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FAMILY 37.--ALAUDIDAE (15 Genera, 110 Species.)

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The Alaudidæ, or Larks, may be considered as exclusively belonging to the great Eastern continent, since the Nearctic, Neotropical, and Australian regions have each only a single species. They abound most in the open plains and deserts of Africa and Asia, and are especially numerous in South Africa. The genera, including those recently established by Mr. Sharpe, are as follows:

Otocorys (8 sp.); the Palæarctic region, North America and south to the Andes of Columbia, North India; (1928 1929) Alauda (17 sp.), Palæarctic region, all Africa, the Peninsula of India, and Ceylon ; (1931) Galerita (10 sp.), Central Europe to Senegal and Abyssinia, Persia, India and North China ; (1932) Calendula (2 sp.), Abyssinia and South Africa; (1933 1934) Calandrella (6 sp.), Europe, North Africa, India, Burmah, North China, and Mongolia; (1935 – 1937) Melanocorypha (7 sp.), South Europe to Tartary, Abyssinia, and North-west India ; Pallasia (p. 7781), East Asia ; (1938) Certhilaua'a (4 sp.), South Europe, South Africa ; Heterocorys ( *p. 7792) South Africa; (1939) Alæmon (3 sp.), South-east Europe to Western India, and South Africa; (1940) Mirafra (25 sp.), the Oriental and Ethiopian regions to Australia ; (1941) Ammomanes (10 sp.), South Europe to Palestine and Central India, and to Cape Verd Islands and South Africa; (1942 1943) Megalophonus (6 sp.), Tropical and South Africa; Tephrocorys (1 sp.), South Africa ; Pyrrhulauda (9 sp.), all Africa, Canary Islands, India and Ceylon.

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FAMILY 38.- MOTACILLIDÆ. (9 Genera, 80 Species.)

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The Motacillidæ, or Wagtails and Pipits, are universally distributed, but are most abundant in the Palæarctic, Ethiopian, and Oriental regions, to which the true wagtails are almost confined. The following genera are usually adopted, but some of them are not very well defined :

Motacilla (15 sp.), ranges over the greater part of Europe, Asia, and Africa, and to Alaska in North-west America ; Budytes (10 sp.), Europe, Africa, Asia to Philippines, Moluccas, Timor, and North Australia; Calobates (3 sp.), South Palæarctic and Oriental regions to Java; Nemoricola (1 sp.), Oriental region; Anthus (30 sp.), all the great continents ; Neocorys (1 sp.), Central North America; Corydalla (14 sp.), South Europe to India, China, the Malay Islands, Australia, New Zealand and the Auckland Islands : Macronyx (5 sp.), Tropical and South Africa; Heterura (1 sp.), Himalayas.

FAMILY 39.-TYRANNIDÆ. (71 Genera, 329 Species.)

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The Tyrannidæ, or Tyrant Shrikes, form one of the most extensive and truly characteristic American families of birds; as they extend over the whole continent from Patagonia to the Arctic regions, and are found also in all the chief American islands—the Antilles, the Galapagos, the Falkland Islands, and

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Juan Fernandez. As the genera are all enumerated in the table,

101 of this volume, I shall here confine myself to the distribution of the sub-families, only referring to such genera as are of special geographical interest.

Sub-family I. CONOPHAGINÆ (2 genera, 13 species). Confined to tropical South America, from Brazil and Bolivia to Guiana and Columbia.

Sub-family II. TÆNIOPTERINÆ (19 genera, 76 species). This group ranges from Patagonia and the Falkland Islands to the northern United States; yet it is almost wholly South American, only 2 genera and 4 species passing north of Panama, and none inhabiting the West Indian islands. Sayornis has 3 species in North America, while Tænioptera, Cnipolegus, Muscisaxicola, and Centrites, range south to Patagonia.

Sub-family III. PLATYRHYNICHINÆ (16 genera, 60 species). This sub-family is wholly Neotropical and mostly South American, only 7 of the genera passing Panama and but 3 reaching Mexico, while there are none in the West Indian islands. Only 3 genera extend south to the temperate sub-region, and one of these, Ancretes, has a species in Juan Fernandez.

Sub-family IV. ELAINEINÆ (17 genera, 91 species). This subfamily is more exclusively tropical, only two genera extending south as far as Chili and La Plata, while none enter the Nearctic region. No less than 10 of the genera pass north of Panama, and one of these, Elainea, which ranges from Chili to Costa Rica has several species in the West Indian islands. About one fourth of the species of this sub-family are found north of Panama.

Sub-family V. TYRANNINÆ (17 genera, 89 species). This subfamily is that which is best represented in the Nearctic region, where 6 genera and 24 species occur. Milvulus reaches Texas ; Tyrannus and Myiarchus range over all the United States; Sayornis, the Eastern States and California ; Contopus extends to Canada; Empidonax ranges all over North America ; and Pyrocephalus reaches the Gila Valley as well as the Galapagos Islands. No less than 5 genera of this sub-family occur in the West Indian islands.

FAMILY 39a.—OXYRHAMPHIDÆ. (1 Genus, 2 Species.)

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The genus Oxyrhamphus (2 sp.) which ranges from Brazil to Costa Rica, has usually been placed in the Dendrocolaptidæ; but Messrs Sclater and Salvin consider it to be the type of a distinct family group, most allied to the Tyrannidæ.

FAMILY 40.—PIPRIDÆ. (15 Genera, 60 Species.)

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The Pipridæ, or Manakins, have generally been associated with the next family, and they have a very similar distribution. The great majority of the genera and species are found in the equatorial regions of South America, only 9 species belonging to 5 genera ranging north of Panama, while 2 or 3 species extend to the southern limit of the tropical forests in Paraguay and Brazil. The genera which go north of Panama are Piprites, Pipra, Chiroxiphia, Chiromachoris, and Hetoropelma. Pipra is the largest genus, containing 19 species, and having representatives throughout the whole range of the family. As in all the more extensive families peculiar to the Neotropical region, the distribution of the genera will be found in the tables appended to the chapter on the Neotropical region in the Third Part of this work. (Vol. II. p. 103).

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FAMILY 41.-COTINGIDÆ. (28 Genera, 93 Species.)

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The Cotingida, or Chatterers, comprise some of the most beautiful and some of the mosto remarkable of American birds, for such we must consider the azure and purple Cotingas, the wine-coloured white-winged Pompadour, the snowy carunculated Bell-birds, the orange-coloured Cocks-of-the-Rock, and the marvellously-plumed Umbrella-birds, (Plate XV. Vol. II. p. 28). The Cotingidæ are also one of the most pre-eminently Neotropical of all the Neotropical families, the great mass of the genera and species being concentrated in and around the vast equatorial forest region of the Amazon. Only 13 species extend north of Panama, one to the Antilles, and not more than 20 are found to the south of the Amazon Valley. Messrs. Sclater and Salvin divide the family into six sub-families, the distribution of which will be briefly indicated.

Sub-family I. TITYRINÆ (3 genera, 22 species). Ranges from Brazil to Mexico, one species of Hadrostomus inhabiting Jamaica.

Sub-family II. LIPAUGINÆ (4 genera, 14 species) also ranges from Brazil to Mexico; one genus (Ptilochloris) is confined to Brazil.

Sub-family III. ATTALINÆ (2 genera, 10 species). Ranges from Paraguay to Costa Rica ; one genus (Casiornis) is confined to South Brazil and Paraguay,

Sub-family IV. RUPICOLINÆ (2 genera, 5 species). This subfamily is restricted to the Amazonian region and Guiana, with one species extending along the Andean valleys to Bolivia. The genera are Rupicola (3 species) and Phænicocercus (2 species).

Sub-family V. COTINGINÆ (10 genera, 28 species). Ranges from Southern Brazil and Bolivia to Nicaragua; only two species

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