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14 35 32 14
heads trimmed to wind. In the Indian trans- crowding on the one hand, or undermanning ports there are deck air-channels communi- on the other, may exist. cating with main ventilators, both up-cast and down-cast, on Dr. Edmond's principle vice, however, four men are required to every 100
By the rules of the Government Emigration Ser(see fig. 49). The aspirating force of these
tons up to 500, three men to every additional 100 ventilators is sometimes increased by steam tons up to 1000, and two men for every 100 tons jets introduced into the up-casts. In some above this amount; so that, for example, a vessel ships the hollow iron masts are utilised either of 1500 should carry forty-five hands, all told. Some as up-casts or down-casts-e.g., her Majesty's
few owners adopt this scale in tolerable entirety;
but our readers will see, from the following tabulated ship Monarch, and the steamers of the Penin
statement of vessels that have arrived in the Thames sular and Oriental Company-the latter, how- during 1865 and 1866, to what extent this arrange
aided by windsails, trellised bulkheads, ment is carried out :and side ports. In the ventilation of iron
Regia. No. of Hands
Name of Ship. clads of the Monitor class it is necessary to
Tonnage. (all told). Galloway
29 provide for a supply of air when all hatches
27 are closed and light excluded. Both the
Eaglet Glatton and Devastation are ventilated by
Royal Alice sans driven by steam-power; indeed, under
456 such circumstances, mechanical agencies are Prince Oscar
32 indispensable, and of these the fan system ap
23 pears practically to have been of most service.
Saint Andrew's Castle
19 There is hardly a craft afloat, from a canal- Hoang-Ho
1165 Stirling Castle
32 boat to the finest clipper ship, that could not
1838 take advantage of the heat of the stove of Merrie England
1045 either the galley or cabin in steamships.
17 Again, the value and applicability of this When, too, we know that thirty years ago, the method is evident; properly-arranged shafts regular complement for every 100 tons was five connected with a jacket surrounding a boiler men and one apprentice, it is evident that, on this would draw air from all parts of a vessel. It head, a decadence has taken place, though some is impossible to recommend any one system of
allowance must be made on account of recent imventilation, since each case must be judged of provements (such as patent reefing topsails), which
naturally and reasonably tend to curtail the number by its merits, but it is certain that any ven
of hands required. The able and ordinary seamen tilation that does not get rid of the bilge-air is are berthed in a deck-house built between the fore worthless in a sanitary point of view. (For and main masts, or, more usually, in what is techfurther information the reader is referrednically called a top-gallant forecastle, and in some to an excellent article, “Sanitary Science
cases in a lower forecastle. The first plan is, how. Afloat,” in “ Naval Science" for April 1872.)
ever, gaining ground as to large ocean going ships ; Merchant Service.-The vessels comprising
and Mr Green's Highflyer is a good example of many the merchant service may be most conve
new vessels built on the deck-house principle. It
is ordered by the Merchant Shipping Act that nine niently divided into three chief classes - superficial feet shall be allotted to every one of the 1. Ocean-going ships ; 2. Coasters ; 3. Barges crew, if sleeping in hammocks; or twelve superficial and River Craft. The very unsatisfactory con
feet under any other arrangement; that every such dition of this service has been forcibly exposed place shall be free from stores or goods, and shall be from time to time by Dr. Harry Leach, the properly caulked and ventilated—a failure as to the Medical Officer of Health for the Port of Lon- however, practically a dead letter; for as no inspec
rule to result in a penalty. These regulations are, don, in various able papers-e.g., “Report tion of seamen's quarters takes place previous to on the Hygienic Condition of the Mercantile sailing, as no law exists as to the number of seamen Marine, London, 1867," and "Report on Hygi- carried, and as, moreover, all space allotted to the enic Condition of the Mercantile Marine in crew is deducted from the tonnage of the ship when the Port of London, 1871,” with others. With registered, the terms of the Act are frequently Dr. Leach's permission we make considerable evaded in a very great degree. We may fairly, too,
take exception to the terms of an Act which indi. use of the papers referred to. 1. Ocean-going Ships. These vessels vary lodgment of a sailor.
cates nine superficial feet as sufficient for the healthy in size from 250 to 2500 tons, and the number
The following list, however, contains the measureof their crews (all told) from ten to sixty men; ment of seamen's quarters several of the finest and just as there is no law on land to propor- vessels now in the East India Docks :tion the number of persons living in a cottage
Dimensions of Upper or Reg's.
Name of No. of Top-gallant Forecastle to the size of the cottage, so in these vessels
Ship. Bunks. Length. Breadth. Height. there is no definite law to proportion the
833 Hindostan . 14 number of men to the size of the ship, therefore, 963 Duke of Athole 22
24 practically speaking, a large amount of over- 793 Blackwall
es coses com | Water.
Dimensions of Lower
Sunderland to East Indies, de.
Forecastle. 819 Gala
house. 1012 Highflyer 20
14 468 Anzi 8 10 12 51
lb Ib. Ib. ib. pt.
Sunday.. 1 112 Examples are here given of the three different modes
Monday. of housing ships' crews. No deductions are made
13 in this table for the space occupied by chain-cable
Wednesday.. and bowsprit, and the measurements are in all
Thursday.. cases taken at the widest parts.
Friday... In all the forecastles, where the bunks are mostly Saturday ......... arranged round the bows of the ship, the space abaft (or the widest end) is completely open from the break of the forecastle to the deck below when in port; by most ships of the present day; and, notwith
These scales represent fairly enough those used and at the other, or forward end, of this very airy standing the vast amount of improvement in variety apartment, two large hawse-holes are constantly open
of portable prandial material during the last twenty for the passage of the cables. These latter, of course,
years, we may safely assert that, beyond the introrun completely through the quarters of the crew;
duction once a week of a certain small amount of and by consequence, unless the weather be fine
preserved mixture called soup and bouilli, no change and the water smooth, these quarters are constantly has taken place in the mode of provisioning Fessels wet. Here the men eat, drink, and sleep, in the
for the last half-century. (It cannot be denied, immediate vicinity of the galley, and often in very
however, that in good-class ships the quality of diet close proximity to any live stock that may be
has greatly improved.) When a vessel is in port, carried for the use of officers or passengers during
the Act commands that fresh provisions of good the voyage. It may, therefore, without nautical
quality shall be served out to the crew day by day; knowledge, be inferred that any comparative amount
and there is no doubt that, on smart lines, the men, of decency or cleanliness (not to speak of comfort)
when at harbour service, fare well. But it is well is utterly impossible when the cables are bent. When
known that masters of ships frequently put into St. at sea, the hawse-pipes are closed ; the open space is
Helena, or stand "off and on while a boat goes on sometimes partially, sometimes wholly, filled up in
shore, without providing fresh rations or even fresh a rough-and-ready style, egress and ingress being vegetables for their
men, though watercresses grow afforded to the sailors by means of a hatch opening in profusion about the island.
It is, too, within our on to the forecastle, which, from its normal dimen
cognisance, that vessels arriving at Gravesend from sions, may be called a man-hole.
abroad, and remaining there at least twenty-four Thus much for healthy accommodation and ven
hours, have taken in no fresh provisions whaterer tilation of quarters. It should be remarked that, as
until they have come up the river and hauled into to iron ships, the consequences of these latter defi
dock, though the homeward passage may have es. ciencies are, in warm latitudes, necessarily much tended over 120 days. During the ship-to-ship visi. exaggerated. We come next to rations. The scale of provisions Hospital Society in the Thames last year, under the
tation so admirably conducted by the Seaman's accorded to the crews of sea-going ships is not prescribed by Act of Parliament, and so this important aspices of Dr. Rooke, Mr. W. Johnson Smith, chiel matter is also left entirely to the discretion of owner had just arrived from the West Indies) busily en. and captain. As facts should always precede
opinions, gaged in cooking a mass of animal matter, wbich we append in this place some scales of provisions
nasal demonstration quickly discovered to be in a taken from agreements of certain ships engaged in semi-putrid state. He was told by the seamen that the foreign trade.
the master and mate had gone ashore (probably to
dinner), and that this was the last remnant of their London to East Indies.
sea-fare, off which, nolentes volentes, they were then about to dine. It is not, however, to these points alone, which, it may be hoped, are somewhat exceptional, that we would draw special attention ; but chiefly to the miserable want of variety in the above
scales of diet, however good and howérer abundant Ib, Ib. Ib.pt.
oz. qts. Ib.
such diet may be. By way of contrast, we may refer Sunday..... 1 11
to the following scale of provisions adopted in the Monday.... 1
French mercantile marine, a perusal of which will Tuesday.... 1 i
show how very materially and usefully it differs from Wednesday 1
those above quoted :Thursday Friday
Synopsis of Diet Scale adopted in the French Saturday... 1
Dinner.-Preserved beef or salt pork, vegetables
or desiccated vegetable mixture, and wine. Liverpool to East Indies.
Supper. -Haricot beans dressed in two ways, potstoes baked in the cinders, and wine.
Seasonings, &c. --Sourcrout or pickles, preserred sorrel, olive oil, mustard, vinegarand lemon juice, at the rate of one ounce per man daily, with one ogace
of sugar, and one pint and three-quarters of water. Ib. ib.
pt. oz. Sunday 11
The most noticeable articles in this scale of diet Monday
are the variety of vegetables given, and the ration of Tuesday..
wine or brandy. Very few sailors are not supplied 1 Thursday
with any grog at all at sea; but to this, among other 1 Friday 17
additions and changes, we shall presently refer. Saturday. 1
Arrangements for the supply of good water sre lamentably neglected, in spite of the simplicity of a
distilling apparatus, and the patent fact that the This state of things would be, to a certain river-water at Calcutta and some other ports is noto-extent, better in the present day if the Merriously provocative of dysentery and maladies akin
chant Shipping Act of 1867 was effectively thereto.
carried out; for it provides for a fit and proper With the view of protecting the seamen in the matter of provisions, it is ordered by the Merchant supply of lime and lemon juice, a tolerably Shipping Act that, upon a complaint made by three liberal space for the berths of the crew, a or more of the crew of any ship to a naval, consular, proper supply of medicine and medical stores, or customs officer, or shipping master, in any port, an authorised “Ship’s Medical Guide,” and a as to quality of water or provisions, an examination permissive clause as to the medical inspection may be made, and a penalty exacted; that the sea
of seamen before signing articles. It enjoins men shall receive, by way of compensation for any
that every place used for the accommodation reduction or bad quality of provisions, at a certain rate per day. It is also enacted that proper weights of seamen shall be “securely constructed, and measures shall be carried, for the correct weigh- properly lighted and ventilated, properly ing out of the rations. It is scarcely necessary to protected from weather and sea, and, as far as point out the extreme difficulty to sailors of taking practicable, properly shut off and protected action under the first section of the Act above men- from effluvium which may be caused by cargo tioned, or of the inutility of so doing when they
or bilge-water.” And it also enjoins that there return home, unless, indeed, money be to them of
“shall be one or more properly-constructed more value than health ; and, as no control of weights privy or privies for the use of the crew," and measures exists before or during the voyage, this latter section can be of no practical benefit and that every place for the accommodawhatever to the persons meant to be protected by it. tion of the crew “shall be kept free from
stores or goods of any kind, not being the Thus much as to provisions. It is, in the personal property of the crew in use during next place, our province to mention the exist- the voyage.' ing prophylactic measures that are by British That this Act has not been properly enlaw employed for the preservation of health to forced may be inferred from Dr. Leach's eviteamen afloat. The following measures refer dence, who says (Report on Hygienic Condi. particularly to diseases, and specially to that tion of the Mercantile Marine, London, 1871): least excusable, because preventable malady, “I inspected four vessels, none of which had called scurvy. By the terms of the Act it is any provision for light or ventilation, except enjoined that every foreign-going ship (except by means of the hatchway. Another fore. those bound to ports in Europo or the coasts castle, divided longitudinally for the accomof the Mediterranean, or those north of the modation of crew and firemen, had no outlet 35th degree of north latitude) shall be pro- from above ; and great complaints were made vided with a sufficient quantity of lime or as to the hawse-pipe, which in this case, as lemon juice, which shall be served out with a always, causes a chronic state of wet bunks stated proportion of sugar (to the crew) daily, whenever the cables are bent. The men emat the rate of half an ounce per man. A ployed on board this ship begged me to have penalty is enjoined on this head for bad qua- this source of discomfort remedied. They lity, or a deficient quantity of the article ; and averred that the sea sometimes washed the same penalty applies also, under the same through the port hawse-pipe with' so much conditions, with respect to all drugs and me- force that the flooring of the lower bunks was dical stores, a list of which is issued by the started, and the bunks themselves rendered, Board of Trade. As to this clause, it is to be ob- of course, quite uninhabitable.” served that, unlike the section on provisions, 2. Coasting Vessels. --Over 150,000 of these no seaman can recover any compensation, how vessels are annually cleared from the ports of much soever his health may have suffered from the United Kingdom. Coal, stone, and bones a breach thereof, as all penalties under that form a large proportion of their cargo, the clause go to the Crown ; so that even the poor size of the vessels varying from 80 to 300 tons. satisfaction of a financial quid pro quo is here without doubt they represent a large number denied him. It is ordered, indeed, that any of hands. Coasting is trying work for the Local Marine Board may, on being required sailor, involving exposure to severe weather, by the Board of Trade to do so, appoint an much waiting for changes in the tide, and more inspector to examine lime-juice and medical continuous anxious labour than falls to the lot stores. But the insertion of the above itali. of the ocean-going sailor. They are, however, cised word makes the clause practically use- better fed, but there is a great want of accomless, and so neither sailor nor shipowner has modation, and a great necessity for sanitary any guarantee as to the quality of lime-juice supervision. The number of hands each vessel and medical stores supplied. Nor has the carries varies from three to seven, always informer any means of redress on account of de- cluding one or two boys. The master and teriorated health at the end of the voyage. mate sleep in the cabin, the rest in the fore.
castle. The dimensions of various forecastles in the ports of London, Lynn, and Newcastleof coasting vessels, measured by Dr. Leach on-Tyne, are as follows :
There is thus much uniformity with regard | ventilators, except, for the latter, a bateh, 4 to room and cubic space, but as the forecastles square feet; height of cabin, 3 feet 9 inches ; in nearly every case contained rope, cordage, close iron stove, burning peat. Amount of and other articles, the measurements in the carbonic acid (8 A.M.), -34 per cent. table are much in excess of the real space 2. Cabin, 4 feet 3 inches high, 400 cubie possessed by the men. The only aperture for feet; a close iron stove, burning peat; three the purpose of light or ventilation is the hatch- occupants, but two absent the night before way. Most of these forecastles were found examination. Amount of carbonic acic, filthy and offensive. In rough weather they *098. are nearly always wet, and in case of sickness 3. Cabin, 3 feet high, 350 cubic feet; no the condition of the sailor is something truly opening save hatch of 4 square feet; occumiserable.
pants two men and a boy. Air at 7.30 A.M. 3. Barges, dc.-Under this head may be felt very close. Amount of CO., 365 per classed canal - boats, ballast - barges, steam-cent. lighters, tugs, monkey-barges, &c. Accord- 4. Cabin, 4 feet 10 inches in height, 360 ing to Dr. Leach, no less than 7000 barges cubic feet; no ventilator save hatch of 3 are employed in the Port of London alone, re- square feet; iron stove, burning peat; three presenting a population of from 14,000 to men sleep in one bed, a boy in another, and 15,000 souls. The bargemen do not appear two dogs on the floor. Air (8 A.M.) felt op an unhealthy class of men, although the pressive. Amount of carbonic acid, -95.sanitary arrangements are in no degree satis- (Amount of Carbonic Acid in the Air of factory.
Canal-Boats. By CHARLES CAMERON, I.D., Dr. Cameron estimated the amount of car- Chemical News, vol. xxx. No. 776, p. 169.) bonic acid in four canal-boats; the results are The above-quoted analyses show the exas follows:
treme impurity of the air of canal. boats, 1. Cabin, 183} cubic feet; three occupants, and the urgent necessity of sanitary supereach having 614 cubic feet; no windows or vision.
Name of Barge.