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regions to Fiji Islands and Tasmania ; (2233—2237) Chrysococcyx (16 sp.), Tropical and South Africa, the Oriental and Australian regions to New Zealand and Fiji Islands ; (2238) Surniculus (2 sp.), India, Ceylon, and Malaya ; (2239) Hierococcyx (7 sp.), the Oriental region to Amoorland and Celebes; (2240 2241) Coccystes (6 sp.), Tropical and South Africa, the Oriental region, excluding Philippines; (2242) Eudynamis (8 sp.), the Oriental and Australian regions, excluding Sandwich Islands; (2243) Scythrops (1 sp.), East Australia to Moluccas and North Celebes.

Family 59.—LEPTOSOMIDÆ. (1 Genus, 1 Species.)

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The Leptosomus discolor, which constitutes this family, is a bird of very abnormal characters, having some affinities both with Cuckoos and Rollers. It is confined to Madagascar (Plate VI. Vol. I. p. 278).

FAMILY 60.-BUCCONIDÆ. (5 Genera, 43 Species.)

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The Bucconidæ, or Puff-birds, are generally of small size and dull colours, with rather thick bodies and dense plumage. They form one of the characteristic Neotropical families, being most abundant in the great Equatorial forest plains, but extending as far north as Guatemala, though absent from the West Indian Islands.

The genera are :- Bucco (21 sp.), Guatemala to Paraguay, and West of the Andes in Ecuador; Malacoptila (10 sp.), Guatemala

to Bolivia and Brazil; Nonnula (3 sp.), Amazon and Columbia ; Monasa (7 sp.), Costa Rica to Brazil; Chelidoptera (2 sp.), Columbia and Guiana to Brazil.

Family 61.—GALBULIDÆ. (6 Genera, 19 Species.)

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The Galbulidæ, or Jacamars, are small slender birds, of generally metallic plumage; somewhat resembling in form the Beepaters of the Old World but less active. They have the same general distribution as the last family, but they do not occur west of the Equatorial Andes. The genera are :

Galbula (9 sp.), Guatemala to Brazil and Bolivia; Urogalba (2 sp.), Guiana and the lower Ainazon; Brachygalba (4 sp.), Venezuela to Brazil and Bolivia; Jacamaralcyon (1 sp.), Brazil ; Jacamerops (2 sp.), Panama to the Amazon; Galbalcyrhynchus (1 sp.), Upper Amazon.

FAMILY 62.—CORACIIDÆ. (3 Genera, 19 Species.)







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The Rollers are a family of insectivorous birds allied to the Bee-eaters, and are very characťe, istic of the Ethiopian and Oriental regions; but one species (Coracias garrula) spreads over the Palæarctic region as far north as Sweden and the Altai mountains, while the genus Eurystomus reaches the Amoor valley, Australia, and the Solomon Islands. The distribution of the genera is as follows :

Coracias (8 sp.), the whole Ethiopian region, the Oriental VOL. II.-21

region except Indo-Malaya, the Palæarctic to the abovenamed "limits, and the island of Celebes on the confines of the Australian region ; Eurystomus (8 sp.), West and East Africa and Madagascar, the whole Oriental region except the Peninsula of India, and the Australian as far as Australia and the Solomon Islands; Brachypteracias (possibly allied to Leptosomus ?) (4 sp.), Madagascar only, but these abnormal birds form a distinct sub-family, and according to Mr. Sharpe, three genera, Brachypteracias, Atelornis, and Gebiastes. ..

A most remarkable feature in the distribution of this family is the occurrence of a true roller (Coracias temminckii) in the island of Celebes, entirely cut off from the rest of the genus, which does not occur again till we reach Siam and Burmah.

The curious Pseudochelidon from West Africa may perhaps belong to this family or to the Cypselidæ. (Ibis. 1861, p. 321.)

FAMILY 63.-MEROPIDÆ. (5 Genera, 34 Species.)



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The Meropidæ, or Bee-eaters, have nearly the same distribution as the Rollers, but they do not penetrate quite so far either into the Eastern Palæarctic or the Australian regions. The distribution of the genera is as follows :

Merops (21 sp.), has the range of the family extending on the north to South Scandinavia, and east to Australia and New Guinea; Nyctiornis (3 sp.), the Oriental region, except Ceylon and Java ; Meropogon (1 sp.), Celebes ; Meropiscus (3 sp.), West Africa; Melittophagus (6 sp.), Ethiopian region, except Madagascar. FAMILY 64.—TODIDÆ. (1 Genus, 5 Species.)

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The Todies are delicate, bright-coloured, insectivorous birds, of small size, and allied to the Motmots, although externally more resembling flycatchers. They are wholly confined to the greater Antilles, the islands of Cuba, Hayti, Jamaica, and Porto Rico having each a peculiar species of Todus, while another species, said to be from Jamaica, has been recently described (Plate XVI. Vol. II. p. 67).

FAMILY 65.—MOMOTIDÆ. (6 Genera, 17 Species.)

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The Motmots range from Mexico to Paraguay and to the west coast of Ecuador, but seem to have their head-quarters in Central America, five of the genera and eleven species occurring from Panama northwards, two of the genera not occurring in South America. The genera are as follows :

Momotus (10 sp.), Mexico to Brazil and Bolivia, one species extending to Tobago, and one to Western Ecuador; Urospatha (1 sp.), Costa Rica to the Amazon ; Baryphthengus (1 sp.), Brazil and Paraguay; Hylomancs (2 sp.), Guatemala ; Prionirhynchus (2 sp.), Guatemala to Upper Amazon; Eumomota (1 sp.), Honduras to Chiriqui.

FAMILY 66.-TROGONIDÆ. (7 Genera, 44 Species.)




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The Trogons form a well-marked family of insectivorous forest-haunting birds, whose dense yet puffy plumage exhibits the most exquisite tints of pink, crimson, orange, brown, or inetallic green, often relieved by delicate bands of pure white. In one Guatemalan species the tail coverts are enormously lengthened into waving plumes of rich metallic green, as graceful and marvellous as those of the Paradise-birds. Trogons are tolerably abundant in the Neotropical and Oriental regions, and are represented in Africa by a single species of a peculiar genus. The genera now generally admitted are the following :

Trogon (24 sp.), Paraguay to Mexico, and west of the Andes in Ecuador; Temnotrogon (1 sp.), Hayti; Prionoteles (1 sp.), Cuba (Plate XVII. Vol. II. p. 67); Apaloderma (2 sp.), Tropical and South Africa; Harpactes (10 sp.), the Oriental region, excluding China; Pharomacrus (5 sp.), Amazonia to Guatemala; Euptilotis (1 sp.), Mexico.

Remains of Trogon have been found in the Miocene deposits of France; and we are thus able to understand the existing distribution of the family. At that exceptionally mild period in the northern hemisphere, these birds may have ranged over all Europe and North America; but, as the climate became more severe they gradually became restricted to the tropical regions, where alone a sufficiency of fruit and insect-food is found all the year round.

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