nos. 15 and 16) representing Comitas for Sigismondo Conti; it is one of his most beautiful and Justitia, painted on the wall in oil colours, very harmonious compositions, full of the utmost grace and sweetness of and rich in tone; they are usually, though wrongly, attributed to expression, and appears to be wholly the work of his hand. Raphael himself.
Technical Methods employed in Raphael's Frescos. — Having It has suffered much from repaintiny. Of about the same made many studies, both nude and draped, for single figures and date are the gem-like (iarvayh Madonna (National (allery,
bought for £9000; once in the possession of the Aldobrandini family), the Diademed Virgin of the Louvre, and the Madonna del Pesce at Madrid. The last is a very noble picture, but the design is more pleasing than the colour, which, like other paintings of Raphael's at Madrid, suggests the inferior touch of a pupil; it was executed in 1513 for S. Domenico in Naples. In addition to other casel pictures a number of his finest portraits belong to this perioul.. that of Julius II. (lollizi), of which a good replica or contemporary copy exists in the National Gallery, the so-called Fornarina in the Palazzo Barberini, the Baldassare ('astiglione of the Louvre, and the unfinished portrait of Feveriyo (ionzaya of Mantua.
When Giovanni de' Medici, at the age of thirty-eight, became popie as Leo I., a period of the most glowing splendour and reckless magnificence succeeded the sterner rule of Julius II. Ayostino (hiyi, the Sienese financier, was the chief of those who e lavish expenditure contributeel to enrich Rome with countless works of art. For him Raphael painteil, in 1913-11, the very leautiful fresco) of the Triumpılı of Galatea in his new palace by the Tibes Tank, the Villa Farnesina, and also maile a large series of magnificent desins from spulleius's romaner of ('upiel and Psyche, which were carried out by a number of his pupils. These cover the vault and lumettes of a large logisia (now closed in for protection); in colouring they are mo-tly harsh and candy; " - is 11-nally the case with the works of his papil, a uret contrast to the fresco of the (alatra, the criater part of which is curtainly the
master's own work." For tlie -le patron he quinteil Fl. 3. - Head of Raphael and Peruginn from the School of Athens, showing incinel lines and "fresco elges."
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(also in 1513) his celebrated Sibyls in S. Maria della Pace, known about the Madonna di S. Sisto, the glory of the —figures of exquisite grace, arranged with perfect skill Dresden Gallery; no studies or sketches for it exist. In in an awkward space. It is not without reason that style it much resembles the Madonna di Foligno; it is Vasari gives these the highest position among his fresco- less injured by restoration than the latter. paintings.1 Agostino Chigi also employed Raphael to Among the latest works of Raphael are the large St build for him a private chapel in S. Maria del Popolo, and Michael and the Devil, in the Louvre, signed “Raphael to make a series of cartoons to be executed in mosaic on Urbinas pingebat, MDXVIII.," and the very beautiful porthe inner dome. The central medallion has a figure of trait of the Violin-player, in the Sciarra-Colonna Palace in God among clouds and angel boys, such as Raphael drew Rome, also dated 1518; this last bears much resemblance with unrivalled grace (fig. 6), and around are the eight to the painter himself. The British Museum possesses
one of Raphael's finest portraits, though only a chalk drawing, that of his friend the painter Timoteo della Vite, a masterpiece of expression and vigour; it is executed in black and red, and is but little inferior in chromatic effect to an oil-painting; it is life-size, and is executed with wonderful skill and evident keen interest in the subject.
The tapestry cartoons, seven of which are in the South Kensington Museum, were painted by pupils from Raphael's designs. They are part of a set of ten, with scenes from the Acts of the Apostles, intended, when copied in tapestry, to adorn the lower part of the walls of the Sistine chapel. The tapestries themselves, worked at Brussels, are now, after many vicissitudes, hung in a gallery in the Vatican; the set is complete, thus preserving the design of the three lost cartoons. The existing seven, after being cut up into strips for use on the looms, were bought by Rubens for Charles I. The tapestry copies are executed with wonder
ful skill, in spite of Raphael's having treated the subjects FIG. 6.—Mosaic of God creating the stars, from the Chigi chapel, in
in a purely pictorial way, with little regard to the exicentre of dome, designed by Raphael.
gencies of textile work. The designs are reversed, and the planets, each with its pagan deity and directing angel.3 colours far more brilliant than those of the cartoons, much He has not hampered himself by any of the usual rules gold and silver being introduced. The noble figure of which should apply to the designing of mosaic; they are
Christ in the Delivery of the Keys to St Peter is in the simply treated as pictures, with almost deceptive effects tapestry much disfigured by the addition of a number of of perspective. The execution of these brilliant mosaics large gold stars all over the drapery, which spoil the simple was carried out by the Venetian Luigi della Pace, whose dignity of the folds. The rich framework round each picsignature is introduced on the torch of Cupid in the panel ture, designed by Raphael's pupils, probably by Penni and representing the star Venus (Ludovico della
Giovanni da Udine, exists in the tapestries and adds greatly LV
to their decorative effect. Pace Veneziano fecit, 1516). These mosaics
The cartoons were executed in
DP are still as perfect and brilliant as if they
1515 and 1516, and the finished tapestries were first exhiwere the work of yesterday. Probably in
F 1516 bited in their place in the Sistine chapel on 26th December the early years of Leo X.'s reign were painted the Madonna 1519,-a very short time for the weaving of such large della Seggiola (Pitti), the S. Cecilia at Bologna (not com
and elaborate pictures. The three of which the cartoons pleted till 1516), the miniature Vision of Ezekiel (Pitti), are lost represent the Martyrdom of St Stephen, the Conand three important pictures at Madrid. The latest of version of St Paul, and St Paul in Prison at Philippi
. these, known as Lo Spasimo, froin the church at Palermo, Probably no pictures are better known or have been more for which it was painted, is one of Raphael's finest com
often engraved and copied than these seven cartoons.? positions, representing Christ bearing His Cross. It bears The Trunsfiguration. 8—In 1519 Cardinal Giuliano de' signs of Giulio Romano's hand in its heavy colouring with Medici (afterwards Clement VII.), as bishop of Narbonne, unpleasant purple tones. The Madonna called Della Perla ordered two altar-pieces for his cathedral,—the one by has much changed from the darkening of the pigments; Raphael
, the other by Raphael's Venetian rival Sebastiano in design it recalls Leonardo da Vinci.4
The small del Piombo (see SEBASTIANO). That by the latter painter Madonna della Rosa is the most perfect in colour of all is the noble Resurrection of Lazarus, now in the National the master's pictures in the Madrid Gallery, and is usually Gallery, in the drawing of which the Venetian received rather undervalued; it is a most graceful little picture. important aid from Michelangelo. Several studies for The portrait of Leo X. with Cardinals de' Rossi and de' Raphael's picture exist, showing that he at first intended Medici, in the Pitti, is one of his finest portrait-pictures, to paint a Resurrection of Christ as a pendant to Sebasespecially as regards the figure of the pope.5 Little is tiano's subject, but soon altered his scheme into the Trans
figuration. The eight or nine existing studies are scattered 1 Thanks to Michelangelo's generous intervention, Raphael was paid through the Oxford, Lille, Windsor, and some private the large sum for that time of 900 gold ducats for this fresco.
2 Gruner, Mosaici in S. Maria del Popolo, Rome, 1839. 3 In accordance with Dante's scheme in the Paradiso.
6 Fortunately they were not sold with the bulk of Charles's collec4 La Perla, “the pearl ” of the Spanish royal collection, was origin- tion, and remained at Hampton Court till a few years ago. See Koch, ally painted for Bishop Louis of Canossa ; it was sold by Cromwell with Rafael's Tapeten im Vatican, Vienna, 1878, and Müntz, Hist. de la the greater part of Charles I.'s collection at Hampton Court. The com tapisserie Italienne, Paris, 1880. position, though not the execution, of this picture belongs to Raphael's i The name “arazzi” given by Italians to these tapestries is derived early years in Rome; it is very remarkable for its delicacy of touch and from Arras, where they were erroneously thought to have been woven ; high finish.
they were made at Brussels. It is much to be regretted that visitors 5 The magnificent portrait-heads of the Venetian scholars Navagero | to the Vatican are no longer allowed to see these priceless examples of and Beazzano, now in the Doria Gallery in Rome, are worthy of Raphael textile work. at his best, and have for long been attributed to him. There are good 8 See Morgenstern, Ucber Rafael's Verklärung, Leipsic, 1822, and contemporary copies at Madrid.
Justi, Die l'erklärung Christi, Leipsic, 1870.
collections. A great part of the lower group was un- | preliminary part of the sculptor's art, though there is no evidence finished at the time of the painter's sudden death in 1520,
to show that he ever worked on marble.4 One of these is a letter and a good deal of the heavy colouring of Giulio Romano
written to Michelangelo to warn him that Raphael had been in
vading his province as a sculptor by modelling a boy, which haid is visible in it. On the death of Raphael the picture be been executed in marble by a pupil, and was a work of much came too precious to send out of Rome, and Cardinal de beauty. Again, after his death his friend Baldassare Castiglione, Medici contented himself with sending the Resurrection of in a letter dated $th May 1523, asks his steward in Rome “if Lazarus to Narbonne. The Transfiguration was bequeathed and what his lowest price for it would be," ><s’rgli [Giulio Romano]
Giulio Romano still possesses a certain boy in marble by Raphael by him to the monks of S. Pietro in Montorio, in whose ha più quel puttino di marmo di mano di Raffaello e per quanto si church it remained till it was stolen by Napoleon I. It daria all'ultimo.” A group in marble of a Dead Boy on his Dolphin now hangs in the Vatican Gallery.
Playfellow, now in
the Architectural Work.1 — Though he designed but few buildings,
St Petersburg Raphael's great repate even in this branch of art is shown by the Hermitage, has been fact that Bramante, before his death in March 1514, specally
erroneously supposed requested that Raphael should be made his successor as chief archi
to be Raphael's "puttect of St Peter's. To this most important post he was appointed tino," which has also
been identified with by a brief of Leo X., dated 1st August 1514. The progress of St Peter's was, however, too slow for him to leave much mark on its
a statuette of a child design. . Another work of Bramante's, completed by Raphael, was
till recently at Florthe graceful Cortile di S. Damaso in the Vatican, including the
ence in the possession loggio, which were decorated with stucco-reliefs and paintings of
of Signor Molini.5 sacred subjects by his pupils under his own supervision, but only The statue of Jonah
executed in very partially from his designs. The Palazzo dell'Aquila, built
marble by Lorenfor Giovanni Battista Branconio, and destroyed in the 17th century during the extension of St Peter's, was one of Raphael's chief work's zetto, a Florentine as an architect. IIe also designed the little cross church, domicil sculptor; and it reat the intersection like a miniature St Peter's, called S. Eligio mained in his studio
for degli Orefici, which still exists near the Tiber, almost opposite the
many years after Farnesina gardens, a work of but little merit. According to M.
Raphael's death. The
South Kensington Geymuller, whose valuable work, Raffaello come Architetto, Milan, 1883, has done so much to increase our knowledge of tifis subject, small clay'sketch for the Villa Farnesina of Agostino Chigi, usually attributed to Peruzzi,
this beautiful group, was, as well as its palaco-like stables, designed by Raphael ; but
dillerent internal evidence makes this very difficult to believe. It has too
from the marble; it much of the delicate and refined character of the 15th century for Rapliacl, whose tasto seems to have been strongly inclined to the
is probably the orimore developed classic style, of which l'allailio afterwarıls became ginal design by the the chief exponent. Thộ Palazzo Vidoni, near S. Andrea della master's own hand.
The whole feeling of Valle, also in Roine, is usually attributed to Raphael, but an original sketch for this in Peruzzi's own hand has recently been
the group-2 beautiidentified among the collection of drawings at Siena ; this, how
ful youth seated on ever, is not a certain proof that the design was not Raphael's. M.
sca - monster - is Geymuller has, however, shown that the Villa Madama, on the purely classical, and
the motive is probslopes of Monte Mario above Rome, was really designed by him,
from though its actual carrying out, and the unrivalled stucco-reliet's ably taken which make its interior one of the most magnificent palaces in the
sone antique statue F16. 7.—Statue of Jonah in the Chigi chapel, world, are due to Giulio Romano and Giovanni da Udine, as men
representing Arion designed by Raphael, sculptured by Lorenor Taras on a dol
zetto; heroic size. tioned in Vasari's life of the latter. The original design for this villa made by Raphael himself has been discovered by M. Gerphin. Bring intended for a churrh it was necessary to give the muller. Another architectural work was the little l'higi chapel in iure a semul nube, and hence the very incongruous title that it 8. Maria del Popolo, built in 1516, for the dome of which the recrired. There is no trace of Raphael's hand in the design of the above-mentioned mosties were designer (sce fiy. 6). At the time
other statue, in Elijah loy Lorenzetto, though it also is ascribed to
him by Vasuri. of his death he was preparing to buildl himself a handsome palace near the church of S. Eligio; the deed for the purchase of its site
Lissi arts protisci hui Tipurl.–Like other great artists, was signed by him only a few days before his last short illness. Raphacl did not diselain to practise the lower branches of ait : : Though not completed till 1530, the Palazzo Pandoltini at Florence in an engraving to Marco da Ravenna; and he also designed two
design for a silver perfume-burner with female caryatid is preserved wa also designed by him ; it is a dull scholastic building without
1....some l'ipotesse salvers for Aurontino Chigi, iawing for which any special beauty citler in proportion or treatment of the mas; it is illustrated by Montigny and lamin, <lrchitecture Tourile,
are now at Delen. In designs for tarsia - Work and wool carr. Paris, 1815, pls. 33-36.
ing lie Wils especially skilful ; witness the magnificent doors and Ashe'r criticism of Raphael's architectural works must forer one
-hunters of the stanze routed by his pupil Giovanni Barile of
Siina. The majolika do wins attributed to liim were liv a name to refue him a high position in this branch of art. In the church ofs. Eligio and the chigi chapul he is merely a copyist of Bramante, fine dishes and its of libing and other majolie a are decoratoil
sike and relation will R:111111o di Ciali ; and, though many anil his more original works show but little power of invention or even mastery of the first principles of architectural design. His
with Raphael's clesigns, they are all takra from poisture's or grisdetails are, however, often delicate and refined specially in the in! Rally done by him for crtami p. With the
frivolite ot his Lol...-jonally w.l-Raplar's skill 11 Palazzo Pandolfini!, and he was supremely successful in the secondtire treatment of richly ornamento interiors when he did not, ils
wortiny olojos -114 l as the SITY of a typo3.111 the air: anil in some of the Vaticani stanze, sacritice the room to the frescos on
in 1570 ile "p" wit luim to print in front portrait life-si7a its wall:
of a large companie, the rits of the king of Portugal, after the Sulurr.--That Pasiri is right in attributing to him the model for the beautiful statue of Jonah in the Chigi chapel tini in
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Twiller Rilis "l'"r". home witness to by two importint dokuments, which show that
1.1. tlieboroute this thesisilla oli of the lahl his almost unirerxil talents led him to attempt with suces the mouth 1111: the car'"'r t... J's W.'! 11:"1" droit, lara" 1"
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= $. 111, 11., 1 V:!:po:!.!.f9a-9:1: Ret...li. V Mariant, la min wallonie 11.7 ., Rome; Anon., ti, di v". Toupie del lotto, Rome, 1941: and Girer. 1. D... 101.in, 1,", Rries Thi*!:00' W : ...";
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6 1.MN lot szt.? .:. p. 1.3. .!.:::.:.: IS Gimner, From Iraniline, &r., Lonilon, 194, pl, 1-12. and Rafllon Sunft, brats de l'in Vinama, &c., Robin, 19 Two!!. lir!, k. 1 Thir1.1'!.!..il ...-...-T. - . !. But rery Imantiful arhitretural works, Fritol melier Raphari inter r",-1! 1.'1, 1, 1:31... carr. To !: hy he pupils, ar the larhram of Carlinal Bilogoret: 1 in the varian anii 11,00 1111:... " ! j' lfr. R1;!.*.:.:. han ref (lement VII. in the castle of S. In... Pichle domaine
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.: with delicate stucco-reliefs and paintings, treated after a clown.call.
animal was dead. This elephant is also introduced among the for a church, a large historical fresco, a portrait, or decorstucco reliefs of the Vatican loggie, with the poetaster Barrabal ative scenes from classical mythology, he seems to excel sitting in mock triumph on its back.
Though Raphael himself does not appear to have practised the art equally in each; and the widely different methods of | of engraving, yet this formed one of the many branches of art which painting in tempera, oil
, or fresco are employed by him were carried on under his supervision. A large number of his with apparently equal facility. His range of scale is no designs were engraved by his pupils Marcantonio Raimondi (see less remarkable, varying from a miniature, finished like an vol. xv. p. 530) and Agostino Veneziano.
These valuable engrav
illuminated MS., to colossal figures in fresco dashed in ings are from Raphael's sketches, not from his finished pictures,
with inimitable breadth and vigour. and in some cases they show important alterations inade in the execution of the picture. Raimondi's engraving of the S. Cecilia An additional glory is thrown round his memory by the of Bologna in design is very inferior to that of the actual painting personal beauty, charm of manner, and deep kindliness of Several of Raphael's most important compositions are known to us
heart which endeared him to all who knew hin. His only by these carly engravings, e.g., the Massacre of the Innocents (engraved by Raimondi), which is one of his finest works, both for sincere modesty was not diminished by his admission as skilful composition and for masterly drawing of the nucle.' Another an equal by the princes of the church, the distinguished magnificent design is the Juslyment of Paris, containing a large scholars, and the world-famed men of every class who number of figures ; the nude figure of Minerva is a work of especial formed the courts of Julius II. and Leo X. In accordance force and beauty. A standing figure of Lucretia o about to stab herself is also one of his most lovely figures. Many of Raphael's with the spirit of the age he lived with considerable disstudies for Marcantonio's engravings still exist.
play and luxury, and was approached with the utmost Archæology.-As an antiquary Raphael deserves to take the deference by the ambassadors of foreign princes, whether highest rank. His reports to Leo X. in 1518 is an eloquent plea their master desired a picture, or, as the duke of Ferrara for the preservation of ancient buildings. In 1515 he had been appointed by Leo X. inspector of all excavations in Rome and did, sent to consult him on the best cure for smoky within 10 miles round. His careful study of the antique, both chimneys. To his pupils he was as a father, and they statues and modes of decoration, is clearly shown in many of his were all
, as Vasari says, "vinti dalla sua cortesia”; they frescos, and especially in the graceful stucco reliefs and painted formed round him a sort of royal retinue, numbering about grotteschi, of which he and his pupils made such skilful use in the decorations of the Vatican loggie, the Villa Madama, and fifty youths, each talented in some branch of the arts.. elsewhere. 4
Giulio Romano and Gianfrancesco Penni, his two favourite Raphael's Fame.—When we consider the immense field pupils, lived with him in the Palazzo di Bramante, a house over which his labours were spread and the strong personal near St Peter's, where he resided during the greater part individuality which appears in all these varied branches of of his life in Rome. This fine palace, designed by Braart, together with the almost incredible number of paint- mante, was destroyed in the 17th century at the same ings that issued from his studio, it will be seen that he time as Raphael's Palazzo dell'Aquila. must have laboured with an amount of unflagging industry It is difficult to realize the furor of grief and enthusiasm which has perhaps never been surpassed, and that too in a excited by the master's death on Good Friday 1520, at the time and in a city of which the social habits and luxurious age of thirty-seven exactly, after an attack of fever which splendour certainly threw every possible temptation in the lasted only ten days. His body was laid out in state in way of steady application and regular work.
his studio, by the side of the unfinished Transfiguration, Among all the painters of the world none has been so and all Rome flocked to the place for a last sight of the universally popular as Raphael, or has so steadily main-“divino pittore.” His property amounted to about tained lis pre-eminent reputation throughout the many £30,000 ; his drawings and MSS. he left to Giulio changes in taste which have taken place in the last three Romano and Gianfrancesco Penni; his newly bought land and a half centuries. Apart from his combined merits as to Cardinal Bibbiena, the uncle of the lady to whom he a draughtsman, colourist, and master of graceful composi- had been betrothed; there were liberal bequests to his tion, he owes the constancy of admiration which has been servants; and the rest was mostly divided among his felt for him partly to the wide range of his subjects, but relatives at Urbino. He desired to be buried in the Panstill more to the wonderful varieties of his style. If the theon, under the noble dome which he and Bramante had authorship of his paintings were unknown, who would dreamed of rivalling. His body is laid beside an altar, guess that the Sposalizio of the Brera, the Madonna del which he endowed with an annual chantry, and on the Baldacchino of the Pitti, and the Transfiguration could wall over it is a plain slab, with an inscription written by possibly be the work of one painter ? In his carliest pic- his friend Cardinal Bembo. Happily his grave has as yet tures he touches the highly spiritual and sacred art of the escaped the disfigurement of a pretentious monument such Perugian Fiorenzo di Lorenza, while in his latest Roman as those crected to Michelangelo, Dante, and other great work he is fully embarked in the pagan spirit of the last Italians; it has not, however, remained undisturbed : in development of the Renaissance, already on the brink of 1833 it was opened and the bones examined. In March the most rapid decline. In the seventeen or eighteen years 1883 a festival was held at Urbino, on the occasion of the which composed his short working life he passed through 4th centenary of his birth, and on this occasion many stages of development for which a century would not have interesting articles on Raphael were published, especially seemed too long, while other painters lived through the one by Geymüller, "Le IVme Centenaire de la Naissance same changeful time with but little alteration in their de Raphaël," 1483-1883, in the Gaz, de Lausanne, March manner of work. Perugino, who outlived his wonderful 1883. pupil, completed in 1521 Raphael's San Severo fresco in Literature.—Comolli, Vita inedita di Raffaello, 1790 ; Duppa, a style differing but little from his paintings executed in Life of Raphael, London, 1816; Braun, Raphael . Leben und the previous century.
Werke, Wiesbadlen, 1819; Fea, Raffacllo . ed di In versatility of power Raphael (as a painter) remains 1824 ; Quatremère de Quincy, Vita cd Opere di Raffacllo, trans. by
OpcreRome, 1822; Rehberg, Rafacl Sanzio aus UrbinoMunich almost without a rival; whether painting an altar-piece Longhena, Milan, 1829 (a work marred by many inaccuracies);
Rumohr, Ueber Raphael und sein Verhältniss, Berlin, 1831 ; Rio, 1 Under it was inscribed—“Raphael Urbinas quod natura abstu
Jlichelange et Raphaël, Paris, 1863 ; Gruyer, Raphaël et l'Antiquité lerat arte restituit.”
? On a pedestal is inscribed in Greek—“Better to die than live 5 See the eloquent eulogy of his character at the end of Vasari's Life. basely."
O See Minghetti, “Gli Scolari di Raffaello,” Nuova antologia, June 3 Published by Visconti, Lettera di Raffaello a Leone X., Rome, 1880. 1840 ; see also Müntz, “Raphaël Archéologue,” &c., Gaz. des B. Arts, 7 See “Ritrovamento delle ossa di Raffaello," Soc. l'irtuosi al PanOctober and November 1880.
teone, Ronne, 1833 ; other pamphlets on this were published in the 4 See Gruyer, Raphaël et l'Antiquité, Paris, 1864.
same year by Fea, Falconieri, and Odescalchi.
(Paris, 1864), Les Vierges de Raphaël (Paris, 1878), and Raphaël, | Railway, is situated on the Byaly Lom, 970 feet above Peintre de Portraits (Paris, 1880); Grimm, Das Leben Raphaels ron sea-level. It has increased in population during the last Urbino, Berlin, 1872 (intended specially to point out the errors of Vasari and Passavant, and not written in a very fair spirit); Gher- fifty years from 3000 to 10,000 inhabitants. In 1810 it ardi, Della Vita di Raffacllo, Urbino, 1874 ; Springer, Raffacl und was the scene of the defeat of the Turks by the Russians. Michelangelo, Leipsic, 1878; Perkins, Raphaci and Michelangelo, RASHBA (x"Wv7) stands for three rabbins of various Boston, 1878; Dohme, Kunst und Künstler des Mittelalters, Leipsic, ages and various countries. 1878 (vol. ii. of this valuable work, with many illustrations, is
1. R. SHIME'ON BEN EL‘AZAR was a Mishnic teacher of devoted entirely to Raphael and Michelangelo); Alippi, Il Raffaello, Urbino, 1880 ; Clément, Michelange et Raphaël, 5th ed. (improved), the 2d century. Paris, 1881; Eug. Müntz, Raphaël, sa Vic, son Euvre, &c., Paris, 2. RABBENU SHIMSHOX BEN ABRAHAM of Sens wrote 1881 (this is on the whole the best single work on Raphael, both commentaries on various Mishnic treatises (see VISHNAH, from its text and its numerous well-chosen illustrations); Passavant, vol. xvi. p. 506). Rafael und sein Vater, Leipsic, 1839-58 (a valuable book, especially for its list of Raphael's works; a new edition translated by Guasti
3. R. SUELOMOI BEN ABRAHAM (or Ben [Ibn] Addinto Italian was published at Florence in 1882, but, though printed ereth) was a disciple of Nachmanides
, upon whom his so recently, this edition is in no way superior to the French one of master's mantle had fallen (see RAMBAN). He became Lacroix, Paris, 1860, which, however, is a great advance on the chief rabbi of Barcelona. original German text); Crowe and Cavalcaselle, Life and Works of the neighbouring provinces flocked to him as to excite
Here so many disciples from Raphael, London, 1882-85; Eug. Mintz, Les IIistoricns et les Critiques de Raphaël, Paris, 1883 (contains a good bibliography of the emulation among the Jews in the capital of Castile, who subject). The student of Raphael owes a special debt of gratitude thereupon appointed the German Rabbi Asher b. Yehiel
Reproductions of Raphael's Works.-From the time of Raimondi (Rosh). At the same time religious questions poured in downwards no painter's works have been so frequently engraved. upon him from all Israel, so that it is a marvel how he The Calcografia Camerale (now called Regia) of Romne possesses could go through his mere clerical work. an enormous number of copper-plates of his pictures by a great His works extend over the whole Talmud, although not all of many good and bad) engravers of this and the last century. Elec- them are printed. But thousands of his Responsa have been printed, trotypes of the old coppers are still worked, and are published by while many others lie in MS. at Cambridge (Add. 500). Of his the Stamperia at very moderato prices ; in the catalogue Nos. 736 other works, the enumeration of which would occupy columns, to 894 are the works of Raphael, including several books of engrav mention can be made only of his explanations of the Igadoth of ings containing whole sets, such as the Vatican loggie, &c. A the Babylonian Talmud, containing polemic against both Christians very completo collection of photographs from these and other en and Moslems (MS., Univ. Camb., Add. 1567, 1). On his part in gravings is published by Gutbier and Liibke, Rafael's IVerke, sämmt the Maimonidean con rsy see Schiller-Szinessy, Catalogue, i. liche Tafelbilder und Fresken, Dresden, 1881-82, in three large 187 sq.
(S. M. S.-S.) volumes, divided into classes, -pictures of the Madonna, frescos, RASHBAM. RABBEYU SHEMUEL BEN Meir, commonly stanze of the Vatican, tapestry cartoons, &c. The descriptive text called, from his title and the initials of his own and his and life of Raphael aro by Liibke. The Malcolm, Oxford, British Museum, Lille, Louvre, Dresden, and other collections of Raphael's father's names, Rashbam, was born at Rameru (Ramerupt drawings have mostly been published in photographic facsimile, near Troyes, in France) about 1080. He was almost the and an enormous number of illustrated monographs on single greatest Talmudist of his time, the only two excelling him pictures exists. Braun's autotypes of the stanze and Farnesina till 1105 being Rashi and later on his own younger brother,
(J. H. M.) RAPIN, PAUL DE (1661-1725), sieur of Thoyras, Bible criticism and exegesis, however, he excelled all the French historian, was the son of Jacques de Rapin, avocat Bible criticism and exegesis, however, he excelled all the
men of the 11th and 12th centuries, even if we include at Castres (Tarn), where he was born on 25th March 1661. He was educated at the Protestant academy of R. Menahem b. Helbo, R. Yoseph Bekhor Shor, and R. Saumur, and in 1679 he became an advocate, but soon
Yoseph Kara of the Franco - Ashkenazic school, and afterwards entered the army. The revocation of the Edict Abraham Ilon Ezra of the Sepharadic school. Rashbam of Nantes in 1685 and the death of his father, which
was the son of Yoklebed, second daughter of RASHI (9.7'.), happened two months afterwards, led him to come to and of Rabbenu Meir of Rameru (b. Shemuel). He sueEngland; but, unable to find employment there, he crossed ceeded his grandfather Rashi as head of the Rabbinical to Holland and enlisted in the company of French volun- college, and probably also of the congregation, of Troyes
. teers at Utrecht commanded by Daniel de Rapin, his Later, however, we meet him at other places, e.9., Cåen, cousin-german. He accompanied the prince of Orange Loudun. He died about 1160.
of his works the following are known. (1) Commentaries on to England in 1688, and the following year Lord Kingston the Bible : (a) his commentary on the Pentateuch, uncritically made him ensign in his regiment, with which he proceeded edited several times til. princrpis, Berlin, 1705, and critically and to Ireland. He took part in the siege of Carrickfergus most ably for the first time by Rosin of Breslau (1981, 8vo): () and the battle of the Boyne, and was shot through the cominentaries ou most of the other books of the Bible, the greater shoulder at the battle of Limerick. Soon afterwards he part of which are now lost, but the existence of which is in early
Those on Ecclesiastes and Cauticles' wri was promoted captain ; but in 1693 he resigned in order published by Dr Jellinek at Leipsi :1855, $vol; sprı imens of both to become tutor to the earl of Portland's son. His next books have been translated into English by Dr Gin-burg (Song of change was to return to his family, which he had settled Songs, London, 1957and folleth, London, 1stil. 2; Coniat The Hague, and there he continued some years. But, mentaries on the Babylonian Talmud ; of these we now posu's only
his supplements on Ironhin loves 9-1211.', Dibi Bothai as he found his family increase, he resolved to retire to a leaves :91-176, and Mahkothe leaves 191) sep. ; see the so-called more economical residence, and accordingly removed in lushi on the Ripih, in the Mislinah, iii. 5, catrhworil ipin Sun. 1707 to Wesel, where he commenced his great work Commentaries on five other treatises are distinctly referred to buy l'llistoire d'Angleterre. Though he was of a strong con
olul authoritirs,' but Rashi's commentariis so thoroughly enliquid titution, the seventeen years' application entirely ruined ! all those written Iwfore and after him that none of them had a his health. He died in 1723.
haner of surviving, simpt in the shape of a supplement. :3)
Militumentu or Tespihul; - Killinurli pored Trend, ii., Rapin was also the author of a Dissertation sur les II his et los Teorye, 1717. L'Histoire d'Angleterre, embracing the period from 1 The present writer cannot share the opinion of those who la4917 the invasion of the Romans to the death of Charles I., was printed of the Aade explanations with which that commentary abouwls, cail at The Hague in 1724 in 8 vols. It was translated into English, Rashlam's authorship in question. Ibn 'Ezta liin.-e1f. who was wir anul improved with notes, by Tinlal, in 2 vols. folio, 1725-31. thinker enough, is compelled in Candles to resort to the Publike Although the work of a foreigner, it is descrveilly esteemal as one
explanation, - a proiecling and a neilen in which every n.olum coni. of the fullest and most impartial collections of English political mentator nivst take refuge, unles le milies to explain the looking transations extant.
merely pimane one. RASGRAD or HES IRGRAD, a town of Bulgaria, with a 2 See Poiroj 18.104.22.168: 'N, dir., vii. 196, au Or 7174', in scieral station about 2 miles distant on the Varna and Rustchuk 'pilaces.com. Vir:9, 11. f. 100.