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house at Stoka Newington (only pulled down about teu | nothing is really a greater triumph of art than this years ago), wbich had stables and grounds of considerable similarity, and Macaulay has certainly made a mistake in size. From the negotiations for the marriage of bis confounding the requirements of painting and of writing. daughter Sophia it appears that he had landed property in Scott justly observed that Defoe's style “is the last which more thau one place, and he had obtained on lease in 1722 should be attempted by a writer of inferior genius ; for a considerable estate from the corporation of Colchester. though it be possible to disguise mediocrity by fine writing, It was formerly thought that he soon got rid of this lease, it appears in all its naked inanity when it assum 38 tbe garb but from documents in Mr Lee's possession it seems that of simplicity.” The methods by which Defoe attains his he only effected a mortgage upon it (afterwards paid off), result are not difficult to disengage. They are the presentand that it was settled on his unmarried daughter at his ment of all his ideas and scenes in the plainest aad inost death. Other property was similarly allotted to his widow direct language, the frequent employment of colloquial and remaining children, though some difficulty seems to have forms of speech, the constant insertion of little material arisen from the misconduct of his son, to whom, for some details and illustrations, often of a more or less digressive purpose, the property was assigned during his father's life form, and, in his historico-fictitious works, as well as in bie time, and who refused to pay what was due. There is a good novels, the most rigid attention to vivacity and consistency deal of mystery about the end of Defoe's life ; it used to be | of character. Plot he disregards, and he is fond of throwsaid that he died insolvent, and that he had been in jail shortly | ing his dialogues into regular dramatic form, with bye-play before his death. As a matter of fact, after great suffering, prescribed and stage directions interspersed. A particuler from gout and stone, he died of a lethargy in Ropemaker's trick of his is also to divide his arguments after the manner Alley, Moorfields, on Monday the 6th of April 1731, and of the preachers of his day into heads and subheads, wità tras buried in the well-known ground of Bunhill Fields. actual numerical signs affixed to them. These mannerisajg He left no will, all his property having been previously undoubtedly help and emphasize the extraordinary faith. assigned, and letters of administration were taken out by fulness to nature of his fictions, but it would be a great a creditor. How his affairs fell into this condition, why mistake to suppose that they fully explain their charm he did not die in his own hcuse, and why in the previous | Defoe possessed genius, and his secret is at the last as summer le had been in hiding, as we know he was from a impalpable as the secret of genius always is. letter still extant, are points apparently not to be cleared up. The character of Defoe, both mental and moral, is very

Defoe was twice married, and his second wife Susannah clearly indicated in his works. He, the satirist of the trueoutlived him a few months. He had seven children, one born Englishinan, was himself a model, with some notable of whom, Martha, died in 1707-the others survived him. variations and improvements, of the Englisbman of his The eldest, Daniel, emigrated to Carolina. The second, period. He saw a great many things, and what he did see Bernard or Benjamin Norton, has, like his father, a he saw clearly. But there were also a great many things scandalous niche in the Dunciad. Three of the daughters, which he did not see, and there was often no logical con. Maria, Henrietta, and Sophia, married well—the husband | nection whatever between his vision and his blindaexe. of the last-named being a Mr Henry Baker, of suine repute | The most curious example of this inconsistency, or rather in natural science. In April 1877 public attentiou was of this indifference to general principle, occurs in his Exuy called to the existence, in some distress, of three maiden on Projects. He there speaks very briefly and sligbtisigly ladies, directly descended from Desue, aud bearing his of life-insurance, probably because it was then regarded as name; and a crown pension of £75 a year was bestowed impious by religionists of his complexion. But on either on each of them. There are several portraits of Defoe, the side of this refusal are to be found elaborate projects of principal one being engraved by Vandergucht.

friendly societies and widows' funds, which practically cover, We have said that in his life-time Defoe, as not belonging in a clumsy and roundabout manner, the whole ground of to either of the great parties at a time of the bitterest party life-insurance. In morals it is evident that be was, accordstrife, was subjected to obloquy on both sides. The great ing to his lights, a strictly horest and honourable man. Whig writers leave him unnoticed. Swift and Gay speakBut sentiment of any high-flying description (to usc the slightingly of him,-the former, it is true, at a time when cant word of his time) was quite incomprehensible to him, he was only known as a party pamphleteer. Pope, with less or rather never presented itself as a thing to be compre. cxcuse, put him in the Dunciad towards the end of his life, hended. He tells us with honest and simple pride that but he confessed to Spence in private that Defoe had when nis patron Harley fell out, and Godolphin came in, written many things and none bad. At a later period he he for three years held no communication with the former, was unjustly described as “a scurrilous party writer," and seems quite incapable of comprehending the delicacy which he certainly was not; but, on the other hand, which would have obliged him to follow Harley's fallen Johnson spoke of his writing "so variously and so well,” | fortunes. His very anomalous position in regard to Mist is and put Robinson Crusoe among the only three books that also indicative of a rather blunt moral perception. One of readers wish longer. From Scott downwards the tendency the most affecting things in his novels is the heroic conto judge literary work on its own merits has to a great stancy and fidelity of the maid Amy to her exemplary extent restored Defoe to his proper place, or, to speak more mistress Roxana. But Amy, scarcely by her own fault, is correctly, has set him there for the first time. Lord drawn into certain breaches of certain definito moral laws Macaulay's description of Roxana, Mou Flanders, and which Defoe did understand, and she is therefore conColonel Jack as “utterly nauseous and wretched" must be demned, with hardly a word of pity, to a miserable end. set aside as a freak of criticism.

Nothing heroic or romantic was within Defoe's view; he The grounds upon which the last-mentioned writer bases could not understand passionate love, ideal loyalty, æsthctic his depreciation of others of Defoe's minor works are admiration, or anything of the kind ; and it is probable curious. “He had undoubtedly a knack of making fiction that many of the little sordid touches which delight is by look like truth, but is such a knack much to be desired ? their apparent satire were, as designed, not satire at ali, Is it not of the same sort as the knack of a painter who but merely a faithful representation of the feelings and takes in the birds with his fruit ?” And De Quincey regards ideas of the classes of which he himself was a unit. We the literary skill of writers of this class as comparatively have noticed Charles Lamb's difficulty as to The Completo inferior because of the close resemblance of their writings Tradesman, and we think that the explanation we have to the current speech and manner of their day. . But I preferred will extend to a great deal more of his work. Some peculiarities of that work follow as a natural corollary | care have been compiled in the last half century. Wilson's con. from those considerations. His political and economicai tains 210 distinct works, three or four only of which are marked pamphlets are almost unmatched as clear presentations of

e as doubtful; Hazlitt's enumerates 183 "genuine" and 52 “at.

tributed" pieces, with notes on most of them ; Mr Lee's extends the views of their writer. For driving the nail home noto 254, of which 64 claim to be new additions. Of these large one but Swift excels him, and Swift perhaps only in the numbers many are in the original editions, extremely scarce, if Drapier's Letters. There is often a great deal to be said not unique. Only one perfect copy of the Review is known against the view presented in those pamphlets, but Defoe

to exist, and this, as well as the partially printed but never

published Complete Gentleman, is in the hands of Mr James Crossley sees nothing of it. He was perfectly fair but perfectly of Manchester, whose Defoe collection is nearest to completeness. one-sided, being generally happily ignorant of everything of reprints only one has ever aspired to be exhaustivo. This wbich told against his own vien'.

was edited for the “Pulteney Library" by Hazlitt in 1840-43. The same characteristics are curiously illustrated in his

It contains a good and full life mainly derived from Wilson, the

whole of the novels (including the Serious Reflections now hardly moral works. The morality of these is almost amusing in ever published with Robinson Crusoe), Jure Divino, The Use and its downright positive character. Witb all the Puritan Abuse of Marriage, and many of the more important tracts and eagerness to push a clear, uncompromising. Scripture-based smaller works. The introductions are not written on a very distinction of rigbt and wrong into the affairs of every day

| uniform principle, but it is otherwise an excellent edition, and had

it been continued (it stopped abruptly after the third life, he has a thoroughly English horror of rasuistry, and


had been completed and a few parts of a fourth issued) would his clumsy canons consequently make wild work with the have been satisfactory enougi. "It is still far the best, but infinite intricacies of human nature. We have noticed, in is unfortunately, scarce and expensive. There is also an remarking on The Use and Abuse, the worst instance of

edition. often called Scott's, but really edited by Sir G C.

Lerris, in twenty volumes (London, 1841). This contains the this blundering morality. Another, though very difierent

Complete Tradesman. Religous Courtship, The Consolidator, instance, is his amusingly feminine indignation at the in and other works not comprised in Hazlitt's, but is correspondingly creased wages and enibellished dress of servants. He is, in deticient. It also is somewhat expensive in a complete state, and fact, an incarnate instance of the tendency, which has so

the editions chosen for reprinting are not always the best.

had previously in 1809 edited for Ballantyne some of the novels, in often been remarked by other nations in the English, to

12 vols. Bohn's libraries contain an edition which through want

12 vols. Bohn's libraries contain: drag in moral distinctions at every turn, and to confound of support was stopped at the seventh volume. It includes the everything which is novel to the experience, unpleasant to novels (except the third part of Robinson Crusoe), The History the taste, and incomprehensible to the understanding, under

of the Devil, The Storm, and a few political pamphlets, also tho

undoubtedly spurious Mother Ross. In 1870 Mr Nimmo of Edin. the general epithets of wrong, wicked, and shocking. His burgh published in one volume an admirable selection from Defoe. It works of this class therefore are now the least valuable, contains Chalmers's Life, annotated and completed from Wilson and though not the least curious, of his books. His periodical Lee, Robinson Crusoe, pts. i. and ii., Colonel Jack, The Cavalier, publications necessarily fall to some extent under the two

Duncan Campbell, The Plague, Everybody's Business, Mrs l'eal,

The Shortest Way with Dissenters, Giving Alms no Charity, foregoing heads, and only deserve separate notice because

The True-horn Englishman, Hymn to the Pillory, and very copious of the novelty and importance of their conception. His extracts from The Complete English Tradesman. Had the space poetry, as poetry, is altogether beneatb criticism. It is occupied by Robinson Crusoe, which in one form or another every one Bometimes vigorous, but its vigour is merely that of prose.

possesses, been devoted to a further selection from the minor works,

this book would have gone far to supply a very fair idea of Defoe Of his novels we have alrearly spoken in detail, excepting, to all but professed students of literature. If we turn to as universally known, Robinson Crusoe.

separate works, the bibliography of Defoe is practically confined

(except as far as original editions are concerned) to Robinson Crusoe. The earliest regular life and estate of Detce is that of Dr

Mrs Veal has been to some extent popularized by the work which it Towers in the Biographia Britannica. Chalmers's Life, however helped to sell ; Religious Courtship and The Family Instructor had (1786), added very considerable information to 1838 Mr Walter

a vogue among the middle class until well into this century, and Wilson wrote the book which is the standard on the subject. It is The History of the Union was republished in 1786. but the coloured by political prejudice ; it does not display any critical reprints and editions of Crusoe have been innumerable ; it has power of a high order ; and it is in many parts rather a history of been often translated ; and the eulogy pronounced on it by Rousseau England with some relation to Defoe than a life of the latter : but gave it special currency in France, where imitations (or rather adapit is a model of painstaking car care. and by its abundant citations tations) have also been common.

(G. SA.) from works both of Defoe and of others, which are practically inaccessible to the general reader, is invaluable. In 1859 appeared DE GÉRANDO, MARIE JOSEPH (1772-1842), one of a life of Defoe by Mr William Chadwick, an extraordinary rhap- l the most distinguished ethical and metaphysical philosody in a style which is half Cobbett and half Carlyle, but erusing, and by no means devoid of acuteness. In 1864 the

sophers of France, was born at Lyons, February 29, 1772. discovery of the six letters stirred up Mr William Lee to a new When that city was besieged in 1793 by the armies of the investigation, and the results of this were published (London, republic, the young De Gérando took up arms in defence of 1869) in three large volames. The first of these (well illustrated)

his native place, was made prisoner, and with difficulty contains a new life and particnlars of the author's discoveries. The second and third contain fugitive writings assigned by Mr Lee to

escaped with his life. He first took refuge in Switzerland, Defoe for the first time. For most of these, however, we have no

whence he afterwards fled to Naples. In 1796, after an anthority but Mr Lee's own impressions of style, &c.; and con exile of three years, the establishment of the Directory sequently, though qualified judges will in most cases agree that allowed him to return to France. Finding himself, at the Defoe may have written them, it cannot positively be stated that be did. Mr Lee is equally chary of his reasons for attributing

age of twenty-five, without a profession, he resolved to and denying many larger works to his author. His work, though

embrace the career of arms, and enlisted as a private in a full of research and in many ways useful in correcting and enlarg cavalry regiment. About this time the Institute had proing previous accounts of Defoe, has therefore to be used with some

posed as a subject for an essåy this question,—“What is caution. Besides these publications devoted exclusively to Defoe, there are others of the essay kind which may be consulted respecting

the influence of symbols on the faculty of thought ?" him. Such articles have been written by Scott, Hazlitt, Forster,

De Gérando gained the prize, and heard of his success after a writer in The Retrospective Review, Mr Leslie Stephen, and the battle of Zurich, in which he had distinguished himself. others. No criticisms can, however, compare with three short This literary triumph was the first step in his upward pieces by Charles Lamb, two of which were written for Wilson's

career. In 1799 he was attached to the ministry of the book, and the third for The Reflector.

Il bas been a frequent and well-grounded complaint that no interior by Lucien Bonaparte ; in 1804 he became general complete erlition of Defoe's works has ever been published. secretary under Champagny ; in 1805 he accompanied Theid is, as may be gathered from what has already been said, Napoleon into Italy; in 1808 he was nominated master of considerable uncertainty about many of them; and even if all con tested works be exoluded, the number is still enormour.

requests ; in 1811 he received the title of councillor of state ; Besides the list in Bohn's Lowndes, which is somewhat of

and in the following year he was appointed governor of an omniu'n yatheruin, three lists drawn with more or less Catalonia. On the overtbrow of the empire, De Gérando

was allowed to retain this office; but having been sent| Eloge de Dumcrsais, –discours qui a remporté le prix proposé par la during the hundred days into the department of the Moselle seconde classe de l'Institut National, 8vo, Paris, 1803; Le Visiteur to organize the defence of that district, he was punished at vols. 8vo, Paris, 1830 ; Cours nornul des instituteurs primaires 016 the second Restoration by a few months of neglect. He Directions relatircs à l'éducation physique, morale, ct intellectuelle was soon after, however, rcadmitted into the council of dans les écoles primaires, 8vo, Paris, 1832; De l'éducation des state, where he distinguisherl himself by the prudence and Sourds.Muets, 2 vols. Paris, 1832 ; De lu Bienfaisance publique, 4 conciliatory tendency of his views. In 1819 be opened at des Systemes will be found in the frugments Philosophiques of M.

detailed analysis of the Histoire Comparée the law-school of Paris a class of public and administrative Cousin. law, which in 1822 was suppressed by Government, but was re-opened six years later under the Martignac ministry.

DEGGENDORF, or DECKENDORE, the chief town of a In 1837 the Government acknowiedged the long and district in Lower Bavaria, about 25 miles north-west of important services which De Gérando had rendered to his Passau, on the left bank of the Danube, which is there crossed country by raising him to the peerage. He died in Paris,

by two iron bridges. It is situated at the lower end of November 9, 1842, at the age of seventy.

the beautiful valley of the Perlbacb, with the mountains of De Gérando's works are very numero'is. That by which

the Bavarian Forest rising behind ; and in itself it is a he is best known now, and which constitutes his chief title well-built and attractive town. Besides the administrative to posthumous fame, is his Histoire Comparée des Systèmes offices it possesses an old council-house dating from 1566, de Philosophie rélativement aux principes des Cornoissances

a hospital, a lunatic asylum, an orphanage, a poor-house, IIumaines

, of which the first edition appeared at Paris in and a large parish church rebuilt in 1756; but of greater 1804, in 3 vols. 8vo. The gernı of this work bad already

interest than any of these is the Church of the Sacred appeared in the author's Mémoire de la Génération des

Tomb, which for centuries attracted thousands of pilgrims Connaissances Humaines, crowned by the Academy of to its Porta Cæli, Gnadenpforte, or Gate of Mercy, opened Berlin, and published at Berlin in 1802. In this work annually on St Michael's Eve, near the end of September, De Gérando, after a rapid review of ancient and modern

and closed again on the 4th of October. In 1837, on the speculations on the origin of our ideas, singles out the

celebration of the 500th anniversary of this solemnity, the theory of primary ideas, which he endeavours to combat number of pilgrims was reckoned at nearly 100,000. Such under all its forms. The latter half of the work, devoted iinportance as the town possesses is now rather commercial to the analysis of the intellectual faculties, is intended to than religious,-it being the main depôt for the timber-trade show how all human kuowledge is the result of experience;

of the Bavarian Forest, a station for the Danube steamboat and reflection is assumed as the source of our ideas of company, and the seat of several mills, breweries, potteries,

and other substance, of unity, and of identity.

dustrial establishments. On the bank of the De Gérando's great work is divided into two parts, the

Danube, outside the town, are the remains of the castle first of which is purely historical, and devoted to an ex

of Findelstein ; and on the Ceiersberg, in the imniediate position of various philosophical systems; in the second, vicinity, stands the old pilgrimage-church of Marie Dolores. which comprises fourteen chapters of the entire

work, the About six miles to the north is the village of Metten, with distinctive characters and value of these systems are com

the Benedictine monastery founded by Charlemagne in 801, pared and discuesed. Great fault has been found with

restored as an abbey in 1840 by Louis I. of Bavaria, and this plan, 'and justly, as it is impossible to separate

well-known for its educational institutions. The first menadvantageously the history and critical examination of any

tion of Deggendorf occurs in 868, and it appears as a town doctrine in the arbitrary manner which De Gérando has in 1212. Henry XIII. of the Landshut dynasty made it chosen for himself. Despite this disadvantage, however, the seat of a custom-house; and in 1331 it became the the work has great merits. I brought back the minds of residence of Henry III. of Natternberg, so called from a men to a due veneration for the great names in philo; the town a dreadful massacre of the Jews, who were accused

castle in the neighbourhood. In 1337 there took place in sophical science,-a point which had been utterly neglected by Condillac and his school. In correctness of detail and of having thrown the sacred host of the Church of the comprehensiveness of view it was greatly superior to every

Sacred Tomb into a well; and it is probably from about work of the same kind that had hitherto appeared in France. this date that the pilgrimage above mentioned came into During the Empire and the first years of the Restoration, yogue.

The town was captured by the Swedish forces in De Gérando found time, despite his political avocations,

1633, and in the war of the Austrian succession it was to recast the first edition of his Histoire Comparée, of which

more thau once laid in ashes. Population in 1871, 5452. a second edition appeared at Paris in 1823, in 4 vols. 8vo. See Griiber and Müller, Der Bayerische Wald, Ratisbon, 1851 ; The plan ard method of this edition are the same as in the Mittermüller, Die heil. Hostien und die Juden in Deggendorf, first; but it is enriched with so many additions that it may

Landshut, 1866 ; and Das Kloster Metten, Straubing, 1857. pass for an entirely new work. The last chapter of the part DEHRA DÚN, a district of British India in the Meerut published during the author's lifetime ends with the revival (Mirat) division of the lieutenant-governorship of the Northof letters and the philosophy of the 15th century. The

Western Provinces, lies between 29° 57' and 30° 59' N. gecond part, carrying the work down to the close or the lat., and 77° 37' 15" and 78°• 22' 45" E. long. It com18th century, was published posthumously by his son in prises the valley (dún) of Dehra, together with the hills four vols. (Paris, 1847). Twenty-three chapters of this division (parganá) of Jaunsár Báwar, which runs from S.E. had been left complete by the author in manuscript ;

to N.W. of it, on the north. The district is bounded on the the remaining three were supplied from other sources,

N. by the native state of Tehri or Garhwal, on the E. Yy chiefly printed but unpublished memoirs.

British Garhwal, on the S. by the Siwálik hiils, which The next valuable work of De Gérardo was his essay Du separate it from Saharanpur district, and on the W. by the perfectionnement moral et l'éducation de soi-même, crowned hill states of Sirmur, Jubol, and Taránch.

The valley (the by the French Academy in 1825. The fundamental idea Dún) has an area of about 673 square miles, and forms a of this work is that human life is in reality only a great parallelogram 45 miles from N.W. to S.E. and 15 miles education, perfection is the aim.

broad. It is well wooded, undulating, and intersected by

streams. On the N.E. the horizon is bounded by the Besides the works already mentioned. De Gérando left many others, of which we may indicate the following :-Considérations sur

Mussooree (Mansúri) or lower range of the Himalayas, and diverses méthodes d'observation des peuples sauvages, 8vo, Paris, 1801 ;

on the S. by the Siwalik hills. The Himalayas in the north

of the district attain a height of between 7000 and 8000 | Trigonometrical Survey. The hill station of Mussooree feet, one peak reaching an elevation of 8565 feet; the is a favourite summer resort. Its population varies highest point of the Siwálik range is 3041 above sea-level. according to the season of the year. During the winter The principal passes through the Siwalik hills are the Timli, months it is almost entirely deserted. Landaur, the pass, leading to the military station of Chakráta, and the military depot for European convalescents, is really a Mohand pass leading to the sanatoriums of Mussooree portion of Mossooree. Chakráta is a hill station for a and Landaur. The Ganges bounds the Dehra valley on British regiment of infantry. the E; the Jumpa bounds it on the W. From a point The census of 1872 returned the population of the entire district about midway between the trio rivers, and near the town at 116,953 souls, of whom 102,811 were Hindus, 12, 427 Mussul. of Dehra, runs a ridge which forms the water-shed of the mans, 1061 Europeans, 191 Eurasians, and 460 native Christians.

The Brahmans numbered 10,279, Rájputs or military caste 33,125, valley. To the west of this ridge, the water collects to

Baniyás or traders 2664. The Brahmans and Rájputs chiefly form the Asan, a tributary of the Jumna; whilst to the east belong to the spurious hill clans bearing these names.

The the Saswa receives the drainage and flows into the Ganges. Mahometan population consists principally of Patháns and Shaikhs. To the east the valley is characterized by swamps and DEISM is the received name for a current of theological forests, but to the west the natural depressions freely carry thought which, though not confined to one country, or to of the surface drainage. Along the central ridge, the water- any well-defined period, had 'England for its principa) level lies at a great depth from the surface (228 feet), but source, and was most conspicuous in the last years of the it rises gradually as the country declines towards the great | 17th and the first half of the 18th century. The deists, rivers. To meet the demand for water five canals have differing widely in important matters of belief, were yet been constructed, and are fed by the hill streams. These agreed in seeking above all to establish the certainty and canals have a total length of 67 miles, irrigate about 10,734 sufficiency of natural religion in opposition to the positive acres, and yield a net annual revenue of about £2300. religions, and in tacitly or expressly denying the unique Jaansár Bawar, north of the valley, comprises a triangular significance of a supernatural revelation in the Old and billy tract, situated between the Tons and Jamna rivers New Testaments. They either ignored the Scriptures, Dear their point of confluence, and has an area of about endeavoured to prove them in the main but a helpful 343 square miles. It is covered with forests of deodars, republication of the Evangelium æternum, or directly frs, cypresses, and oaks.

impugned their divine character, their infallibility, and the The agricultural products consist of rice, mandua validity of their evidences as a complete manifestation of (Eleusine corocana), oil seeds, millets, vegetables, and garden the will of God. The term deism is not only used to signify crops, such as potatoes, turmeric, red pepper, &c. The the main body of the deists' teaching, or the tendency they method of cultivation in the valley does not differ from that represent, but has of late especially come into use as & edopted in the plains ; but in Jaunsár, the khil or jum technical term for one specific metaphysical doctrine as to system of cultivation is largely practised This consists in the relation of God to the universe, assumed to have been elearing and burning the undergrowth on the steep banks characteristic of the deists, and to have distinguished them of rarines and hills, and in sprinkling the seed, chiefly from atheists, pantheists, and theists,—the belief, namely, millets, over the ashes. The process yields a good crop for that the first cause of the universe is a personal God, but about two years, when the sito is abandoned. The principal is not only distinct from the world but apart from it and industries are tea planting and cultivation, rhea cultivation, its concerns. and recently silk cultivation. The area under tea in 1872 The words deism and deist were treated as novelties in Fas 2024 acres, yielding an out-turn of 297,828 , valued the polemical theology of the latter half of the 16th century at £17,486.

in France, but were used substantially in the same sense as The total revenue derived from Dehra district (exclusivo they were a century later in England. By the majority of of forests) in 1872–73 amounted to £19,169. Since 1872 those historically known as the English Deists, from Blount the Dehra valley has been subject to the ordinary laws of onwards, the naine was owned and honoured. They were other settled districts; but in the hilly division of Jaunsár also occasionally called rationalists. Free-thinker (in Ger a less formal code is better suited to the peoplo, and this many, freidenker) was generally taken to be synonymous with tract is still “non-regulation.” The fiscal arrangements of deist, though obviously capable of a wider signification, and Jaunsár are also peculiar. The tract is divided into khats, as coincident with esprit fort, and with libertin in the original esch presided over by a sayana, or head-man. The sayanas and theological sense of the latter word. Naturalists engage with the Government for the payment of the land was a name frequently used of such as recognized 10 god revenue, and exercise police and civil jurisdiction in their but nature, of so-called Spinozists, atheists ; but both in respective khats ; whilst a committee of sayanas, subject to England and Germany, in the 18th century, this word was the control of the British Superintendent of Debra Dún, de- more commonly and aptly in use for those who founded cide graver disputes affecting one or more khats. Education their religion on the lumen naturæ alone. The same med is progressing rapidly in the Dehra

valley. Schools have also were not seldom assaulted under the name of theists ; the been established in Jaunsár. Mussooree has Protestant later distinction between theist and deist, which stamped diocesan schools for European boys and girls; and similar the latter word as exeluding the belief in providence or in institutions are managed by Roman Catholic priests for the immanence of God, was apparently formulated in the members of that faith. It likewise forms the head-quarters end of the 18th century by those rationalists who were of an active American mission. There is little crime in the aggrieved at being identified with the naturalists. distriet, and in Jaunsár no regular police are found The chief names amongst the deists are those of Lord Decessary.

Herbert (1581-1648), Blount (1654–1693), Tindal (1657– The principal places in the district are Dehra, Mussooree, 1733) Woolston (1669–1733), Toland (1670–1722), with the military sapatarium of Landaur, and the military Shaftesbury (1671-1713) Bolingbroke (1678–1751), station of Chakráta Debra town is the civil head-quarters Collins (1676–1729), Morgan (2–1743), and Chubb of the district, and is constituted a municipality. It con- (1679–1746). Annet, who died in 1768, and Dodwell tained (1872) a total population of about 7000 souls, (5000 who made his contribution to the controversy in 1742, are Hindus, and 2000 Mahometans). The municipal income of less importance. Of the ten first named, nine appear to is mainly derived from a house tas. Debra is the head have been born within twenty-five years of one another; quarters of the 2d Gurkha regiment, and of the Great and it is noteworthy that by far the greater part of the

literary activity of the daists, as well as of their voluminous | either as a whole or in its details. Blount, a man of a very opponents, falls within the same half century.

different spirit, did both, and in so doing may be regarded The impulses that promoted a vein of thought cognate as having inaugurated the second main line of deistic to deism were active both before and since the time of its procedure, that of historico-critical examination of the Old greatest notoriety. But there are many reasons to show why, and New Testaments. Blount adopted and expanded in the 17th century, men should have set themselves with a Hobbes's arguments against the Mosaic authorship of the new zeal, in politics, law, and theology, to follow the light of Pentateuch; and, mainly in the words of Burnet's Archeonature alone, and to cast aside, to the utmost of their ability, logia Philosophica, he asserts the total inconsistency of the fetters of tradition and prescriptive right, of positive the Mosaic Hexaemeron with the Copernican theory of codes, and scholastic systems, and why in England especially the heavens, dwelling with emphasis on the impossibility there should, amongst numerous free-thinkers, have been of admitting the view developed in Genesis, that the earth not a few free writers. The significance of the Copernican is the most important part of the universs. He assumes system, as the total overthrow of the traditional conception that the narrative was meant ethically, not physically, of the universe, dawned on all educated men. In physics, in order to eliminate false and polytheistic notions; and he Descartes had prepared the way for the final triumph of the draws attention to that double narrative in Genesis which mechanical explanation of the world in Newton's system. was elsewhere to be so fruitfully handled. The examinIn England the new philosophy had broken with time ation of the miracles of Apollonius of Tyana, professedly honoured beliefs more completely. than it had done even in founded on papers of Lord Herbert's, is meant to suggest France ; Hobbes was more startling than Bacon. Locke's similar considerations with regard to the miracles of philosophy, as well as his theology, served as a school for Christ. Naturalistic explanations of some of these are the deists. Men had become weary of Protestant scholas- proposed, and a mythical theory is distinctly foreshadowed ticism ; religious wars had made peaceful thinkers seek to when Blount dwells on the inevitable tendency of men, take the edge off dogmatical rancour; and the multiplicity especially long after the event, to discover miracles of religious sects provoked distrust of the common basis on attendant on the birth and death of their heroes. Blount which all founded. There was a school of distinctively assaults the doctrino of a mediator as irreligious; and much latitudinarian thought in the Church of England ; others more pronouncedly than Herbert he dwells on the view, not unnaturally thought it better to extend the realm of afterwards regarded as a special characteristic of all deists, the adiaphora beyond the sphere of Protestant ritual or the that much or most error in religion has been invented or details of systematic divinity. Arminianism had revived knowingly maintained by sagacious men for the easier mainthe rational side of theological method. Semi-Arians and tenance of good government, or in the interests of themselves Unitarians, though sufficiently distinguished from the free and their class. And when he heaps suspicion, not on thinkers by reverence for the letter of Scripture, might be Christian dogmas, but on beliefs of which the resemblance beld to encourage departure from the ancient landmarks to Christian tenets is sufficiently patent, the real aim is so The scholarly labours of Huet, Simon, Dupin, and Cleri- transparent that his method seems to partake rather of the cus, of Lightfoot, Spencer, and Prideaux, of Mill and nature of literary eccentricity than of polemical artifice ; Fell, furnished new materials for controversy; and the yet by this disingenuous indirectness he gave his arguscope of Spinoza's Tractatus Theologico-Politicus had ment that savour of duplicity which ever after c!ung to the naturally been much more fully apprehended than ever his popular oonception of deism. Ethica could be. The success of the English revolution Shaftesbury, dealing with matters for the most part permitted men to turn from the active side of political and different from those usually handled by the deists, stands theological controversy to speculation and theory; and almost wholly out of their ranks. But he showed how curiosity was more powerful than faith. · Much new loosely be held the views he did not go out of his way to ferment was working. The toleration and the free press of attack, and made it plain how little weight the letter of England gave it scope.

Deism was one of the results. Scripture had for himself; and, writing with much greater A great part of the deistical teaching was the same from power than any of the deists, he was held to have done first to last; but though deism cannot be said to have any more than any one of them to forward the cause for which marked logical development, it went through a sufficiently they wrought. Founding ethics on the native and cultivable observable chronological growth.

capacity in men to appreciate worth in men and actions, and Long ere England was ripe to welcome deistic thought, associating the apprehension of morality with the appreLord Herbert earned the name “ Father of Deism ” by hension of beauty, he makes morality wholly independent laying down the main line of that religious philosophy of scriptural enactment, and still more, of theological forecastwhich in various forms continued ever after to be the ing of future bliss or agony. He yet insisted on religion as backbone of deistic systems. He based his theology on a the crown of virtue; and, arguing that religion is inseparcomprehensive, if insufficient, survey of the nature, founda- able from a high and holy enthusiasm for the divine plan tion, limits, and tests of human knowledge. And amongst of the universe, he sought the root of religion in feeling, the divinely implanted, original, indefeasible notitiæ com not in accurate beliefs or meritorious good works. The munes of the human mind, he found as foremost his five theology of those was of little account with him, he said, articles :-that there is one supreme God, that he is to be who in a system of dry and barren notions “pay handsome worshipped, that worship consists chiedy of virtue and compliments to the Deity," "remove providence,"“ explode piety, that we must repent of our sins and cease from them, devotion," and leave but“ little of zeal, affection, or warmth and that there are rewards and punishments here and here in what they call rational religion.".

In the protest after. These truths, though often clouded, are found in against the scheme of “judging truth by counting noses," all religions and at all times, and are the essentials of any Shaftesbury recognized the danger of the standard which religion—their universal prevalence being, along with their seemed to satisfy many deists; and in almost every respect immediacy, an unmistakable mark of their verity. Thus he has more in common with those who afterwards, in Herbert sought to do for the religion of nature what his Germany, annihilated the pretensions of complacoat friend Grotius was doing for natural law,-making a new rationalism than with the rationalists themselves. application of the standard of Vincentius, Quod semper, Toland, writing at first professedly without hostility to quod ubique, quod ab onmibus.

any of the received elements of the Christian faith, insisted Horbert had hardly criticised the Christian revelation that Christianity was not mysterious, and that the value of

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