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De Verb, Earl or Oxford: Battle or Radcot Bridgb. — The author of the Marriage of Thame and Tsis describes the manner in which Robert De Vere, the favourite of Richard II., escaped from the field of battle: —

"Hie Verus, notissimus apro, Dum dare terga negat virtue, et tendere contra Non sinit invictse rcctrix prudentia mentis; Undique dum resonat repetitis ictibus umbo, Tinnituque strepit circum suatempora caseis, Se dedit in fluvium; fluvius lastatus et illo Hospite, suscepit salvum, salvumque remisit."

(Quoted in Camden's Britannia, vol. i. p. 285.)

Froissart relates that, when De Vere was informed that the army of the Barons was approaching from London to attack him, he caused all the bridges over the Isis to be broken down, to prevent their crossing; but that, owing to the extreme dryness of the season, a ford was found by which they passed through, horse and foot, and easily defeated him. (Froissart, vol. Hi. p. 491, translated by Johnes, of Hafod.)

Is any instance recorded in modern times, of the river having sunk so low? I never ascended it so high as Evesham, but I know that to a considerable distance above Godstow it presents the appearance of a deep stream, not fordable in any part.

De Vere escaped to the Netherlands, whence, after some time, he was invited to the Court of France, where he was received with distinguished honours. He bore a part in the great tournament which was given to celebrate the entry of Isabel of Bavaria into Paris. His race has perished, but I believe that several of our nobilitv and gentry claim relationship with them. (The Tournament is described by Froissart, vol. iv. p. 85.)

The Marriage of Thame and his is supposed to be the production of Camden himself; and it is remarkable that he, who as a Westminster man, probably thought it incumbent on him to have a fling at Eton, should, in the single line which he devotes to that purpose, have committed a false quantity: —

"Quae fuit Orbiliis minium subjecta plagosis." * The first syllable in plagosus is long, as most fourth-form boys at Eton know. W. D.

John Clotworthy, Pirst Viscount MassaReene.—Sir John Clotworthy was, in 1660, created Viscount Massareene, with a special limitation in favour of Sir John Skeffington, who had married his daughter, and who accordingly succeeded to the dignity on the death of his father-in-law, which occurred in Sept. 1665.

Mention is made of the first Viscount Massareene in the first and second volumes of Mrs. Green's Calendars of the Domestic State Papers of Charles II., but the index to each volume errone

ously ascribes the title to John Skeffington instead of John Clotworthy.

As a general index to the Calendars of btate Papers may be expected hereafter, it is desirable that errors which may be discovered in the index to any volume should be pointed out.

We cheerfully embrace this opportunity of renewing our acknowledgment of much information of a valuable and varied character derived from these Calendars. C. H. & Thompson Cooper.


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Etymology And Meaning Op The Name Moses. — Though writers differ respecting the etymology.of the name (Moses), yet the remarks of Kalisch on the subject are so satisfactory that I think they deserve a corner in " N". & Q."

"The etymology and meaning of the name Moses (who is called bv the Septuagint Mo>i><ri)s, and by the Vulgate Moytes), is naturallv much disputed; for the explanation given in the text,' because I drew him out of the water" (Exodus, ii. 10), would require not the active form, H^D, but the passive participle, '1BT3. The former would rather imply the notion of a general leading the people of Israel from Egypt, an arehageta. Besides, it is questionable that the Egyptian princess should have given her adopted son a Hebrew name. Antiquaries and historians have, therefore, justly endeavoured to trace the name of Moses to an Egyptian origin: hence, Josephus observes (Antiq. a. ix. 6), 'He received his name from the particular circumstance of hu infancy, when Be had been exposed in the Nile; for the Egyptians call the water Mo, and one who is rescued from the waves, uses. The Septuagint, then, which renders the word by Mwdotjj, has accurately preserved the etymology. Similarly, Josephus, Contra Apion. i. 31; Philo. De VUa Xosu, u. 83; Eusebias,fr«rp.£»ony.ix.9,28.andothers; whence Moses has sometimes been called ttoye<4,, ' filius aquas,' the son of the water. (See Jablonsky, Opus., L 19'; Rossius, Etgmolog. uEgypt., p. 127, &c.)"

This etymology of the word Moses is the most satisfactory which I have yet seen. The remarks of Dr. Kalisch are taken from a note in his JSeut Translation of the Old Testament, part "Exodus, ii. 10. J- DAlton

Buddhists In Britain. It is not likely that the Buddhists, if ever they reached the British Isles, came from the eastern shores of the Mediterranean, although it is nearly certain that Palistan, literally the country of the Pah or Buddhists, was at one period occupied by that great race of shepherds, who are known in Indian history as Pali-pootras, and spoken of by ancient, geographers as Pali-bothn; and who, emigrating froni India, traversed many countries of the West, and even conquered Egypt, leaving behind them in India, Affghanistan, Northern Arabia, Asia Minor, and perhaps in Egypt, their cave dwellings or temples with painted walls. It is far more probable that Buddhist missionaries would have reached Britain from Scandinavia, the earliest inhabitants of which were a Buddhist race, and

votaries of Woden or Budhun, one of whose names was Gotama, whence the German name of God. Some Buddhist sculptured stones I once saw in India are singularly like the ancient upright stones found in Great Britain, both having circles wrought upon them: for example, the centre stone of the Aberlemno groupe in Scotland. The right-hand stone of that groupe resembles a stone found in Cuttak, and the left-hand stone is actually the same thing as the sacred snake stone set up for worship in India. Mr. O'Brien and Mr. Wilson describe ancient stones in Ireland and Scotland, on which occur elephants forming canopies with their trunks, which is a very common accompaniment to statues of Buddha. The snake, rhinoceros, and tiger are found sculptured on Buddhist as well as on ancient British stones.

Mr. O'Brien's theory that the round towers of Ireland are Phallic, and of Buddhist origin, is quite untenable, as the Lingam or Phallus has no place whatever in the Buddhist religion. The lately discovered markings on the rocks of the Cheviot hills and elsewhere in the North, a drawing of which appeared in a late number of the Illustrated London Neus, may be of Buddhist origin. These markings consist of concentric circles surrounding a half moon. The Jainas, a sect of Buddhists, perform their festivals at changes of the moon. The greatest of all their festivals is the feast of the Siddha Circle; the worship is performed before nine sacred names written on the earth in a circle containing nine divisions of different colours. H. C.

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Alexander The Geeat's Grant To The SlaVonians.—In a MS. dated 1714, in my possession, is the following passage, the original of which is said to be in the Illynan character, attributed to St. Jerome, in the church at Prague: —

"We, Alexander the Great, of Philip, Founder of the Grecian Empire, Conqueror of the Persians, Medes, &c, and of the whole world from ea»t to west, from north to south, Son of the great Jupiter by, &c., so called: to you the noble stock of the Sclavonians, so called, and to your Language, you have been to us a help, true in faith and valiant in war, we confirm all that tract of earth from north to south of Italy from us and our successors, to you and your posterity for ever: and if there be anv other nation found there, let them be vour slaves. Dated at Alexandria the 12 of the Goddess Minerva. Witness Ethra and the Princes, whom we appoint our Successors."

1. Can anyone inform me whether the original of this grant is now in existence at Prague?

2. Is there a copy of the original to be found in any printed book? Llaixawg.

An Pros, Sib Edmund, Governor of Massachusetts, was from Guernsey. What was bis coat of arms? W. H. Whitmore.

Boston, U.&A.

James Bolton was a botanical artist residing at Halifax. His latest publication appeared in 1794. When did he die, and where can I obtain information respecting him? S. Y. R.

Burlesque Painters.

"Paul Veronese introduced portraits of his customers in pleasant situations; Michael Angelo pain ted those whom he did not like in Purgatory and worse. Coypel, to please Boileau, gave Sanatol's face to Satan at Confession; and Sublerras represents the same personage obliged to hold the candle to St. Dominick, as very like to Cardinal Dubois."—A Letter to the Members of the Society of Arts, p. 7. By an Engraver. Lond. 1796."

The pamphlet from which the above is taken is a complimentary notice of Barry's pictures, and a recommendation that they should be engraved on a large scale. I shall be obliged by information as to where the two pictures are. Who was Sanatol? and what is "holding the candle to St. Dominick" P J. R.

Coote, Lord Bellomont. — Richard, Earl of Bellomont, was Governor of New York and Massachusetts. I have his seal with numerous quarterings. Can any one say what arms would be on his shield? W. H. Whitmore.

Boston, D.S.A.

Fellowships In Tbihitt College, Dublin.— I have a copy of (I think) a scarce publication, entitled The Difficulties and Discouragements which attend the Study for a Fellowship in the College of Dublin (12mo, Dublin, 1735). It is in the form of " A Letter to a young Gentleman, who intends to stand Candidate at the next Election"; and appeared anonymously. Who was the author? Adhba.

Hill, Middlesex And Worcestershire. — I

shall be obliged by references to pedigrees of this family. I have Sims's Index. R. W.

Hymn Queries.—I should feel much obliged if you, or any of your readers, would give me the name of the author, or authors, of the hymns, of which the first lines are as follow: — "0 it is hard to work for God," "0 Faith, thou workest miracles," "O how the thought of God attracts,"—

which I have not met with in different selections; and —

"My God I love Thee, not because
I hope for heaven thereby,"—

in Hymns, Ancient and Modern. I should be glad also to know to whom the hymn, " Jesu Redemptor omnium," and that beginning, " O filii et filiae," are attributed. These, together with several other Latin hymns, your correspondent F. C. H. has not given us in his list. Is it because their authorship is too uncertain? Can you tell me whether Faber's Hymns have ever been published by themselves? M. J. W.

Charles Lamb's Alice W . — Are there

any particulars known concerning this young lady? Who was she? Talfourd, in his " Letters" of the poet, hints that Lamb's passion for her was, on his own confession, not very lasting, though the supposition seems hardly consistent with the

fond manner in which Alice W is mentioned

even in the later writings of Klin. Talfourd says:

"A youthful passion, which lasted only a few months, and which he afterwards attempted to regard lightly as a folly past, inspired a few sonnets of very delicate feeling and exquisite music"

In the Final Memorials, however, we are told that Lamb's verses were partly inspired —

"by an attachment to a young lady residing in the neighbourhood of Islington, who is commemorated in his early verses as ' The Fair-haired Maid.' How his love prospered we cannot ascertain, but we know how nobly that love, and all hope of the earthly blessings attendant on such an affection, were resigned on the catastrophe which darkened the following year."

Lamb was at this time twenty years of age. I should be obliged for any information about

Alice W , if such is to be had.

Robert Kempt.

Monks And Friars.—In a recent review of Mr. Froude's History, I read: —

"We have observed another inaccuracy, which makes one really doubt whether Mr. Froude has ever read the ecclesiastical history of the Middle Ages, not to say the poets and novelists. He continually speaks of Dominican monks and Augustinian monht. The Dominicans and Augustinians were friars, not monks. Friars were not heard of till many centuries after Europe had been overspread by monks, and there were no more bitter enemies than the monks and friars. As well might the historian of the Jews speak of the Pharisees and Sadducees us if they were convertible terms."

I wish to ask: 1. What was the distinction between monks and friars? 2. Was the difference as great as the reviewer implies? F. H. M.

Neef. — Can any one give me the derivation of nee/, the North Yorkshire for a clenched fist?


"The Nemo," Etc.—There was printed about thirty years ago two literary periodicals edited by students of Edinburgh University, having the titles of The Nemo, and The Anti-Nemo. As I have been unable to get a sight of these papers, would any reader who may have copies oblige me with the titles of the articles? I believe there were only two or three numbers printed of each periodical. A son of Professor Wilson (Christopher North) was, I understand, one of the editors. • Iota.

"Revenohs A Nos Moijtons." — What is the name of the play which gave rise to this saying? what was its date, and who was its author?

I. o. s.

Ourrinf totth aruttoert.

"Rotal Stripes," Etc. — On Wednesday, March 30, died Mr. George Daniel, author of The Modern Dunciad, but perhaps more generally known as the editor of Cumberland's British Theatre. In an obituary notice in The Era of April 3, is a list of his works: he published —

"In 1812, Royal Stripes; or, A Kick from Yarmouth to Walts, for the suppression of which a large sum was ordered to be paid by the Prince Regent. Ten pounds were advertised and paid for a copy."

I wish to know the evidence on which this not very probable statement rests. Mr. Daniel appears in all his works which 1 have read to bave been a Tory and a rather high churchman.

In a list of the works of Peter Pindar, jun. (Thomas Agg*), on sale by Fairburn in 1816, is "The R—/ Sprain; or, A Kick from Yarmouth to Wales, Is. Gd." I once had one, which, estimating at its literary value, I threw away, when selecting from my pamphlets those which were worth binding. I remember only two lines, which may be valuable if a copy really was sold for 101.:

"Blacks in one moment both his princely eyes, While from his nose the blood in torrents tlies."

The style is not like that of Mr. Daniel. So far as I can recall my impression of the book, it was one of mere stupid ribaldry, and not likely to be bought for suppression while The Twopenny Post Bag was in full sale.

Is there any reason to believe that the Prince Regent ever paid for the suppression of a printed book? . H. B. C.

U. U. Club.

[The pamphlet inquired after is now on our table, and as it appears to be somewhat scarce, and no copy of it is to be found in the British Museum, we give the title in full: —

"R—y—1 Stripes; or, a Kick from Yar—h to Wa—s; with the Particulars of an Expedition to Oat—4s, and

the Sprained Ancle: a Poem. By P P , Poet


"Loud roar'd the P e, but roar'd in vain,

L d T h brandish'd high his cane,

And guided ev'ry r—y—1 movement;
Now up, now down, now to and fro.
The R—g—t nimbly mov'd his toe,
The Lady much enjoy'd the show,
And complimented his improvement.

"London: Published by E. Wilson, 88, Cornhill, 1812. Price One Shilling."

The title-page of oar copy is indorsed "By George Daniel," in the neat handwriting of a gentleman who has been personally known to the author of Merrie England ever since he left Mr. Thomas Hogg's boardingschool on Paddington-Grecn, or from the time that he

* John Agg. Vide Dictionary of Living Authors, 1816, and Catalogue of the British Museum.—Ed.]

was mounted on a stool as a clerk in the office of Mr. John Cox, Stock-broker, in Token-House Yard. To set the matter finally at rest, Mr. Daniel himself has laid claim to the authorship of this satirical poem in the

"Memoir of D. G.," with his own portrait, both of

which are prefixed to George Colman's comic piece, The Blue Devils, in Cumberland's British Theatre, 1838. Mr. Daniel says, "In 1811 he published The Times; or, the Prophecy, a poem. In 1812, a volume of Miscellaneous Poems; Royal Stripes; or, a Kick from Yarmouth to Wales I (for the suppression of which a large sum was given by order of the Prince Regent — ten pounds were advertised and paid for a copy!)—and The Adventures of Dick Distich, a novel in 3 vols., written before he was eighteen."

Allusion is also made by Mr. Daniel to this stifled production in some of his subsequent works, e. g. in the "Suppressed Evidence; or, R—l Intriguing, frc. By P P , Poet Laureat, author of R—l Stripes (suppressed), 8vo, 1813." Again, at the commencement of Ophelia Keen!! a Dramatic Legendary Tale, 12mo, 1829 (printed but also suppressed), we read: —

"Come, listen to my lay: I am

The tuneful Bard—you know me —
That sung the whisker'd bold Geramb;
What lots of fun you owe me!

"I sung The Royal Stripes — Come, listen;
I sing the devil to pay;
Your hearts shall leap, your eyes shall glisten:
Come listen to my lay!"

It must be acknowledged, however, that the statements, that "for the suppression of the Royal Stripes a large sum was given by order of the Prince Begent," and that "ten pounds were advertised and paid for a copy "—have always excited surprise in literary circles.]

"Hymen's Triumph." — Can you tell me who was the author of the tragi-comedy, called Hymen's Triumph, written in honour of the nuptials of Lord Roxburghe? I presume this was Habbie Ker, the first Baron and Earl of Roxburghe, who, by the way, was married thrice; and the poem haying been published in 1623, it was probably written on or after the noble lord's second marriage, the date of which I, however, don't exactly know. W. R. C.

[Hymen's Triumph is by Samuel Daniel, the poet and historian, termed by Headley '• tBe Atticus of his day." This pastoral Tragi-Comedy was presented at the Queen's (Anne of Denmark) court in the Strand, at her Majesty's magnificent entertainment of the King's most excellent Majesty, being at the nuptials of the Lord Roxborough, on Feb. 3,1613-14, and is dedicated by a copy of verses to her Majesty. It is introduced by a pretty prologue, in which Hymen is opposed by Avarice, Envy, and Jealousy, the disturbers of matrimonial happiness. It was entered on the Stationers' Registers on June 13, 1613-14, and is reprinted in Nichols's Progresses of James I. ii. 749. The "magnificent entertainment" was the marriage of Sir

Robert Ker, Lord Roxburghe, to his second wife, Jeane, third daughter of Patrick, third Lord Drummond. She was a lady of distinguished abilities, preferred before all to the office of governess of the children of King James 1.1

Viscount Cherington published his Memoirs, containing a Genuine Description of the Government and Manners of the present Portuguese. Lond. 2 vols. 12mo, 1782. Who was he? S. Y. R.

[This work is fictitious, and is criticised as a novel in the Monthly Review, lxvii. 389. The author was CaptR. Muller of the Portuguese service, who, having communicated it to a friend, received from, him the following laconic acknowledgement: — "Carissimo Amico,

Se non <? vero, 6 ben trovato.

Franzini. Lisbon, 24<" 9b«>, 1778."

Which, says the author, when paraphrased into English, is as much as to say: —

"My dear Friend,—Though all the circumstances you relate may not have actually happened or corne to pass> yet they are descriptive of the people you give an account of as if they really had."

Nothing more is known of Lord Viscount Cherington than that he was born in Brazil. His father, Dr. Castleford, is the hero of the tale j and the principal information relating to this gentleman is, that he was physician to the English factory at Lisbon, and was banished from thence to Brazil by the villanous artifices of a Jesuit ]

Potiphar. — In the Septuagint Version, Potiphnr is described as being i eiroixos Qdpaa (Genesis, xxxix. I). Is this a correct translation of the Hebrew word? Meletes.

[The question is one which the learned have not yet decided. There can be no doubt that the Hebrew word saris, DHQ, which the Septuagint has here rendered eivovxos, did properly and primarily signify an eunuch, in the strict sense of the word. It has, however, been plausibly maintained that saris often implied simply an officer of the court; and, in accordance with this view, it is rendered by our translators chamberlain in Esth. i. 10, and officer in the passage now before us, as well as in Gen. xxxvii. 86, where they have annexed the marginal note "Heb. eunuch. But the word doth signify not only eunuchs, but also chamberlains, courtiers, and officers, Esth. i. 10." This, however, has been controverted.

The full discussion of the question is not exactly suited to our pages.]

The Robin. — Can any of your readers inform me whether there is any foundation for the popular belief, that the young robin will frequently fight with and destroy its own father? L. G.

[Yarrell {History of British Birds, i. 261) speaks of the robin as one of the most pugnacious among birds, but not as a parricide.]



(3*S. v. 11.)

Eleonore d'Esmiers was the only child of Alexandre, Seigneur d'Olbreuse, by his wife Jacobina Poussard de Vaudre (also styled by some writers Jacquette, or Jacqueline, Poussard du Vigean); and was born in March, 163$, at the Chateau d'Olbreuse, near Usseau, in the parish of Mauze (now in the arrondissement of Niort, and department of Deux-Sevres), province of Poitou. Her father, the lord of the Castle of Olbreuse, from which he derived his title, was a nobleman of an ancient family in Poitou, and one of the numerous French Protestant families exiled by Louis XIV. On his being sent into banishment, and his property confiscated, he sought an asylum in Holland; taking with him his only daughter, the beautiful young " Marquise D'Esmers." She was married, morganatically, in September, 1665, at Breda, in Dutch Brabant, to George William of Brunswick Zelle, Prince of Calemberg, who bad just succeeded to the duchy of Zelle by his elder brother's death. The newly-married pair took up their residence at Zell, where the lady was known by the title of Lady of Harbourg, or Von Harburg, which she had been created on marriage by her husband. On September 15, 1666, their first child was born, and christened, with great ceremony, by the name of Sophia Dorothea. It was she who became subsequently the unfortunate, if not guilty, spouse of her cousin-german George Louis, then Prince of Hanover, and eventually King of England; through which alliance she was ancestress of our present royal family.

Within the next few years, Madame von Harburg had three other daughters, all of whom died in infancy. And in 1672, she was further ennobled as Lady Eleanora von Harburg, Countess of Wilhelmsburg, from an island in the Elbe, nearly opposite to Hamburgh, which was settled on her by her husband.

In August, 1676, the nuptial ceremony was solemnly performed at Zelle; on which she became the acknowledged Consort and rightful Duchess of Zelle; to which rank her previous morganatic union did not entitle her. The rank of Princess of the Germanic Empire was, at the same time, conferred upon her by the Emperor Leopold I.; but it was stipulated that any issue of the marriage should not succeed to the Duchy, but be styled Counts and Countesses of Wilhelmsburg—so strict was the code of laws regarding such alliances at that period. However, by treaty of July 13, 1680, the Duchess Eleanora was allowed the title of Duchess of BrunswickLiineburg. Her husband, Duke George William, died August 28, 1705, at the age of eighty-one;

while she survived till Feb. /j, 1722: her death then occurring at her residence in Zelle, in the eighty-third year of her age.

It is unnecessary here to record the well-known, events in the career of her daughter, the Princess Sophia Dorothea of Zelle: it will be sufficient to remark, that her marriage with Prince George of Hanover was dissolved by decree of the Consistorial Court, at Hanover, on Dec. 28, 1694; and she was thereupon imprisoned in the, small fortress of Ahlden, with the title of Duchess of Ahlden. Here she was compelled to spend the remaining long years of her sad life in strict confinement, till released by death, after a captivity of nearly thirty-two years, on Nov. 13, 1726. It is recorded that her father never once visited her in the castle of Ahlden; though her aged mother was allowed occasionally to cheer her solitude, and see her at intervals, up to the period of her own death. Her remains were consigned, with proper honours, to the family vaults at Zelle; where her consort, King George L, followed her to the tomb in June following.

The dates of the death of either the Seigneur d'Olbreuse, or of his spouse, have not been ascertained by me from any of the authorities I have consulted in drawing up this reply to Mb. WoodWard's query; but the Lady Jacquette, apparently, died before the period of the family quitting France. And it is certain that the banished noble of Poitou survived for some time the marriage of his daughter Eleonore, which was to make him ancestor of so many royal houses of Europe. A. S. A.

Cawnpore, East Indies. (

Cibcle Sqcabinq (3r* S. v. 258.) —The book inquired after by T. T. W., is mentioned by Mb. De Morgan in his Budget of Paradoxes. (Alhenanim, Nov. 14, 1863, p. 646) : —

"The Circle Squar'd. By Thomas Baxter, Crashorn, Cleveland, Yorkshire. London, 1732. 8vo."

"Here » = 30-625. No proof is offered."

I think, but am not sure, that I have seen a copy of this book in the British Museum. It is, no doubt, great rubbish. Edward Peacock..

Geographical Gabdek (3rd S. v. 173, 248.)— The learned divine John Gregorie, in his Description and Use of Maps and Charts, thus speaks of what he calls a " Geographical Garden" :—

"It is propounded by a man ingeniously enough conceited, as a Device nothing besides the Meditation of a Prince, to have his Kingdoms and Dominions, by the direction of an able Mathematician, Geographically described in a Garden Platform: the Mountains and Hills being raised, like small Hillocks, with turfs of earth; the Vallies somewhat concave within; the Towns, Villages. Castles, and otberremarkuble Edifices, iu small green rn.os.sie Banks, or Spring-work, proportional to the Platform; the

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