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animals whose body is not larger than a rabbit's, thence often called “mouse-deer.” They were formerly classed with the “musk-deer,” owing to their similar tusk-like upper canines; but their anatomy shows them to form quite a distinct family, having more resemblance to the camels. On the branch above is the curious feather-tailed Tree-Shrew (Ptilocerus lowii), a small insectivorous animal altogether peculiar to Borneo. Above this is the strange little Tarsier (Tarsius spectrum), one of the lemurs confined to the Malay islands, but so distinct from all others as to constitute a separate family. The other small animals are the Flying Lemurs (Galaeopithecus volans) formerly classed with the lemurs, but now considered to belong to the Insectivora. They have a very large expansion of the skin connecting the fore and hind limbs and tail, and are able to take long flights from one tree to another, and even to rise over obstacles in their course by the elevatory power of the tail-membrane. They feed chiefly on leaves, and have a very soft and beautifully marbled fur. In the distance is the Malayan tapir (Tapirus indicus), a representative of a group of animals now confined to the larger Malay islands and tropical America, but which once ranged over the greater part of temperate Europe.
Birds—Owing to several of the families consisting of very obscure and closely allied species, which have never been critically examined and compared by a competent ornithologist, the number of birds inhabiting this sub-region is uncertain. From the best available materials there appear to be somewhat less than 650 species of land-birds actually known, or excluding the Philippine Islands somewhat less than 600. The larger part of these are peculiar species, but mostly allied to those of Indo-China; 36 of the genera, as already stated, being common to these two sub-regions. There are, however, no less than 46 genera which are peculiarly or wholly Indo Malayan and, in many cases, have no close affinity with other Oriental groups. These peculiar genera are as follows:—Timalia, Malacopteron, Macronus, Napothera, Turdinus, and Trichicos—genera of Timaliidae; Eupetes, a most remarkable form, perhaps allied to Enicurus, and Cinclus; Rhabdornis (Certhiidae) found only in the Philippines; Psaltria, a diminutive bird of doubtful affinities, provisionally classed among the tits(Paridae); Setornis (Pycnonotidae); Lalage (Campephagidae) extending eastward to the Pacific Islands; Pycnosphrys, Philentoma (Muscicapidae); Laniellus, a beautiful bird doubtfully classed with the shrikes (Laniidae); Platylophus and Pityriasis, the latter a most anomalous form— perhaps a distinct family, at present classed with the jays, in Corvidae; Prionochilus, a curious form classed with Dicaeidae; Erythrura (Ploceidae), extending eastwards to the Fiji Islands; Gymnops, Calornis, (Sturnidae); Eurylamus, Corydon, and Calyptomena (Eurylaemidae); Bucichla, the longest tailed and most elegantly marked of the Pittidae; Reinwardtipicus and Miglyptes (Picidae); Psilopogon and Calorhamphus, (Megalaemidae); Rhinococcya, Dasylophus, Lepidogrammus, Carpococcyx, Zanclostomus, Poliococcyx, Rhinortha, (Cuculidae); Berenicornis, Caldo, Cranorhinus, Penelopides, Rhinoplaa, (Bucerotidae); Psittinus, (Psittacidae); Ptilopus, Phapitreron, (Columbidae); Rollulus, (Treronidae); Machaerhamphus, (Falconidae). Many of these genera are abundant and wide-spread, while some of the most characteristic Himalayan genera, such as Larvivora, Garrulaw, Hypsipetes, Pomatorhinus, and Dendrocitta, are here represented by only a few species. Among the groups that are characteristic of the Malayan sub-region, the Timaliidae and Pycnonotidae stand pre-eminent; the former represented chiefly by the genera Timalia, Malacopteron, Macronus, and Trichastoma, the latter by Criniger, Microscelis, and many forms of Pycnonotus. The Muscicapidae, Dicruridae, Campephagidae, Ploceidae, and Nectariniidae are also well developed; as well as the Pittidae, and the Eurylaemidae, the limited number of species of the latter being compensated by a tolerable abundance of individuals. Among the Picariae are many conspicuous groups; as, woodpeckers (Picidae); barbets (Megalaemidae); trogons (Trogonidae); kingfishers (Alcedinidae); and hornbills (Bucerotidae); five families which are perhaps the most conspicuous in the whole fauna. Lastly come the pigeons (Columbidae), and the pheasants (Phasianidae), which are fairly represanted by such fine genera as Treron, Ptilopus, Euplocamus, and Argusianus. A few forms whose affinities are Australian rather than Oriental, help to give a character to the ornithology, though none of them are numerous. The swallow-shrikes (Artamus); the wag-tail fly-catchers (Rhipidura); the green fruitdoves (Ptilopus); and the mound-makers (Megapodius), are the chief of these. There are a few curious examples of remote geographical alliances that may be noted. First, we have a direct African connection in Machaerhamphus, a genus of hawks, and Berenicornis, a genus of hornbills; the only close allies being, in the former case in South, and in the latter in West Africa. Then we have a curious Neotropical affinity, indicated by Carpococcyx, a large Bornean ground-cuckoo, whose nearest ally is the genus Neomorphus of South America; and by the lovely green-coloured Calyptomena which seems unmistakably allied to the orangecoloured Rupicola, or “Cock of the rock,” in general structure and in the remarkable form of crest, a resemblance which has been noticed by many writers. In the preceding enumeration of Malayan genera several are included which extend into the Austro-Malay Islands, our object, at present, being to show the differences and relations of the two chief Oriental sub-regions. Plate IX. A Malayan Forest with some of its peculiar Birds— Our second illustration of the Malayan fauna is devoted to its bird-life; and for this purpose we place our scene in the Malay peninsula, where birds are perhaps more abundant and more interesting, than in any other part of the sub-region. Conspicuous in the foreground is the huge Rhinoceros Hornbill (Buceros rhinoceros), one of the most characteristic birds of the Malayan forests, the flapping of whose wings, as it violently beats the air to support its heavy body, may be heard a mile off. On the ground behind, is the Argus pheasant (Argusianus giganteus) whose beautifully ocellated wings have been the subject of a most interesting description in Mr. Darwin's Descent of Man. The wing-feathers are here so enormously developed for display (as shown in our figure) that they become almost, if not quite, useless for their original purpose of flight; yet the colours are so sober, harmonizing completely with the surrounding vegetation, and the bird is so wary, that in the forests where it abounds an old hunter assured me he had never been able to see a specimen till it was caught in his snares. It is interesting to note, that during the display of the plumage the bird's head is concealed by the wings from a spectator in front, and, contrary to what usually obtains among pheasants, the head is entirely unadorned, having neither crest nor a particle of vivid colour, a remarkable confirmation of Mr. Darwin's views, that gayly coloured plumes are developed in the male bird for the purpose of attractive display in the breeding season. The long-tailed bird on the right is one of the Drongo-shrikes (Bhringa remiser), whose long bare tail-feathers, with an oar-like web at the end, and blueblack glossy plumage, render it a very attractive object as it flies after its insect prey. On the left is another singular bird the great Broad-bill (Corydon sumatranus), with dull and sombre plumage, but with a beak more like that of a boat-bill than of a fruit-eating passerine bird. Over all, the white-handed Gibbon (Hylobates lar) swings and gambols among the topmost branches of the forest. Reptiles and Amphibia.-These are not sufficiently known to be of much use for our present purpose. Most of the genera belong to the continental parts of the Oriental region, or have a wide range. Of snakes Rhabdosoma, Typhlocalamus, Tetragonosoma, Acrochordus, and Atropos, are the most peculiar, and there are several peculiar genera of Homalopsidae. Of Oriental genera, Cylindrophis, Xenopeltes, Calamaria, Hypsirhina, Psammodynastes, Gonyosoma, Tragops, Dipsas, Pareas, Python, Bungarus, Naja, and Callophis are abundant; as well as Simotes, Ablabes, Tropidonotus, and Dendrophis, which are widely distributed. Among lizards Hydrosaurus and Gecko are common; there are many isolated groups of Scincidae; while Draco, Calotes, and many forms of Agamidae, some of which are peculiar, abound. Among the Amphibia, toads and frogs of the genera Micrhyla.