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Forests and Woods represented according to their form and capacity, with Herbs and Stubs; the great Rivers, Lakes, and Ponds, to dilate themselves according to their coarse from some artificial Fountain, made to pass in the Garden through Channels, &c All wh may, doubtless, be mathematically counterfeited, as well as the Horizontal Dial and Coat-armour of the House, in Exeter-College Garden."—Worka, 4th edit. London, 1C84, 4to, PL n. p. 328.

Addison refers to this as the actual device of an " Eastern King;" Gregorie speaks of it as the conception of some ingenious essayist, who considered it worthy of " the meditation of a Prince." The question still remains, who is the writer referred to? Let me ask, has this erased passage been restored in any edition of Addison's Works f If not, where is the MS. of his Essay on the Imagination?

In the work of an eccentric American writer, viz. Owen's Key to the Geology of the Globe (Philadelphia, 1857), at p. 240, occurs an interesting notice of Geographical Gardens actually laid out. I am sorry I have not the book, that I might g've the passage; especially as, to the best of my remembrance, it is about the only intelligible passage in the whole volume.


Thomas Gilbert, Eso.. (3rd S. v. 134, 263.)— In the chancel of the little church of Petersham is a tablet, having this inscription : —

* Juxta hunc locum situm est quicquid mortale fuit Thom.k Gilbert armigeri, ex generosa et perantiqua familia oriundi, ab annis teneris Scholar Etonensis alumnus. Poetices sitim ibi primo sentiebat, quam ex fontibus utriusque Academiie postea feliciter explevit. Nee ab his liberalis animi oblectamentis se unquam avelli patiens. Ipse patrio sermone carmina composuit; Quibui nee GrsjcsB nee Romans: Gratis defuerunt. Quid vero htec? Vir fuit, si quis alius, Integer, Probus, severe Justus, Fidus, ad amicos, ad omnes, ad Deum.

•* Sine promissis, sire dissimulatione, sine Superstitione, Firmua, Benevolus, Pius—Obiit anno salutia 1766, statu 8U£e 54.


On the floor is a stone, inscribed: —

"Beneath this stone is interred y° body of Tho. Gilbert, Esq., who departed this life November y" 23rd, 1766, in v« 54«» year of his age.

"As also Ann, wife of the above Tbo. Gilbert, Esq., who died June the 15">, 1801, aged 75 years. This is inscribed by a person truly grateful for the many acts of generosity and benevolence received from both."

I am not able to give from other sources any account of Mr. Gilbert, nor to assert that he is the person inquired after. But from the fact of his having studied at both Universities, and the date of the B.A. degree (p. 263), when the subject of the epitaph would have been about twenty-one years of age, lead to a conclusion which is confirmed by his seeking the patronage of the i Earl of Bute, then a neighbour and all powerful

at Kew; and who, no doubt, procured the permission, referred to in the second letter, for Mr. Gilbert to lay his volume before the Earl's pupil, then become George III.

I do not find Mr. Gilbert's name among the permanent inhabitants at Petersham. From his early death, we may presume his health to have been delicate: and as the letter of May 22, 1759, says that the place of his residence that summer was very uncertain, it is probable that he may, as many since, have chosen Petersham for the peculiar mildness of its air.

The epitaph may be seen in Manning and Bray's Surrey, vol. i. p. 442. W. C.

Kohl (3rd S. iv. 166, 239, 402.) — There is no doubt that kohl, or rather kuhl, is antimony, or rathersulphuretof antimony, a blackish mineral, reduced to powder, and used as a pigment for tinging the eyelids by native women in the oast, who believe that it adds to their beauty: it is also considered to be a preventive of excessive discharge of rheum

from the eyes. The word is Arabic, ,Lss^, but

the Persian name, iL» •—■1 is that by which it is always called in Hindostan: I write from personal knowledge and observation. A. S. A.

Martin (3,d S. v. 154, 222.) — I am obliged by the information that your correspondent, Mr. Baxter, has been so kind as to give in answer to my inquiry. From Morant's History of Essex, to which he refers me, I learn that Matthew Martin, of Alresford Hall, was, or was supposed to be, descended from the Martins of Soffron- Walden. May I hope, either through Mr. Baxter's further kindness, or that of some other correspondent, to learn something of this elder branch of the family? And in particular I should be glad to ascertain whether any member of it was ever Lord Mayor of London? P. S. C.

Customs In Scotland : Fio-one (3rd S. v. 153.) I had the opportunity, a few days ago, of mentioning this matter to a near relative of the late Lord Langdale. The reply I received was,— "Fig-one! oh, there must be some blunder; it was fig-sue, well enough known in the north, where our family came from. I remember" (my informant went on) "my uncle expressing more than once his detestation of that abominable figsue; he used to laugh and say that when he was a boy he begged that his mother would let him have the figs by themselves; they were good enough." J. Fitz-r.

Sir John Coningsbt (3rd S. v. 280.)—What is the authority for the statement contained in the inquiry of G. J. T., that Sir John Coningsby was slain in the barons' wars at Chesterfield, 1266 P No such knight is mentioned by Dr. Pegge, in his account of the battle of Chesterfield. W. St.

Garibaldi.—Can you find room for the following reply to the query, " Why do the English so admire Garibaldi?" which is asked abroad, and may be thus answered at home f "When Garibaldi ceased his high command,

And sheathed his sword—that sword a bright and
keen one—
Nought in his pocket pat he bat his hand;
A mighty hand—and, nobler still, a clean one."


[We are very glad that our correspondent has given us the opportunity of thus showing our admiration of an Honest Mas.—Ed. "N. & Q."]



The Works of William Shakespeare. Edited by Howard Staunton. With copious Notes, Glossary, Life, Sec. In Four Volumes. (Routledge.)

In the year 1857, when they determined upon the publication of an Illustrated Shakspeare, Messrs. Routledge, instead of contenting themselves with simply taking up some old edition and adapting their illustrations to it, had the good sense to endeavour to make their edition as perfect as possible by securing for it the services of a competent editor. Mr. Howard Staunton, the gentleman selected by them, was understood to have peculiar fitness for the task in his own long study of the Poet, and to have in addition the advantage of numbering among his friends some able and zealous Shakspearian scholars. The result was, that while the Illustrated Shakspeare exhibited in its pictorial embellishments great attractions for the many, the labours of Mr. Staunton attracted to it the attention of more critical students of the Poet's writings. The work now before us is a reprint of that edition, without the artistic embellishments. It is comprised in four handsomely printed volumes, and forms the most compact edition of Shakspeare, with a large apparatus of critical and illustrative notes, which has yet been given to the public. We regret that, owing to an unfortunate misunderstanding between the publishers, the present impression is necessarily a verbatim reprint of Mr. Staunton's first edition, for it contains some sharp criticisms and passages which, under other circumstances, would, we cannot doubt, have been softened, if not altogether omitted.

The Works of William Shakespeare. The Text revised by the Kev. Alexander Dyce. In Eight Volumes. Second Edition. Vol. III. (Chapman & Hall.) This third volume of Mr. D.vce's scholarlike edition of Shakspeare contains. As You Like It; The Taming of the Shrew; AWs Well that Ends Well; Twelfth Night; and The Winter's Tale. It exhibits the same thorough knowledge of his subject as the preceding, but is characterised by a somewhat bolder introduction of amendments of the text. Thus, in All's Well that Ends Well, when the Steward tells the Countess — " Madam, the care I have had to even your content" — which Johnson had satisfactorily explained, "to act up to your desires," and seems so well paralleled by the passage in Cymbeline — ". . . . but we'll even All that good time will give us,"—

Mr. Dyce would read, " earn your content." "Win your content," is another suggestion; but both are alike uncalled for. But the edition is a valuable one, and does credit to Mr. Dyce.

Shakspeare; a Bioqraphy. By Thomas De Quincev, the English Opium-Eater. (A. & C. Black.) At the present moment, when the attention of all classes is turned in so remarkable a manner to the life and writings of Shakspeare, Messrs. Black have shown considerable judgment in reprinting, in a very cheap and popular form, the Biography of the Poet, written by that subtle reasoner and profound critic, the English Opium Eater.

Shakspere and Jonson. Dramatic versus Wit Combats. Auxiliary Forces Beaumont and Fletcher, Marston, Decker, Chapman, and Webster. (Russell Smith.) The ingenuity with which the writer brings his intimate knowledge of the Old Dramatists to bear upon bis views of the literary relations between Shakspeare and Ben Jonson, will interest the reader, though they may not succeed in convincing him.

Shakspeare Jest-Books; comprising Merit Tales of Skelton. Jests of Scogin, SackfuU of Newes, Tarlton's Jests, Merrie Conceited Jests of George Feele; and Jacke of Dover. Edited, with Introduction and Notes, by Xv. Carew Hazlitt. (Willis & Sotheran.) This second volume of Mr. Hazlitt's carefully edited series of Elizabethan Jcst-Books is a valuable contribution to our knowledge of the wit and humour of the time when 'Shakspeare flourished, and well calculated to impress us with a higher sense of his matchless wit and humour when compared with that which passed current with his contemporaries.

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Rittrb. The line "From grave to gay," e>c, is from Pope's Eatay on


W. E. B. w thanked; but thecertificateofBridoetCromwell Marriage, published in The Times, is printed by iV obit and Carlyle, and probably by others.

T. H. O. The reprint of The Gull's Horn-Book vat published by IF. McMutlen, 10, Nation Street, Islington, X.

ERRATA_3rdS.T. p.S10,col.ii. line l./or "Beaton "rend'*Beaun;" line 24 omit "earl."

e»e Cases for binding the volumes o/"N. * 0>" may be had of I he Publisher, and of all Booksellers and Aewsmen.

"notis And QoRRiRt" is published at noon on Friday, and is aUo issued in Monthly Farts. The Subscription for Stamp-Rd Cones for Sir Months forwarded drrert from the /Publisher {inrlurlino the Half' yearly Indsxj is Its. id., which may be paidhy Post Office Order, pnunUr at the Strand Post Office, in mivmr of William O. Smith. 3x, Wblli.voton SraaaT, Strand. W.C., to whom all Communications rom Trr Editor should be addressed.

"Noras k Qobbibi" if registered for transmission abroad.


CONTENTS.—No. 122.

NOTES: — Sir Walter Raleigh: New Particulars, 351 — Don Jorgo D'Athequa. O. 8. Dom., Bishop of Llandaft, 852 — Folk Lore in the Sonth-cast of Ireland, 353 — Jamea Fortcscue, D.D, 364 —Unpublished Letter of Charles Lamb — The Eastern Ethiopians — Acrostic — An Old Tale with a New Title — Curious Passage in St. Augustine, 354.

QUERIE8: — Abraham-Brook —Mrs. Margaret Bryan — Danish Coin — Joseph Downes — Dummerer — Heming of Worcester — Thomas Hopkirk — Language used in the Courts of the Roman Procurator in Palestine, 4c — " The Literary Magnet," 1824 — Marrow Bones and Cleavers — The Molly wash-dish — Tho Christian Name, Murtha — Rev. W. Nicola — Preaching Ministers suspended —Question of Population—Episcopal Seal — Story, Norfolk — Tamar, in Devonshire—Zapata: Spain, 355.

Quebies wim Ahswbbs:—The Pitt Diamond—"Tony's Address to Mary "— Fardel of Land — Cribbage — Barley,

REPLIES:"—The Tinclarian Doctor, 359—Publication of Diaries, 361 — Pre-Death Coffins and Monuments, 363 — Judicial Committee of Privy Council — Consonants in Welah — Comet of 1531 —King Charles II.'s illegitimate Children — Swallows — Enigma — " Aurea vincenti," Ac. — Stum Rod— Font at Chelmorton—Posterity of Charlcroagno — Hymns by John Hoy — Thomas More Molyncux —Itoval Cadency — De Foe and Dr. Livingstone —A Bull nf Burkes—Jeremiah Horrocks —Rev. David Lainont — J.'^"."1 Unpublished Letter of the Father of the Author of The Grave'— Seneca's Prophecy —Erroneous Monu!?rmltal Inscriptions in Bristol — Archbishop Hamilton — The Church of our Fathers," Ac, 364.

Notes on Books, 4c.



I apprehend that the following facts and documents are new in connexion with the biography of Raleigh: they begin at an early period of his history; but before I quote them I wish to observe that, from information now lying before me, it seems not unlikely that George Gascoigne, the soldier-poet, was the person who induced Ralei»h, very soon after 1576, to change his profession from the law, for which he was originally destined, to the army, in which he so much distinguished himself. The two were certainly intimate, and in 1576 Raleigh prefixed some stanzas, to which justice has scarcely been done, to Gascoigne s blank verse satire The Steel Glass, which are headed, as nearly every body is aware, in the following words: "Walter Raleigh of the Middle lemple, in commendation of the Steel Glass." I do not mean here to enter into any inquiry upon the question, but we know that Gascoigne, who had been himself educated for the law, and was a

m ->°f Gnj'a Inn' had become » soldier in 1573, and engaged in the service of the Prince of Orange: so Raleigh, having taken up his residence in the Middle Temple before 1576, became a soldier under Arthur Lord Grey of Wilton, to whom hpenser was secretary. The first of the

[• Continued from 3rd S. v. 207.]

ensuing papers refers to Raleigh's intended ser-
vice in Ireland; and according to it, he and Ed-
ward Denny, the cousin of the Lord-Deputy, had
warrants for a then considerable sum, to be applied
to the raising of recruits: —
"13 July, 1580. To Edward Deny—C" and")

unto Walter Rawley— C» having the I rrii
chardge of the twoo hundreth souldiers f
sent from London into Ireland, in presto J

[The date of the next document is doubtful, but perhaps anterior to the above; nor can we state for what purpose the fine was levied or paid.]

"Here ensueth the names and summes of the fines severallie charged uppon such as are, by order of the most honorabell Lordes of the Councell, appointed to paie the same —

Walter Raleigh .... iiji hath paid William Bawdin . . . . iju x» hath paide John Penwarren .... ij'i hath paide." • [The following fixes the date, hitherto not settled, of Raleigh's return from Ireland, but it was probably only temporary: it is one item out of a longer enumeration of payments.]

"29 Dec. 1581. Item, paid to Walter Rawley, gent., upon a Warrant signed by M. Secretorie Walsingham, dated att Whitehall xxix» decembr. 1581, for bringingc Letters in poste for her Majesties affairs from Corke in

Ireland, the some of xx11."

[Thus we see in what way Raleigh may have obtained an introduction to Elizabeth without supposing, with Fuller, that he owed it to an act of gallantry in spreading his cloak to receive the footsteps of the queen.]

"These whose names are here written which adventured with Sir Humfrey Gilbert in his First Voiadge, in mony or commodities, not inhabiting within the towne of Southampton aforesaid, shall in like sort be free of trade and trafiick as aforesaid.

The Lord North.

Mr Edmonds of the privie chamber.

Sr Mathew Arrundell.

Sr Edward Horsey.

Sr William Morgan.

Sr John Gilbert.

Sr George Peck ham.

Charles Arrundell, Esq.

31' Mark William, Esq.

Mr Walter Rawley, Esq.

Mr Carrowe Rawley, Esq.

Adrian Gilbert, Esq.

William Weymouth, merchant," &c. [The list comprises various other names, but none of them of note; and I omitted to make a memorandum as to the source of this information.]

Letter addressed " To the right Honorable Sr Francis Walsingham, Knight, Frincipall Secretarye to her Ma"e." Indorsed " 1582, 7 Feb. Sr H. Gilbert, that he may be suffred to continue his voyage:"—

"Right honorable. Whereas it hath pleased your honor to let mee understande that her ma"", of her especiall care had of my well doinge and prosperous successe, hath wished my stay att home from the personall execution of my intended discovery, as a man noted of noe good happ by sea: for the which I acknowledge my selfe so much bounde unto her ma"«, as I know not how to deserve the leaste part thereof, otherwise than with my continual! prayer, and most laythfull and forward service during lyfe.

"And now to excuse my selfe and satisfye your honor touching the objections made of my stay*, it may please you to oee advertised, that in my first enterprise I retorned with great losse, because I would not my selfe, nor suffer any of my companye to doe any thinge contrary to my worde given to her ma"" and your selfe: for, yf 1 hail not farr preferred my credit before my gayne, I needed not to have retorned so poore as then I did.

"And touching this my last stay at Hampton, it hath proceeded by Southwest wyndes of God's making and sending, and therfore not my faulte or negligence: but yf I wear giltye of delaye, the principall charge is my owne, and noe losse to any other; for my adventures, as I had them for the most parte in wares, so I have them still without any losse to anye of them. And in truthe the outrage of this winter hath ben a common hyndrance to all men of this realme southwarde bounde. Yea, and the wyndes so contrarye that it hath droven shippes from the yles of the Asores uppon this coste without spreading any sayle at all; a thinge, I thinke, never harde of before. And the Kinge of Portingale, beeingat the Tercera, coulde not in all this tyme recover the Maderaes. How farr impossible then had it ben for mee to have performed my jorney this winter, your honor can judge, dwelling so farr to the northwardes of the place intended to be discovered.

"And seeing the Queenes ma"* is to have a fyfthe of all the golde and sylver ther to bee gotten, without any charge to her ma"', I trust her hyghnes, of her accustomed favor, will not denye mee libertye to execute that which resteth in hope so profitable to her ma* and crowne.

"The great desyre I have to perforate the same hath cost mee, first and last, the selling and spending of a thousand marke land a yere of my owne getting, besydes the scorne of- the worlde for conceaving so well of a matter that others held so ridiculous, although now by my meanes better thought of.

"Yff the dowbte bee my wante of skill to execute the same, I will oiler my selfe to bee apposed by all the best navigators and cosmographers within this realme. Yff it bee cowardlines, I seeke no other purgation therof then my former service don to her ma1". Yf it bee the suspition of dayntines of dyett or sea sicknes, in those both I will yield my selfe second to noe man lyving, because that comparison is rather of hardines of bodye then a boste of vertue. But how little accounte so ever is made ether of the matter or of mee, I truste her ma"', with her favor for my xxviii yeares service, will allowe mee to gett my livynge as well as I may honestly (which is every subjectes righte), and not constrayne mee by my idle aboade at home to begg my bredd with my wife and children; especially seeing I have her ma"" graunt and lycense under the great seale of Englande for my departure, withoute the which I would not have spent a penny in this action, wherin I am moste bounde to her ma"* for her great favor, which of all thinges I most desyre; and take comfort in protesting, that noe man lyving shall serve her maUo more faythfully and dutifully during my life with all the good fortune that God shall bestowe on mee.

"And thus, I truste, I have satisfyed your honor of all my intents and proceedings, leaving your honor to the tuition of the Armightye. From my Bowse hi Kedcrosse streat, the 7th of February, 1582.

"Your honors most humble,


[Feb. 7,1582, -was in fact 1588, as the year was then calculated. Sir Humphrey Gilbert not long afterwards sailed to Newfoundland; and on his return his "no good

hap by sea " pursued him, and he was lost with a book in his hand, and exclaiming to his crew, " Courage, my lads! We are as near heaven at sea as on land." The above letter is of the highest interest]

Letter addressed " To the right honourable my verie good L. the lorde Threr of England." Indorsed by Lord Burghley "17 Junij, 1584, Sec. Walsyngham. Lands, Arden Somervile. Throg. L. Pagett. Charles Pagett:" — "My very good L.

"Yesterdaye I shewed her Ma"e the note of the Iandes growing by the attainders of Arden and Sommervyll, whoe at that tyme wylled me to praye your L. that the lyke note might be sent unto her of the Iandes of the L. Paget, Charles Arundella, and Mr Charles Pagettes, as also Boche Iandes as ar geven unto her by the attarnder of Fra. Throgmorton.

"Yesterdaye I moved her Ma'J" for the release of the marchantes adventurers' shyppes, which by no meanes she will assent unto, otherwyse then by compounding with Mr. Rauley: when I shewed her the great inconveniences lyke to insue thereby, her MatJe dyd in a sorts charge me as an incorager of the marchantes to stande in the matter whereof I sought, as I had just cause to cleere my selfe and herein dyd grevously offende her.

"I finde by her she is dctermyned to over throwghe that companye and to rayse up the staplers, as also to restore them of the stylyard to their former lybertyes. I am sorrye to thinke of the dayngerous inconveniences lykely to insue by thes straynge courses, but I see no hope of redresse. God dyrect her Ma'.v" barte to take an other wayo of cownsell, to whos protection I commyt your L., most heartily takyng my leave. At the coorte the xvij of June, 1584.

"Your L. to command,

"Fba. Walstmgham."

[Edward Arden, distantly related to Shakespeare's mother, was executed for high treason on Dec 20, lq83: Somerville, who was to have been hanged with him, strangled himself on the day preceding. Francis Throckmorton was executed for the same crime on July 10,1584. Stow's Annuls, pp. 1176,1177, edit. 1605.]

J. Patne Collier. Maidenhead.


This Spanish Dominican, or Preaching Friar, also called "George de Attica, S. T. P.," was Domestic Chaplain and Confessor to Doiia Katharine of Aragon; and attended that Princess from Spain to England in 1501, when she arrived to be married to Arthur, Prince of Wales. He was also, doubtless, present at her second, ill-starred, nuptials with King Henry VIII., on June 11, 1509; and continued attached to Queen Katharine until her death at Kimbolton Castle on January 8, 1536; as we find that, when her household was made up, at Kimbolton Castle, in Huntingdonshire, "with some difficulty, the household was made up, and the Bishop of Llandaff, an old Spanish priest, of. the name of Allequa, who had accompanied Katharine from Spain, was suffered to remain with her." (Strickland's Queens of England, iv. 134.) And when Dr. Abell, her confessor, was removed, the difficulty was to find one agreeable both to Henry and his divorced wife. "The Bishop of Ltandaff" writes the king's agent, "will do less barm than any other to tarry and be her ghbstly father." The reason was, that the old Spaniard was timid and quiet, and had implored the queen to yield to expediency. (Strickland, iv. 135.) It is not recorded whether he held any previous ecclesiastical preferment in England, till raised to the episcopate, through the influence of his patroness and countrywoman, Queen Katharine, on the death of Miles Salley, Bishop of LlandalF, in Wales, in December, 1516. He was, accordingly, provided to that see by Pope Leo X. on February 11, 1517, and consecrated March 8 following, either in St. Paul's Church, London (Reg. Warham, fol. 20, in Godwin, De Prcesvl. edit. Richardson, p. 611; and Le Neve's Fasti, edit. Hardy, p. 250), or at the church of the Dominicans or " Blackfriars" there (Reg. Sacr. Angl. by Stubbs, p. 76, on authority of" Beg. Warbam. and Booth' ), by Charles Boothe, LL.D., Bishop of Hereford, assisted by John Young, S.T.P., Bishop of Callipolis, in Thrace (Archdeacon of London, and Suffragan

in that diocese), and Francis (?), Bishop

of Castoria, in Pnevalitana (Achrida). The sees of the two last prelates were in partialis infidelinm, but of "Fras. Castoriensis" I can ascertain no trace in any list of suffragan bishops. The new Bishop of Llandaff received restitution of the temporalities of his see, on April 27, 1517 (Pat. 9 Hen. VIII., p. 1, m. 14), and after an episcopate of twenty vears, he resigned the bishopric in February, 1537 (Pat. 28 Hen. VIII., p. 2, m. 2), and a conge oVelire issued on March 2, 1537, "vice Bishop George, resigned" (ibid.), a successor being consecrated to the vacant see on the 25th of that month. The aged D'Athequa probably returned to his native land, as the state of ecclesiastical affairs in England must have become distasteful to him, and the death of Queen Katharine had severed his last tie in that country. My query is, what became of him afterwards, and where or when did he die? Any. additional information on the subject will be acceptable.

A. S. A. East Indies.


Having spent some happy juvenile days in the south-eastern parts of Ireland, including parts of Kilkenny, Wexford, Wicklow, Carlow, and Waterford, I had many opportunities of becoming acquainted with the "manners and customs" of every grade of society, from the squire to the peasant, and therefore picked up many of the

"saying and doings" of these districts. One thing struck me as most remarkable, and that was, when any popular custom, tradition, or, I may say superstition existed, there was not the slightest difference of opinion between the educated and the most humble or illiterate persons — all held fast to the same belief, no matter how absurd. I speak of the laity generally, but do not include the clergy of any sect or denomination. For want of a better designation, I give the following jots under the head of " folk lore," although the title may be queried.

When a cat scratches the legs of a table or chair, it is a sign of rain; but if " tabby " transfers her nails to the stump of a tree, it foretells a storm. If this latter be found correct, we have a sort of feline Fitzroy before the "Admiral" was taught to prophesy the "coming storm." The appearance of a rainbow (the Iris) at night or evening, is a sign of fine weather; in the morning it is for storm, and at midday storm and rain; and if in autumn, thunder and whirlwinds may be expected to follow. The quacking of ducks in the morning is a sure sign of rain, as is also the chattering of a collection of sparrows in the evening. Should a robin redbreast enter a house, hard weather, snow, frost, &c, may be expected to follow soon. The robin is held in great veneration by every one, and it would be considered a serious offence to kill one willingly. It is almost a domestic bird in the places I mention, and has privileges not accorded to other bipinnated tenants of the grove or hedge.

It foretells a storm to see pigs running about the farm-yard with straws in their mouths; and to hear dogs crying, which they do most horribly sometimes, notifies a death. On this point there is also some curious folk lore about that fabled myth, the "banshee:" but as I have already written an account of "a hunt after a banshee," I shall say no more on that subject.

On the lower or upright portion of the frame of almost every house door — the chief entrance— maybe found nailed an old horseshoe, or portion of one, picked up on some neighbouring road. This is said to be very lucky, and prevents fires and fairies from visiting the house. It is considered particularly unfortunate for a farmer or his wife if they should, on a May morning, meet a hare, as that animal is said to take away the milk from the cows, should the master or mistress of the "lowing herd" cross the path of pussy on the morning in question.

I shall continue this subject, but for the present must save your valuable space.

S. Redmond.


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