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One Gospel had been translated, language sufficiently betrays their probably into this language, cer

descent from a Turcoman tribe. tainly into this or the Jaghatai, “The Jaghatai or Zagathai is before October 9, 1811.

the language of Great Bucharia, This is the language of the which was called Zagathai from kingdom of Siam, beyond the a son of Zenghis Khan, who proGanges. This kingdom is sep- fessed Christianity in his oapital arated by high mountains on the of Samarchand at a time when east from the kingdoms of Cam- there were more than a hundred bodia and Laos, on the west from Christian churches in Zagathai. Pegu, and on the north from Some of these churches remain Ava, or more properly from Jan- to this day. The language is goma: On the south lies the riv. spoken in Bochara, Balk, Samer Siam, and the peninsula of archand, and other cities (of Malacca, the north west part of Usbec and Independent Tarwhich is subject to Siam. The tary, a district of country exSiamese are divided into two tending from the north west tribes, of which the more ancient point of Hindostan towards the inhabit the country bounded by Caspian sea, and bordering on the Menam and the river of Cam- Persia. This region, which conbodia. Their language is con- tains multitudes of Jews, has by sidered by Dr. Leyden as orig. some been fixed upon as the inal, though connected with some

chief residence of the ten tribes. of the Chinese dialects.*

Dr. Buchanan's opinion is, “that, XXV. JAGHATAI. This is if from Babylon as a centre, you the last of Dr. Leyden's seven

describe a segment of a circle versions and undertaken in from the northern shore of the March 1810. Either this or the Caspian sea to the heads of the Siamese, more probably this, was Indus,” comprehending this neglected till his death. A single country, the greater part of PerGospel had been translated into sia, and the north west corner of the other before October 1811. Hindostan, "you will inclose the It is to be hoped that the College territories containing the chief of Fort William will not suffer body of the dispersed tribes of the benevolent design of Dr. Israel.” Leyden to fail, but will contrive


part of Tartary was once means to carry through the seve

the seat of a more powerful em. eral versions which he had un

pire than that of Greece dertaken.

Rome. Zenghis Khan, who "The Jaghatai is the original flourished about the year 1200, Turcoman language as spoken and Tamerlane, who died in the in the central districts of Asia;” year 1405, both made it their and bears much the same rela. favorite residence. Samarchand tion to the Turkish that the Sax

was the birth place of the latter, on does to the English. The and the royal seat of both. affinity is so great, that though

XXVI. COMARRE or Canara. the Turks have bong since lost This version was begun at Be!their Tartar configuration, their

+ Ch. Res. p. 237-259. Ed. R. No. • Ed. K. No. 32, p. 395. M's.

32, p. 390. M's. Geog. vol. ii, 412, Geog vol. ii, p. 466.



lary by Mr. Hands, from the tablished by the Edinburgh MisLondon Missionary Society, a- sionary Society in 1802. In bout the beginning of 1811. By 1805 two Missionary, printers the following October he had were sent out with a printing produced a translation of Luke. press and a fount of Arabic

This language which has an types. Before May, 1807, the affinity to the Telinga, and takes British and Foreign Bible Soci: the name of Canara from a coun ety had sent a new supply of try lying on the Indian sea, be- Arabic types, and paper suffi

. tween Goa and Malay-ala, about cient to print 5000 copies of 120 miies long, and from ten to the New Testament. By the thirty broad, is spoken from Goa month of August 1810 the New and the Mahratta borders to the Testament was printed to the southern extremity of Mysore.* end of Acts. At the beginning XXVII. ASSAM. This ver

of 1812 it was “nearly como sion was commenced by the pleted." Baptist Missionaries after March XXX. CALMUC.

A small 1811, and by the 4th of October portion of the Scriptures had they had translated the Gospel been translated into this language by Matthew, but had not begun by the Moravian brethren at Sato print.

repta, when they applied to the The country of Assam, for Committee of the British and which this translation is intend- Foreign Bible Society, about the ed, lies to the north east of Ben. year 1807, to send them 600 ru• gal, and is bounded on the north bles, 10 enable them to purchase by Thibet, on the west by Hin a fount of types at Petersburgh. dostan, on the south by Meckley, The Committee, before the and on the east by a part of the month of May 1808, had sent Burman Empire, or Ava.

In them this sum, with a promise some maps it is placed within of more in case they would prothe bounds of Hindostan.t ceed to translate and print entire

XXVIII. NEPALA. This ver books of the New Testament. sion was commenced by the Bap- Stimulated by this encourage tist Missionaries after March ment the brethren sat down in 1811, and by the 4th of Ociober earnest to translate the Gospel cleven chapiers of Maithew were by Matthew, some time appartranslated, but the printing was ently in the year 1803, and the not begun. The version is sup- Committee received an account posed to be intended for the of their proceeding in the spring kingdom of Napaul or Neipal, of 1809. It was expected at that which lies immediately north of time that the work would be Oude, and borders on Thibet. prosecuted till the whole New According to some maps at Testament was published. These least, it is included within the are the thirty languages into limits of Hindostan.

which an attempt has been made XXIX. TURKISH. The mis- to translate the Sacred Scripsion

at Karass, between the tures. Of these, fourteen, exclu• Black and Caspian seas, was es

sive of the Assam and Nepala,

are languages of Hindostup; *R's. Cyc, under Cunara. TR's. Cyc. wider Asum.

* Ch. Ob. vol. xi, p. 399.

viz. the Tamul, Bengalee, Hin Orissa. New Testament dostanee, Mahratta, Orissa, Shan- printed; the Old Testament, exscrit, Telinga, Guzerattce, Seek, cept the Pentateuch and from Malayalim, Carnata, Afghan, Judges to 2 Kings inclusive, Cashinirian, and Comarre; in- printed; Ruth also printed; the cluding almost all the dialects of whole Bible translated except that country

the Pentateuch. Three are spoken in India be. Shanscrit. New Testament, yond the Ganges; viz. the Bur: and the Old to the end of Joshua, man, Siamese, and Assam, (un- printed; the translation advanced less Assam be considered as be- to 1 King's, viii. longing to Hindostan,) besides Mahratta. New Testament the Eastern Malay used in the and Genesis, with a second edi. peninsula of Malacca.

tion of the Gospels, printed; Old Six are spoken in the islands; Testament translated, except viz. the Eastern Malay, Cinga- from Joshua to 2 Kings inclusive lese, Western Malay, Maldivian, and the Prophetical Books; and Bugis, and Macassar; besides of this portion, Ruth, Lamentathe Tamui used in one district of tions,and Daniel were translated. Ceylon

Hindostanee. New TestaSeven are spoken in other ment, with a second edition of the parts of the continent of Asia; Gospels, printed, and Genesis in viz. the Persian, Chinese, Ara. the press; the Old Testament bic, Jaghatai, Nepala, (unless translated to Job. Neipal be considered as belong Many languages still remain ing to Hindostan,) Turkish, and in Eastern Asia into which no Calmuc.

part of the Scriptures is trans. Except the Chinese and Bur. Jated. These are, the language man, all the languages under the of Cabul, (and indeed in that care of the Baptist Missionaries province no less than eleven dif. belong to Hindostan, if the As. ferent tongues are said to pre• sam and Nepala may be consid- vail,) the languages spoken by ered as belonging to that coun- different small nations of mountry.

taineers to the north and east of Next to the Tamul, Eastern India; the language of Bootan; Malay and Bengalee, which are those of Tartary; several in India finished, and exclusive of the beyond the Ganges; and many Cingalese, which is an old ver- in the Islands. The exact nuni. sion of the whole New Testa ber has not been ascertained, ment and three books of the apd it is difficult even to form a Old, the most forward of these conjecture on the subject, as Translations are the Orissa, there are probably many tongues Shanscrit, Mahratta, and Hindos- in the numerous islands, and tanee, which on the 4th of Octo some beyond the Ganges, which ber, 1811, were in the following have never been noticed by Eustate.

topeans. VOL. V. New Series.



For the Panoplist. lation. In all Christian coun

tries, the man who looks with On the word BRETHREN AS indifference upon his brother's

APPLIED IN THE Holy Scrip- concerns, who does not sympa. TURES TO CHRISTIANS.

thize with his brother in afflic.

tion, and rejoice with him in The Bible is written in a man. prosperity, is accounted unnatner wisely suited to take strong ural and unfeeling. hold of the hearts and under I now proceed to observe, tha: standings of men. In that quali. the scriptural application of the ty of good writing which is de- word Brethren to Christians scribed by the epithet interesting, teaches us, the word of God infinitely sur 1. That all Christians have a passes all other hooks. One common father. This is so ob. great reason of this distinction vious that it needs hardly to be is, that the Bible makes great mentioned;, and yet it is full of use of those incidents in human the most serious instruction, and affairs, and those relations in life, gives rise to many affecting conwhich are equally intelligible, siderations in the mind of every and deeply felt, in all countries, contemplative man. God is the in all stages of society, and at Father of all men as their Crea. every period of the world. The tor; but he is, in a more endearrelations of parents and children, ing sense, the Father of those brethren and sisters, husband who are burn again. Persons of and wife, are employed through- this character he describes as out the Scriptures to convey the begotten again to a lively hopes most important instruction, in a and, in another place, as begotten manner which cannot fail to im- with the word of truth. In this press the heart of every atten- high and spiritual sense, Christive rcader. It is my design to tians are called the sons of God, make a few remarks on the word are entitled to the privileges of Brethren as applied to Chris- children, and are made heirs to tians, and to show that this sin- an inheritance incorruptible, un. gle word teaches professed defiled, and reserved for then in Christians their duty to each heaven. Surely the idea that other, in the most forcible and Christians have a common faaffecting nianner

ther, and that the everliving God The relation which subsists stands in the relation of a spiritbetween the children of the ual Father to each one of them, same parents, has been regarded may well endear them 10 each by the whole human race as nat- other, and unite them in the clos. urally prompting to the most est bonds. tendor and unshaken friendship. 2. The word Brethren appliMany of the heathens · have felted to Christians should remind and exquisitely described the them that they have a common power and tenderness of this re interest. The children of earth.

ly parents, living under the same tion, increase, and purification of roof, receiving the same educa- churches, in the settlement of tion, looking forward to similar faithful ministers, in the promoemployments and to the same tion of brotherly love, and in the standing in society, and heirs ap- present hopes and prospects of parent to the same inheritance, a better day for the church of feel a comir.on interest. Wható God. Nor should they rejoice ever affects one, reaches to eve

only; they should labor and pray ry member of the family. They and strive earnestly for the con. not only feel this interest in fact, tinuance of favorable prospects, but manifest to all around them, and for the special interposition that they feel it. So Christians of God to save ruined men. How ought to feel with respect to the should they mourn over the pro. great things in wbich they are gress of infidelity, the increase equally interested. They should of vice, the neglect and profanabe wide awake to every event

tion of divine ordinances, the which promises good, or threat- multiplication of sects and hereens evil, to the Church. They sies, the increase of false teachshould zealously take hold of ers and blind guides, the delu." every thing which favors the sion of immortal souls to their great cause of truth and godli- final perdition, and the devices ness; and should cheerfully co

and partial triumphs of Satan. operate in every attempt to pro.

Nor should they mourn only; mote the common good, espec. they should exert themselves to ially the salvation of their own

counteract evil by all lawful souls and that of the so of means, and, without interinission mankind generally. As the

or weariness. great interests of Christians are

If these observations are true, more important and more ląsting how do they reprove the actual than imaginațion can conceive; conduct of professed Christians, as they reach to heaven, extend

and the actual state of their through the universe, and loak hearts and feelings. How en. forward to eternity, how strong gaged and earnest are they, at is the obligation, how imperative least many of them, about the the duty, to keep those interests perishing things of this world, continually in view. How strong the news of the day, the ordina. is the obligation, likewise, to as ry politics, gain or loss, and fų. sist each other in the attainment ture temporal prospects. Tell of the common object, to advise, them of the conversion of a sin strengthen, and support each ner, or a revival of religion, and other in the way to the realms

some of them are struck dunıb; of light. How should they re

others make a few languid in joice in the conversion of a sin. quiries, and change the subject; gle sinner, in a revival of reli- while few burn with a celestial gion, in the promulgation of the ardor, and appear inflamed with Gospel among the heathen, in love to God, and animated by the translation and circulation of zeal to promote the salvation of the Scriptures, in the formation men, I am often amazed when and success of Bible and Mis. I look within myself, and then sionary Societies, in the forma cast my eyes upon professed

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