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Antilles, nor west of the Andes south of the bay of Guayaquil. The sub-families and genera are as follows :

CRACINÆ, 4 genera.-Crax (8 sp.), Mexico to Paraguay (Plate XV., Vol. II. p. 28); Nothocrax (1 sp.), Guiana, Upper Rio Negro, and Upper Amazon; Pauxi (1 sp.), Guiana to Venezuela; Mitua (2 sp.), Guiana and Upper Amazon.

PENELOPINÆ, 7 genera.-Stegnolæma (1 sp.), Columbia and Ecuador; Penelope (14 sp.), Mexico to Paraguay and to western slope of Ecuadorian Andes; Penelopina (1 sp.), Guatemala ; Pipile (3 sp.), Venezuela to Eastern Brazil ; Aburria (1 sp), Columbia ; Chamæpetes (2 sp.), Costa Rica to Peru; Ortalida (18 sp.), New Mexico to Paraguay, also Tobago.

OREOPHASINÆ, 1 genus.— Oreophasis (1 sp.), Guatemala.

It thus appears that the Cracinæ are contined to South America east of the Andes, except one species in Central America; whereas nine Penelopinæ and Oreophasis are found north of Panama. The species of the larger genera are strictly representative, each having its own distinct geographical area, so that two species of the same genus are rarely or never found in the same locality.

FAMILY 92.-TINAMIDÆ. (9 Genera, 39 Species.)

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The Tinamous are a very remarkable family of birds, with the general appearance of partridges or hemipodes, but with the tail either very small or entirely wanting. They differ greatly in their organization from any of the Old World Gallinæ, and approach, in some respects, the Struthiones or Ostrich tribe. They are very terrestrial in their habits, inhabiting the forests, open plains, and mountains of the Neotropical region, from Patagonia and Chili to Mexico; but, like the Cracidæ, they are absent from the Antilles. Their colouring is very sober and protective, as is the

case with so many ground-birds, and they are seldom adorned VOL. II.-23

with crests or other ornamental plumes, so prevalent in the order to which they belong. The sub-families and genera, according to the arrangement of Messrs. Sclater and Salvin, are as follows:

TINAMINÆ, 7 genera.—Tinamus (7 sp.), Mexico to Paraguay; Nothocercus (3 sp.), Costa Rica tu Venezuela and Ecuador; Crypturus (16 sp.), Mexico to Paraguay and Bolivia ; Rhynchotus (2 sp.), Bolivia and South Brazil to La Plata; Nothoprocta (4 sp.), Ecuador to Bolivia and Chili; Nothura (4 sp.), Brazil and Bolivia to Patagonia ; Taoniscus (1 sp.), Brazil to Paraguay.

TINAMOTINÆ, 2 genera.Calodromas (1 sp.), La Plata and Patagonia; Tinamotis (1 sp.), Andes of Peru and Bolivia.

General Remarks on the Distribution of Gallina. There are about 400 known species of Gallinaceous birds grouped into 76 genera, of which no less than 65 are each restricted to a single region. The Tetraonidæ are the only cosmopolitan family, and even these do not extend into Temperate South America, and are very poorly represented in Australia. The Cracidæ and Tinamidæ are strictly Neotropical, the Megapodiidæ almost as strictly Australian. There remains the extensive family of the Phasianidæ, which offers some interesting facts. We have first the well-marked sub-families of the Numidinæ and Meleagrinæ, confined to the Ethiopian and Nearctic regions respectively, and we find the remaining five sub-families, comprising about 60 species, many of them the most magnificent of known birds, spread over the Oriental and the south-eastern portion of the Palæarctic regions. This restriction is remarkable, since there is no apparent cause in climate or vegetation why pheasants should not be found wild throughout southern Europe, as they were during late Tertiary and Post-Tertiary times. We have also to notice the remarkable absence of the Pheasant tribe from Hindostan and Ceylon, where the peacock and jungle-fowl are their sole representatives. These two forms also alone extend to Java, whereas in the adjacent islands of Borneo and Sumatra we have Argusianus, Polyplectron, and Euplocamus. The common jungle-fowl (the origin of our domestic poultry) is the only

species which enters the Australian region as far as Celebes and Timor, and another species (Gallus æneus) as far as Flores, and it is not improbable that these may have been introduced by man and become wild.

We have very little knowledge of the extinct forms of Gallinæ, but what we have assures us of their high antiquity, since we find such distinct groups as the jungle-fowl, partridges, and Pterocles, represented in Europe in the Miocene period ; while the Turkey, then as now, appears to have been a special American type.


FAMILY 93.-OPISTHOCOMIDÆ. (1 Genus, 1 Species.)

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1 The Hoazin (Opisthocomus cristatus) is the sole representative of this family and of the order Opisthocomi. It inhabits the eastern side of Equatorial America in Guiana and the Lower Amazon; and at Pará is called “Cigana” or gipsy. It is a large, brown, long-legged, weakly-formed and loosely-crested bird, having such anomalies of structure that it is impossible to class it along with any other family. It is one of those survivors, which tell us of extinct groups, of whose past existence we should otherwise, perhaps, remain for ever ignorant.


FAMILY 94.—VULTURIDÆ. (10 Genera, 25 Species.)

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Vultures range over all the great continents south of the Arctic Circle, being only absent from the Australian region, the Malay Islands, Ceylon, and Madagascar. The Old and New World forms are very distinct, belonging to two well-marked divisions, often ranked as families. The distribution of the genera is as follows:

Sub-family I. VULTURINÆ (6 genera, 16 species), confined to the Old World.—Vultur (1 sp.), Spain and North Africa through Nepal to China north of Ningpo; Gyps (5 sp.), Europe south of 59°, Africa, except the western sub-region, India, Siam, and Northern China; Pseudogyps (2 sp.), North-east Africa and Senegal, India and Burmah; Otogyps (2 sp.), South Europe, North-east and South Africa, India, and Siam; Lophogyps (1 sp.), North-east and South Africa and Senegal ; Neophron (4 sp.), South Europe, India and the greater part of Africa.

Sub-family II. SARCORHAMPHINÆ (4 genera, 9 species), confined to the New World.-Sarcorhamphus (2 sp.), “The Condor," Andes of South America, and southern extremity below 41° south latitude; Cathartes (1 sp.), America from 20° south latitude to Trinidad and Mexico; Catharistes (1 sp.), America from 40° north to 40° south latitude, but not on Pacific coast of United States; Pseudogryphis (5 sp.), South America and Falkland Islands, and to 49° north latitude in North America, also Cuba and Jamaica.

FAMILY 95.SERPENTARIIDÆ. (1 Genus, 1 Species.)

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The singular Secretary Bird (Serpentarius) is found over a large part of Africa. Its position is uncertain, as it has affinities both with the Accipitres, through Polyboroides (1) and with Cariama, which we place near the Bustards. (Plate IV. Vol. I.

p. 261.)

FAMILY 96.— FALCONIDÆ. (69 Genera, 325 Species.)

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The Falconidæ, including the various groups of Hawks, Kites, Buzzards, Eagles, and Falcons, are absolutely cosmopolitan, ranging far into the arctic zone and visiting the most remote oceanic islands. They are abundant in all the great continents and larger islands, preferring open to woody regions. They are divided into several sub-families, the range of some of which are restricted. For this family as well as the preceding I follow the arrangement of Mr. Sharpe's British Museum Catalogue, and shall give the approximate distribution of each sub-family, as well as of the several genera.

Sub-family' I. POLYBORINÆ (2 genera, 10 species), the Neotropical region with California and Florida, Tropical and South Africa.—Polyborus (2 sp.), South America, and to California and Florida; Ibycter (8 sp.), Tierra del Fuego to Honduras and Guatemala.

Cariama and Serpentarius, which Mr. Sharpe puts here, are so anomalous that I think it better to class them in separate families—Serpentariidæ among the Accipitres, and Cariamidæ near the Bustards.

Sub-family II. ACCIPITRINÆ (10 genera, 87 species).-Cosmopolitan.-Polyboroides (2 sp.), Africa and Madagascar; Circus(15 sp.), Old and New Worlds, widely scattered, but absent from Eastern Equatorial America, and the Malay Archipelago except Celebes; Micrastur (7 sp.), and Geranospiza (2 sp.), Tropical parts of Neotropical region ; Urotriorchis (1 sp.), West Africa ; Erythrocnema (1 sp.), Chili and La Plata to California and Texas ; Melierax (5 sp.), Africa except West African sub-region; Astur (30 sp.), cos. mopolitan, except the Temperate South American sub-region;

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