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peculiar to Central America and Mexico, and 2 (Spindalis and Phænicophilus) to the West Indian islands. The genera adopted by Messrs. Sclater and Salvin with their distribution will be found at Vol. II., p. 99, in our account of Neotropical Zoology.
The great family of the Fringillidæ, or finches, is in a very unsettled state as regards their division into genera, the most divergent views being held by ornithologists as to the constitution and affinities of many of the groups. All the Australian finchlike birds appear to belong to the Ploceidæ, so that the finches, as here constituted, are found in every region and sub-region, except the Australian region from which they are entirely absent -a peculiar distribution hardly to be found in any other family of birds.
Many European ornithologists separate the Emberizidæ, or.buntings, as a distinct family, but as the American genera have not been so divided I am obliged to keep them together; but the genera usually classed as “ buntings” are placed last, as a subfamily. In the following arrangement of the genera, I have done what I could to harmonize the views of the best modern writers. For convenience of reference the succession of the genera is that of the Hand List, and the numbers of the sub-genera are given whenever practicable :
(1793 1795) Fringilla (6 sp.), the whole Palæarctic region, including the Atlantic Islands ; (1794) Acanthis (3 sp.), Europe to Siberia, Persia, and North-West Himalayas; (1796) Procarduelis (1 sp.), High Himalayas and East Thibet; (1797 – 1803) Chrysomitris (18 sp.), Neotropical and Nearctic regions, Europe, and Siberia; (1804) Metoponia (1 sp.), East Europe to North West Himalayas ; (1805 And
1809) Chlorospiza (9 sp.), Palæarctic region and Africa to the
Cape of Good Hope; (1808 — 1809) Dryospiza (14 sp.), South Europe, Palestine, Canaries, and all Africa ; (1810) Sycalis (18 sp.), the whole Neotropical region ; (1811 - 1813 1816 – 1819) Pyrgita (34 sp.), Palæarctic and Oriental regions, and all Africa; (1814) Montifringilla (4 sp.), Palæarctic region ; (1815) Fringillauda (2 sp.), NorthWest Himalayas to East Thibet ; (1820 — 1822) Coccothraustes (6 sp.), Palæarctic region and Nepal, Nearctic region to Mexico; (1823) Eophona (2 sp.), China and Japan; (1824) Mycerobas (2 sp.), Central Asia to Persia, High Himalayas, and East Thibet; (1825) Chaunoproctus (1 sp.), Bonin Islands, south-east of Japan, (probably Palæarctic) ; (1826) Geospiza (7 sp.),Galapagos Islands; (1827) Camarhynchus (5 sp.), Galapagos Islands ; (1828) Cactornis (4 sp.), Galapagos Islands ; (1830 — 1832) Phrygilus (10 sp.), Columbia to Fuegia and the Falkland Islands ; (1833) Xenospingis (1 sp.), Peru; (1834) Diuca (3 sp.), Peru to Chili and Patagonia ; (1835 and 1837) Emberizoides (3 sp.), Venezuela to Paraguay ; (1836) Donacospiza (1 sp.), South Brazil and La Plata ; (1839) Chamæospiza (1 sp.), Mexico; (1838 and 1840) Embernagra (9 sp.), Arizona to La Plata; (1841) Hæmophila (6 sp.), Mexico to Costa Rica; (1842) Atlapetes (1 sp.), Mexico; (1843) Pyrgisoma (5 sp.), Mexico to Costa Rica; (1844 and 1845) Fipilo (12 sp.), all North America to Guatemala ; (1846) Junco (6 sp.), all the United States to Guatemala; (1847) Zonotrichia (9 sp.), the whole Nearctic and Neotropical regions ; (1848 1849) Melospiza (7 sp.), Sitka and United States to Guatemala; (1850) Spizella (7 sp.), Canada to Guatemala ; (1851) Passerella (4 sp.), the Nearctic region and Northern Asia; (1852) Passerculus (6 sp.), Nearctic region and to Guatemala; (1853) Pocecetes (1 sp.), all United States and Mexico; (1854) Ammodromus (4 sp.), all United States to Guatemala ; (1855) Coturniculus (6 sp.), north and east of North America to Jamaica and Bolivia ; (1856) Peucca (6 sp.), South Atlantic States and California to Mexico; (1857) Tiaris (1 sp.), Brazil ; (1858) Volatinia (1 sp.), Mexico to Brazil and Bolivia ; (1859) Cyanospiza (5 sp.), Canada to Guatemala ; (1860 1881) Paroaria (6 sp.), Tropical South America, east of the Andes ; (1862) Coryphospingus (4 sp.), Tropical South America; (1863) Haplospiza (2 sp.), Mexico and Brazil; (1864 1891) Phonipara (8 sp.), Mexico to Columbia, the greater Antilles ; (1865) Poospiza
(13 sp.), California and South Central States to Bolivia and La Plata ; (424) Spodiornis (1 sp.), Andes of Quito; (1866 1807) Pyrrhula (9 sp.), the whole Palæarctic region to the Azores and High Himalayas; (186) Crithagra (17 sp.), Tropical and South Africa, Mauritius, Syria; (1889) Ligurnus (2 sp.), West Africa; (1870 1871) Carpodacus (18 sp.), Nearctic and Palæarctic regions to Mexico and Central India; (1872 — 1874) Erythrospiza (6 sp.), Southern · parts of Palæarctic region; (1875) Uragus (2 sp.), Siberia and
Japan; (1876) Cardinalis (2 sp.), South and Central States to Venezuela : (1877) Pyrrhuloxia (1 sp.), Texas and Rio Grande; (1878 1879) Guiraca (6 sp.), Southern United States to La Plata; (1880) Amaurospiza (2 sp.), Costa Rica and Brazil ; (1881) Hedymeles (2 sp.), all United States to Columbia ; (1882) Pheucticus (5 sp.), Mexico to Peru and Bolivia ; (1883) Oryzoborus (6 sp.), Mexico to Ecuador and South Brazil; (1884) Melopyrrha (1 sp.), Cuba; (1885) Loxigilla (4 sp.), Antilles ; (1886 1887) Spermophila (44 sp.), Texas to Bolivia and Uruguay ; (1888) Catamenia (4 sp.), Columbia to Bolivia ; (1889) Neorhynchus (3 sp.), West Peru; (1892) Catamblyrhyncus (1 sp.), Columbia; (1893) Loxia (7 sp.), Europe to North-west India and Japan, Arctic America to Pennsylvania, Mexico; (1894) Pinicola (3 sp.), Arctic America, Northeast Europe to the Amoor, Camaroons Mountains West Africa; (1895) Propyrrhula (1 sp.), Darjeeling in the winter, ? Thibet; (1896) Pyrrhospiza (1 sp.), Snowy Himalayas ; (1897) Hæmatospiza (1 sp.), South-east Himalayas, 5,000 - 10,000 feet; (1898 1899) Linota (12 sp.), Europe to Central Asia, north and east of North America; (1900) Leucosticte (7 sp.), Siberia and Thibet to Kamschatka, and from Alaska to Utah.
Sub-family Emberizinæ.—(1995) Calamospiza (1 sp.), Arizona and Texas to Mexico; (1906) Chondestes (2 sp.), Western, Central, and Southern States to Mexico and Nicaragua ; (1907 – 1919) Euspiza (9 sp.), Palæarctic region, India, Burmah, and South China, South-east United States to Columbia ; (1911 -- 1920) Emberiza (28 sp.), the whole Palæarctic region (continental), to Central India in winter; (1921) Gubernatrix (1 sp.), Paraguay and La Plata, (according to Messrs. Sclater and Salvin this comes next to Pipilo); (1922) Fringillaria (8 sp.), Africa and South Europe;
(1923 – 1925) Plectrophanes (6 sp.), Arctic Zone to Northern Europe and North China, Arctic America, and east side of Rocky Mountains; (1926) Centronyx (1 sp.), Mouth of Yellowstone River.
FAMILY 34.—PLOCEIDÆ. (29 Genera, 252 species.)
The Ploceidæ, or Weaver-finches, are especially characteristic of the Ethiopian region, where most of the genera and nearly four-fifths of the species are found; the remainder being pretty equally divided between the Oriental and Australian regions. Like the true finches these have never been properly studied, and it is exceedingly difficult to ascertain what genera are natural and how far those of Australia and Africa are distinct. The following enumeration must therefore be taken as altogether tentative and provisional. When the genera adopted differ from those of the Hand List they will be referred to by numbers.
Textor (5 sp.), Tropical and South Africa ; (1650 – 1654 1657) Hyphantornis (32 sp.), Tropical and South Africa; (1655 1656) Symplectes (8 sp.), Tropical and South Africa; Malimbus (9 sp.), West Africa; (1659 1661) Ploceus (6 sp.), West and East Africa, the Oriental region (excluding Philippines); (1660) Nelicurvius (1 sp.), Madagascar; Foudia (12 sp.), Madagascar and Mascarene Islands, Tropical Africa ; (1663 1664) Sporopipes (2 sp.), Tropical and South Africa; (1665 – 1667) Pyromelana (14 sp.), Tropical and South Africa, Abyssinia to 10,500 feet; Philetærus (1 sp.), South Africa ; Nigrita (7 sp.), West Africa to Upper Nile; Plocepasser (4 sp.), East and South Africa; (1072 — 1674) Vidua (7 sp.), Tropical and South Africa (Plate V., Vol. I., p. 264); (1675 – 1077) Coliuspasser (9 sp.), Tropical and South Africa ; Chera (1 sp.), South Africa; Spermospiza (2 sp.), West Africa ; Pyrenestes (6 sp.), Tropical and South Africa ; (1882
1687 1689 1692 1693 1698) Estrilda (26 sp.), Tropical and South Africa, India, Burmah, and Java to Australia ; (1688 1690
1691 1695 1696) Pytelia (24 sp.), Tropical and South Africa ; (1694) Hypargos (2 sp.), Mozambique and Madagascar; (1897) Emblema (1 sp.), North-west Australia (1699 1712 — 1717) Amadina (15 sp.), Tropical and South Africa, Moluccas to Australia and the Samoa Islands ; (1700 1701 1710) Spermestes (8 sp.), Tropical Africa and Madagascar; (1702) Amauresthes (1 sp.), East and West Africa ; (1703 1707 – 1709 1711) Munia (30 sp.), Oriental region to Timor and New Guinea; (1704) Donacola (3 sp.), Australia ; (1705 1706) Poephila (6 sp.), Australia ; (1718 — 1721) Erythrura (7 sp.), Sumatra to Java, Moluccas, Timor, New Guinea, and Fiji Islands; (1722) Hypochera (3 sp.), Tropical and South Africa.
FAMILY 35.–STURNIDÆ. (29 Genera, 124 Species.)
The Sturnidæ, or Starlings, are a highly characteristic OldWorld group, extending to every part of the great Eastern continent and its islands, and over the Pacific Ocean to the Samoa Islands and New Zealand, yet wholly absent from the mainland of Australia. The family appears to be tolerably well-defined, and the following genera are generally considered to belong to it: (1558 1550 1562) Eulabes (13 sp.), the Oriental region to South-west China, Hainan, and Java,-and Flores, New Guinea and the Solomon Islands in the Australian region ; Ampeliceps (1 sp.), Tenasserim, Burmah, and Cochin China; Gymnops (1 sp.), Philippine Islands; Basilornis (2 sp.), Celebes and Ceram; Pastor (1 sp.), South-east Europe to India, Ceylon, and Burmah ; Acridotheres (7 sp.), the whole Oriental region and Celebes ; (1568 1589) Sturnia (12 sp.), the whole Oriental region, North China, Japan, and Siberia, Celebes ; Dilophus (1 sp.) South Africa ; Sturnus (6 sp.), Palæarctic region, to India and South China in winter; Sturnopastor (4 sp.), India to Burmah and East Java; Creadion (2 sp.) New Zealand ; Heterolocha (1 sp.), New Zealand ; (1520) Calloas