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being to Madagascar at the time of the approximation of that sub-region to Ceylon and Malaya. A later infusion of Oriental forms took place probably by way of Arabia and Persia, when those countries were more fertile and perhaps more extensive. Australia has also received its cuckoos at a somewhat late date, a few having reached the Austro-Malay Islands somewhat earlier. - - - The classification of the family is somewhat unsettled. For the American genera I follow Messrs. Sclater and Salvin ; and, for those of the Old World, Mr. Sharpe's suggestive paper in the Proceedings of the Zoological Society, 1873, p. 600. The following is the distribution of the various genera:(*) Phaenicopháes (1 sp.), Ceylon; (*) Rhamphococcya (1 sp.), Celebes; (*) Rhinococoyo (1 sp.), Java; (****) Rhopodytes (6 sp.), Himalayas to Ceylon, Hainan, and Malaya; (**) Poliococcya: (1 sp.), Malacca, Sumatra, and Borneo; (*) Dasylophus (1 sp.), Philippine Islands; (*) Lepidogrammus (1 sp.), Philippine Islands; (*) Zanclostomus (1 sp.), Malaya; (*) Ceuthimochares (2 sp.), Tropical and South Africa and Madagascar; (*) Tacoocua (4 sp.), Himalayas to Ceylon and Malacca; (*) Rhinortha (1 sp.), Malacca, Sumatra, Borneo; (*) Carpococcya; (1 sp.), Borneo and Sumatra; (*) Neomorphus (4 sp.), Brazil to Mexico; (* *) Coua (10 sp.), Madagascar; (*) Cochlothraustes (1 sp.), Madagascar; (*) Centropus (35 sp.), Tropical and South Africa, the whole Oriental region, Austro-Malaya and Australia; (*) Crotophaga (3 sp.), Brazil to Antilles and Pennsylvania; (*) Guira (1 sp.), Brazil and Paraguay; (*) Geococcya; (2 sp.), Guatemala to Texas and California; (*) Dromococcya; (2 sp.), Brazil to Mexico; (*) Diplopterus (1 sp.), Mexico to Ecuador and Brazil; (*) Saurothera (4 sp.), Greater Antilles; (*) Hyefornis (2 sp.), Jamaica and Hayti; (*) Piaya (3 sp.), Mexico to West Ecuador and Brazil; (*) Morococcyx (1 sp.), Costa Rica to Mexico; (*) Coccygus (10 sp.), La Plata to Antilles, Mexico and Pennsylvania, Cocos Island; (*) Cuculus (22 sp.), Palaearctic, Ethiopian, and Oriental regions, to Moluccas and Australia; (*) Calieethrus (1 sp.), Papuan Islands; (*-*) Cacomantis (15 sp.), Oriental and Australian regions to Fiji Islands and Tasmania; (*-*) Chrysococcyx. (16 sp.), Tropical and South Africa, the Oriental and Australian regions to New Zealand and Fiji Islands; (*) Surniculus (2 sp.), India, Ceylon, and Malaya; (*) Hierococoya (7 sp.), the Oriental region to Amoorland and Celebes; (* *) Coccystes (6 sp.), Tropical and South Africa, the Oriental region, excluding Philippines; (*) Budynamis (8 sp.), the Oriental and Australian regions, excluding Sandwich Islands; (*) Scythrops (1 sp.), East Australia to Moluccas and North Celebes.
The Leptosomus discolor, which constitutes this family, is a bird of very abnormal characters, having some affinities both
with Cuckoos and Rollers. It is confined to Madagascar (Plate VI. Vol. I. p. 278).
The Bucconidae, or Puff-birds, are generally of Small size and dull colours, with rather thick bodies and dense plumage. They form one of the characteristic Neotropical families, being most abundant in the great Equatorial forest plains, but extending as far north as Guatemala, though absent from the West Indian Islands. . . -
The genera are:—Bucco (21 sp.), Guatemala to Paraguay, and West of the Andes in Ecuador; Malacoptila (10 sp.), Guatemala to Bolivia and Brazil; Nonovula (3 sp.), Amazon and Columbia; Monasa (7 sp.), Costa Rica to Brazil; Chelidoptera (2 sp.), Columbia and Guiana to Brazil.
The Galbulidae, or Jacamars, are small slender birds, of generally metallic plumage; somewhat resembling in form the Beeeaters of the Old World but less active. They have the same general distribution as the last family, but they do not occur west of the Equatorial Andes. The genera are :
Galbula (9 sp.), Guatemala to Brazil and Bolivia; Urogalba (2 sp.), Guiana and the lower Amazon; Brachygalba (4 sp.), Venezuela to Brazil and Bolivia; Jacamaralcyon (1 sp.), Brazil; Jacamerops
(2 sp.), Panama to the Amazon; Galbalcyrhynchus (1 sp.), Upper Amazon.
The Rollers are a family of insectivorous birds allied to the Bee-eaters, and are very characteristic of the Ethiopian and Oriental regions; but one species (Coracias garrula) spreads over the Palaearctic region as far north as Sweden and the Altai mountains, while the genus Eurystomus reaches the Amoor valley, Australia, and the Solomon Islands. The distribution of the genera is as follows:— t
Coracias (8 sp.), the whole Ethiopian region, the Oriental WOL. II.-21
region except Indo-Malaya, the Palaearctic to the abovenamed limits, and the island of Celebes on the confines of the Australian region; Eurystomus (8 sp.), West and East Africa and Madagascar, the whole Oriental region except the Peninsula of India, and the Australian as far as Australia and the Solomon Islands; Brachypteracias (possibly allied to Leptosomus 3) (4 sp.), Madagascar only, but these abnormal birds form a distinct sub-family, and according to Mr. Sharpe, three genera, Brachypteracias, Atelornis, and Geobiastes. A most remarkable feature in the distribution of this family is the occurrence of a true roller (Coracias temminckii) in the island of Celebes, entirely cut off from the rest of the genus, which does not occur again till we reach Siam and Burmah. The curious Pseudochelidon from West Africa may perhaps belong to this family or to the Cypselidae. (Ibis, 1861, p. 321.)
The Meropidae, or Bee-eaters, have nearly the same distribution as the Rollers, but they do not penetrate quite so far either into the Eastern Palaearctic or the Australian regions. The distribution of the genera is as follows:— . Merops (21 sp.), has the range of the family extending on the north to South Scandinavia, and east to Australia and New Guinea; Nyctionis (3 sp.), the Oriental region, except Ceylon and Java; Meropogon (1 sp.), Celebes; Meropiscus (3 sp.), West Africa; Melittophagus (6 sp.), Ethiopian region, except Madagascar.
The Todies are delicate, bright-coloured, insectivorous birds, of small size, and allied to the Motmots, although externally more resembling flycatchers. They are wholly confined to the greater Antilles, the islands of Cuba, Hayti, Jamaica, and Porto Rico having each a peculiar species of Todus, while another
species, said to be from Jamaica, has been recently described (Plate XVI. Vol. II. p. 67).
The Motmots range from Mexico to Paraguay and to the west coast of Ecuador, but seem to have their head-quarters in Cemtral America, five of the genera and eleven species occurring from Panama northwards, two of the genera not occurring in South America. The genera are as follows:–
Momotus (10 sp.), Mexico to Brazil and Bolivia, one species extending to Tobago, and one to Western Ecuador; Urospatha (1 sp.), Costa Rica to the Amazon ; Bar/phthengus (1 sp.), Brazil and Paraguay; Hylomanes (2 sp.), Guatemala; Prionirhynchus (2 sp.), Guatemala to Upper Amazon; Eumomota (1 sp.), Honduras to Chiriqui.