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The Dicaeidae, or Flower-peckers, consist of very small, gailycoloured birds, rather abundant over the whole Oriental and much of the Australian regions, and one genus extending over the Ethiopian region. The genera here adopted are the following —
(*) Zosterops (68 sp.), the whole Ethiopian, Oriental, and Australian regions, as far east as the Fiji Islands, and north to Pekin and Japan; (*~ *) Dicaeum (25 sp.), the whole Oriental region, except China, with the Australian region as far as the Solomon Islands; (*) Pachyglossa (2 sp. " "), Nepal and Northern Celebes ; (*) Piprisoma (2 sp.), Himalayas to Ceylon and Timor; (*) Pardalotus (10 sp.), Australia and Tasmania; (* - *) Prionochilus (5 sp.), Indo-Malay sub-region and Papuan Islands.
The Coerebidae, or Sugar-birds, are delicate little birds allied to the preceding families, but with extensile honey-sucking tongues. They are almost wholly confined to the tropical parts of America, only one species of Certhiola ranging so far north as Florida. The following is the distribution of the genera:
Diglossa (14 sp.), Peru and Bolivia to Guiana and Mexico; Diglossopis (1 sp.), Ecuador to Venezuela; Oreomanes (1 sp.), Ecuador; Controstrum (6 sp.), Bolivia to Ecuador and Columbia; Hemidacnis (1 sp.), Upper Amazon and Columbia; Daenis (13 sp.), Brazil to Ecuador and Costa Rica; Certhidea (2 sp.), Galapagos Islands; Chlorophanes (2 sp.), Brazil to Central America and Cuba; Coreba (4 sp.), Brazil to Mexico; Certhiola (10 sp.), Amazon to Mexico, West Indies, and Florida; Glossoptila (1 sp.), Jamaica.
They range over all North America from Panama to the Arctic regions, but do not extend far beyond the tropic in Southern America. They are almost as abundant in the Nearctic as in the Neotropical region; and considering the favourable conditions of existence in Tropical America, this fact, in connection with their absence from the South Temperate zone would lead us to suppose that they originated in North Temperate America, and subsequently spread southward into the tropics. This supposition is strengthened by the fact that their metropolis, in the breeding season, is to the north of the United States. The genera adopted by Messrs. Sclater and Salvin are as follows:–
(*) Siurus (4 sp.), Venezuela and West Indies to Eastern States and Canada; Mniotilta (1 sp.), Venezuela, Mexico, and Antilles to the Eastern States; Parula (5 sp.), Brazil to Mexico, and the Eastern States, and Canada; Protonotaria (1 sp.), Antilles to Ohio; Helminthophaga (8 sp.), Columbia to Arctic America Helmontherus (2 sp.), Central America to Eastern States; Perissoglossa (1 sp.), Antilles and Eastern States; Dendroca (33 sp.), Amazon to Antilles, and Arctic America, and south to Chili; Oporornis (2 sp.), Guatemala to Eastern States; Geothlypis (11 sp.), all North America and Brazil; Myiodioetes (5 sp.), all North America and Columbia; Basileuterus (22 sp.), Bolivia and Brazil to Mexico; Setophaga (15 sp.), Brazil to Canada; Ergatious (2 sp.), Guatemala and Mexico; Cardellina (1 sp.), Guatemala and Mexico; (*) Granatellus (3 sp.), Amazon to Mexico; (*) Teretristis (2 sp.), Cuba; (*) Icteria (2 sp.), Costa Rica and United States to Canada.
The Vireonidae, or Greenlets, are a family of small fly-catching birds wholly restricted to the American continent, where they range from Paraguay to Canada. They are allied to the Miniotiltidae and perhaps also to the Australian Pachycephalidae. Only two of the genera, with about a dozen species, inhabit the Nearctic region. The distribution of the genera is as follows:–
Vireosylvia (13 sp.), Venezuela to Mexico, the Antilles, the Eastern States and Canada; Vireo (14 sp.), Central America and the Antilles to Canada; Neochloe (1 sp.), Mexico; Hylophilus (20 sp.), Brazil to Mexico; Laletes (1 sp.), Jamaica; Vireolanius (5 sp.), Amazonia to Mexico; Cychlorhis (9 sp.), Paraguay to Mexico.
The Hirundinidae, or Swallows, are true cosmopolites. Although they do not range quite so far north (except as stragglers) as a few of the extreme polar birds, yet they pass beyond the Arctic Circle both in America and Europe, Cotyle riparia having been observed in the Parry Islands, while Hirundo rustica has been seen both in Spitzbergen and Nova Zembla. Cotyle riparia and Chelidon urbica also breed in great numbers in northern Lapland, latitude 67° to 70° north. Many of the species also, have an enormous range, the common swallow (Hirundo rustica) inhabiting Europe, Asia and Africa, from Lapland to the Cape of Good Hope and to the Moluccas. The genera of swallows are not well determined, a number having been established of which the value is uncertain. I admit the following, referring by numbers to the Hand List –
(*~ * *-*) Hirundo (40 sp.), the range of the entire family; (**) Psalidoprogne (10 sp.), Tropical and South Africa; (*) Phodina (1 sp.), Madagascar and Mascarene Islands; (*) Petrochelidon (5 sp.), North and South America and Cape of Good Hope; (*-***) Atticora (8 sp.), the Neotropical region and 2 Australia; (**) Cotyle (11 sp.), Europe, India, Africa, North America, Antilles and Ecuador; (*) Stelgidoptery, (5 sp.), La Plata to United States; (***) Chelidon (6 sp.), Palaearctic region, Nepal, Borneo; (* ~ *) Progne (5 sp.), all North and South America.