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The other three have the appearance of imitations. Can they be from Mrs. Barbauld's pen? Or who is the author of them? S. "W. Rix.


Burial- Place Of Still-bobk Children.— Standing beside the ruins of a Scottish parish church built in 1591, and talking with a friend about it, he mentioned that he remembered having been told by his grandfather, that it had been the custom to bury the still-born children of the parish all along the outside walls of the church, and as close to the walls -as they could be laid. Any information as to such a custom will oblige.


Churchwarden Query. — Considerable controversy has arisen as to the origin and duties of the officer called sidesman, who is annually elected at the same time with the churchwarden. Is he the same person alluded to in the 83rd canon of Archbishop Whitgift, 1603, which is directed to "the churchwardens or questmen "? A. A.

Captain Alexander Chetne. — Seeing that "N. & Q." has its readers in Hobart Town, Tasmania, I venture to ask J. M'C. B. (one of your correspondents) to assist me with information about Captain Alexander Cheyne, who died there about six or eight years ago. Captain Cheyne was formerly an officer in the Engineers, and having resigned his commission, settled at Hobart Town, where he held some official colonial situation, such as surveyor-general. I wish to ascertain the date of his death, and to be favoured with a copy of the inscription or any tablet, or tombstone raised to his memory. It will also greatly serve me if any account be added of his colonial services, together with the dates and names of the offices he may have filled in Tasmania.


Earl Of Dalhousie.—At the contested election for Perthshire, in 1838, when the Earl of Dalhousie (then the Hon. Fox Maule) was unseated by the return of Lord Stormont, it is said that Lord Dalhousie retired to the Highland Inn, at Amulrce, in the same county; and that he there wrote the following, or similar lines, in the visitor's book: —

"Rejected by the men of Perth, Cast on the world an ex-M.P.; I sought and found a quiet retreat Among thy wilds, sweet Amulree." Is the visitor's book, referred to, still in existence? If so, where can it be seen? I am told that there were many curious stanzas and remarks in it. J.

"Fais Ce Que Tu Dois," Etc.—Can the famous old knightly motto, "Fais cc que tu dois, advienne que pourra," be assigned, on good authority, to any particular date or person, and what are its variations? F. H.

Giants And Dwarfs.—Can any of the readers of " N. & Q." inform me where I can inspect the best collections for a history of the giants and dwarfs who have been exhibited during the last and present century; and can furnish me with the names and addresses of those now living, their heights, weights, and ages? W. D.

General Lambert. — In Vertue's work on the Medals of Thomas Simon, originally published in 1753, mention is made (p. 31) of a medal of General Lambert. The medal, in silver, is stated to be in the possession of the heir of the family; and, as I recollect, there was a cast of it in the cabinet of Maurice Johnson, Esq., secretary of the Gentlemen's Society at Spalding.

Maurice Johnson died in 1755.

Is it known what has become either of the original medal or of the cast? P. S. Caret.

The Laird Of Lee. — At a road side just en» tering the village of Mauchline, in Ayrshire, there is a tombstone surrounded by iron rails. On the stone is the following inscription: —

"Here lie the bodies of Peter Gillies, John Bryce, Thomas Young, William Tiddison, and John Binning, who were apprehended and hanged without trial at Mauchline in 1685, according to the then wicked laws, for their adhesion to the covenanted worke of Reformation.—Rev. xiL 11.

"Bloody Dumbarton, Douglas, and Dundee, Moved by the devil and the Laird of Lee, Dragged these five men to death with gun and sword, Not suffering them to pray or read God's word: Owning the worke of God was all their crime— The Kighty-five was a saint-killing time. "Erected by subscription in 1830. The old decayed tombstone from which this is copied lies below."

Who was the personage hero alluded to as the "Laird of Lee"? M. M.

Language Given To Man To Conceal Hts Thoughts. — " Language is given us not so much to express as to conceal our thoughts." This famous saying occurs, as above quoted, in one of Goldsmith's works (The Bee) ; but it has also been traced back to South, the eminent divine, and it is well known to have been a favourite saying of Talleyrand's. Are any of your readers aware of any other celebrated person from whom the dictum in question has proceeded? I rather think the substance of it may be found in the works of some Greek author, whose name I cannot however recall. It is certainly, under any circumstances, a remarkable fact that three such totally different individuals as the before-mentioned, should have promulgated this Machiavellian sentiment independently of each other, unless we suppose that Goldsmith derived his from South; but even then, how came the witty Frenchman to think of it, who most certainly could scarcely have been familiar with the writings of the other two persons designated? And, as I have said before, it will, I believe, be found to be of very great antiquity, there being some classical writer upon whom the honour(?) rests of originating the saying in the first instance. Alpha Theta.

[The saying has been traced in our 1" S. vol. i. p. 83, to Lloyd in his State Worthies, Dr. Young, Voltaire, and Fontenelle.3

Harriett Livermore: The Pilgrim StranGer.—In the year 1836, about the end of August, Miss Livermore came from Philadelphia to Liverpool : from thence, she crossed to Dublin (through the night of Aug. 31), and then proceeded by steamer to Plymouth. She remained at Plymouth for some time. She called herself " the Pilgrim Stranger;" and she was then on her way to Jerusalem, in pursuance of what she designated tobe a divine monition. She spoke of herself as being in some way descended from the North American Indians; and also as being the daughter (or granddaughter) of "Lord Livermore, Attorney General to King George III., by whom he had been honoured with an American peerage." She said that Joseph Wolff was one of the two witnesses in Rev. xi., considering herself to be the other: hence, in her lodging in Plymouth, she placed Dr. WolfTs portrait on the wall, that the two witnesses might be together. After some months, she went to Jerusalem; and after a residence there, she returned to America. She paid a second visit to Jerusalem; and, on her return, she again stayed (about twenty years ago) for some time in Plymouth, and was again in London before returning to America. Her opinions and professions still continued to be very peculiar. She absolutely identified Mohamet AH and Napoleon Buonaparte; remarking, however, that it was very strange that there was a difference in their ages. Can any reader of " N. & Q." give information respecting Harriett Livermore? Is she still living? And if not, when did she die, and where? Did she visit Jerusalem more than twice? La:mus.

Madman's Pood Tasting or Oatmeal PorRidge. — In a letter written by Sir Walter Scott, dated March 16, 1831 (not published by Lockhart), he describes his state of health at that time, and says: —

"I am better, but still very precarious, and have lost, as Hamlet says, all custom of my exercise, being never able to walk more than half a mile on foot, or ride a mile or two on a pony, on which I am literally lifted, while my forester walks by his head, for fear a sudden start should unship me altogether. I am tied by a strict regimen to diet and hours, and, like the poor madman in Bedlam, most of my food tastes of oatmeal porridge."

To what do these last words refer? Y. P.

Sir Edward Mat. — The second Marquis of Donegal married Anna, daughter of Sir Edward May, of Mayfield, county Waterford, Bart. I

should be glad of any particulars relating to this baronet, his ancestors, or descendants. What were his armorial bearings? Carilford.

Cape Town.

Rev. Peter Peckard, D.D., Master of Magdalen College, Cambridge, author of a Life of Mr. Nicholas Ferrar, published in 1790. I am desirous of discovering his present representative if there is one living, or, if otherwise, the depositary of his literary collections and MSS. Were they bequeathed to Magdalen College? J. L. C.

Penny Loaves At Funerals.—A singular custom was wont to prevail at Gainsborough, of distributing penny loaves on the occasion of a funeral to whomsoever might demand them. What was the origin of this custom? And does it still exist? Robert Kempt.

Mr. W. B. Rhodes, author of Bombastes Furioso, died in 1826. From the obituary notice of the author in the Gent. Mag. he seems to have written some other dramatic pieces. What are the titles of them, and have they appeared in print? R.I.

Scottish Formula.—Can any of your readers inform me when the following formula was first brought into use, and employed by the Moderator pro tempore in closing the General Assemblies of the Scottish Church P —

"As this Assembly was constituted in the name and by the authority of the Lord Jesus Christ, the only King and Head of this Church, so in the same name and by the same authority, I hereby appoint the next General Assembly of the Church of Scotland for Free Church of

Scotland, as the case may be), to be held on the

day of May, 18—."

Or words to this efFect. O.

Trade And Improvement or Ireland.—T am now pursuing some inquiries into the commercial history of Ireland. I have obtained a tract of 100 pages, An Essay on the Trade and Improvement of Ireland, by Arthur Dobbs. Published in Dublin, Mdccxxix. It is full of important statistical information. On the last page it is stated that "The rest of this discourse shall be given in a second part." Can you or any of your readers assist me to the second part, or inform me if such second part was ever published? I think it will be the same Arthur Dobbs who is given in Lowndes as the author of a work entitled An Account of the Countries adjoining to Hudson's Bay, in the Northwest Part of America, London, 1744. But no mention is made of the work on Ireland above referred to. T. B.

Wild Men. — What work contains an account of the sect who, during the last century, held evangelical principles in Scotland, and were termed "Wild Men," and these principles themselves "Wild Doctrines?" Vectis.

Portrait Of General Wolfe By GainsBoroigh. —In Mr. Thornbury's British Painters, from Hogarth to Turner (vol. i. p. 26), mention is made of a portrait of " General Wolfe, in a silverlaced coat," and Mr. Thornbury has kindly referred me to his authority. In the Catalogue of Portraits, appended to G. W. Fulcher's Life of Gainsborough (1856), I have found, under the heading of "Soldiers and Sailors:" "General Wolfe. (Head and bust.) He is in uniform, and wears his hat; the silver lace on which, and on his coat, is touched with great brilliancy. Possessor, Mrs. Gibbon." (Query, Gainsborough's sister ?) Wolfe and Gainsborough were born in the same year; and the latter, it appears, did not remove from Ipswich to Bath, where he acquired celebrity as a portrait painter, until 1760—the year after Wolfe's death. From this, and other circumstances, I think it improbable that the General sat to Gainsborough. However, I wish to inquire whether any correspondent of "N. & Q." ever met with a reputed portrait of Wolfe by that artist? And if so, when, where, &c.?

Robert Wright.

102, Great Russell Street, W.C.

«auerte)S totth ^nsilncni.

"Adamus Exul" Of Grotius.—In 1839 there was published "The Adamus Exul of Grotius, or the Prototype of Paradise Lost: now first translated from the Latin, by Francis Barham, Esq." (Pp. xii. and 51.) This pamphlet is introduced by a dedication to John A. Heraud, Esq., then the editor of the Monthly Magazine, in the October Number of which, in 1839, this translation from Grotius was also inserted. In the preface to the translation, Mr. Barham gives a curious account of the original Latin drama of Grotius, which was not. it seems, included in his collected works. Mr. Barham concludes his introduction thus: —

"We may just add, that if this work should excite much interest, it is oar intention to republish the original Latin — now extremely scarce."

Twenty-four years, however, have passed, and there has not (so far as I know) been any edition of the Latin of this drama.

Is the Adamus Exul a genuine production of Grotius? If so, why has it had no place in his collected works ? Is there any mystification about this book? Where can genuine copies of it be seen? What has become of the copy used by Mr. Barham?

Who was the translator? Was he the editor of Collier's Ecclesiastical History, published in nine vols, by Mr. Straker? What other works are there of Mr. Francis Barham? L-axics.

[A copy of the original Latin tragedy, with the autograph of Grotius, is in the British Museum. It is entitled

"Hvgonis Grotii Sacra inqvibvs Adamvs Exvl Tragoedia aliorvmque eivsdem generis canninvm Cvmvlvs consecrata Francia? Principi. Ex Typographio Albcrti Henrici, Haga: Comitatensi, 1601," small 4to. It will be remembered that this was one of the works quoted by William Lauder in his attempt to defraud Milton of his fame as author of the Paradise Lost .

Mr. Barham was the editor of the first recent reprint of Jeremy Collier's Ecclesiastical History, 1840. (The edition of 1852, by Mr. Lathbury, is decidedly the best.) Mr. Barbara's name is also connected with the following works: 1. The Life and Times of John licuchlin, or Capnion. 2. The Political Works of Cicero, comprising " The Republic " and " The Laws," translated from the original. 2 vols. 3. The Hebrew and English Holy Bible, from the text of Heidenheim and the version of Bennett. 4. Socrates, a Tragedy in Five Acts. 5. M. Guizot's Theory of Syncratism and Coalition, translated from his celebrated article on "Catholicism, Protestantism, and Philosophy."]

Cambridge Bible. — A Bible printed at the Pitt Press, dated on the title-page 1837, contains a preliminary inscription as follows: —

"In consequence of a communication most graciously made by his Majesty King William the Fourth to the Marquess Camden, Chancellor of the University of Cambridge, the Syndics of the Pitt Press, anxious to testify their dutiful obedience to His Majesty's wishes, undertook the publication of this impression 'of the Holy Scriptures."

A copy on vellum was printed for his Majesty, the first eight pages being Btruck off at the Public Commencement, 1835, by the Chancellor of the University, the Duke of Cumberland, and other royal and noble personages. The Bible is a quarto, in a beautiful type, double columns within red lines. My copy was purchased at Sotheby and Wilkinson's, and I am under an impression that this edition was not sold to the public.

What was the communication made by King William IV.? H. T. D. B.

[At the first commencement after the installation of the Marquis Camden as Chancellor of the University of Cambridge, on July 8,1835, he and his friends proceeded to one of the press-rooms in the north wing of the Pitt Press, when the first two sheets of a splendid edition of the Bible were struck off by the Chancellor, the Duke of Cumberland, Prince George of Cambridge, Duke of Wellington, Duke of Northumberland, the Archbishop of Canterbury, &c. On which occasion the Chancellor informed the noble personages that His Majesty, William IV., had expressed to him a desire to have a copy of that Sacred Book from the press which bore the name of the illustrious statesman, William Pitt. See the Chancellor's speech as reported in the Cambridge Chronicle and Journal of July 10, 1835. This is the last edition of the Bible in which the reading occurs, Matt. xii. 23, "Is this the Son of David?" instead or "Is not this the Son of David?"]

Britannia On Pence And Halfpence. — I shall be glad of any information as to the origin of this figure, when first employed, and why adopted. Also why the fourpenny piece is the only silver coin which bears it. W. H. Wills. Bristol.

[The earliest coin we have been able to trace with the figure of Britannia is a copper halfpenny of Charles II., 1672. This coin was engraved by Roetier, and the figure of Britannia is said by Evelyn to bear a strong resemblance to the Duchess of Richmond. "Monsieur Roti (graver to his late Majesty Charles II.) so accurately expressed the countenance of the Duchess of Richmond in the head of Britannia in the reverse of some of our coin, and especially in a medal, as one may easily, and almost at first sight, know it to be her grace." (Numismalu, p. 27.) Walpole says, he believes this was Philip Rotier, and that he, " being in love with the fair Mrs. Stuart, Duchess of Richmond, represented her likeness, under the form of Britannia, on the reverse of a large medal with the king's head." (Anecdotes of Painting, iii. 173.) In 1836, it was resolved to issue silver groats for general circulation; the reverse is a figure of Britannia helmeted, seated, resting ber right hand upon her shield, and supporting a trident with her left. "These pieces," says Mr. Hawkins, "are said to have owed their existence to the pressing instance of Mr. Hume, from whence they, for some time, bore the nickname of Joeys. As they were very convenient to pay short cab-fares, the Hon. M.P. was extremely unpopular with the drivers, who frequently received only a groat where otherwise they would have received a sixpence without any demand for change. One driver ingeniously endeavoured to put them out of circulation by giving all he received to his son upon condition that he did not spend them or exchange them. This had, however, one good effect, as it made the man an economist, and a little store became accumulated which would be useful upon some unexpected emergence." (Silver Coins of England, p. 257.) Consult also Ruding's Annals of Coinage, ii. 385.]

John Wigan, M.D.—Where can any sketch of the life of this distinguished physician and eminent scholar in the last century be found? He edited a magnificent folio edition of AreUeus, published at the Clarendon Press at Oxford in 1723. A John Wigan occurs in the list of Principals of New Inn Hall, from 1726 to 1732, whom I presume to have been the same person.

He was educated at Westminster under Dr. Robert Friend, elected to Christ Church as Student in 1714, and died in Jamaica in 1739. Besides Areteus he edited Dr. John Friend's Works, and was the author of several copies of verses in the Carmina Quadragesimalia. Such particulars, however, as I can discover about him are but meagre. , Oxoniensis.

[John Wigan, M.D., born 1695, was the son of the Rev. Wm. Wigan, rector of Kensington. He was educated at the Westminster school, and at Christ Church, Oxford,

A.B. Feb. 6,1718, A.M. March 22,1720; proceeded M.D. Jaly 6, 1727. On Oct 5, 1726, he was admitted Principal of New Inn Hall, Oxford, and about the same time appointed secretary to the Earl of Arran. He was admitted a fellow of the College of Physicians, April 3,1732> and settled in Loudon. In 1738 Dr. Wigan accompanied his friend Mr. Trelawny to Jamaica as physician and secretary, and died there Dec. 5, 1739, aged forty-four. Tide Munk's Roll of the College of Physicians, ii. 108, and Welch's Alumni Westmonasterienses, ed. 1852, p. 262.]

John Reynolds. — Can you furnish any particulars of the life of John Reynolds, Esq., Admiral of the White, who died in 1788. R. S. F.

[Some particulars of Admiral John Reynolds after he entered the navy, are given in Charnock's Biographia Natalie, v. 503. On the 30th of October, 1746, he was promoted to be captain of the "Arundel"; was governor of Georgia, between 1745 and 1758; appointed captain of the "Burford" in 1769 or 1770; removed into the "Defence " early in 1771, which was his last command as private captain. On March 31,1775, he was promoted to be rear-admiral of the Blue, as he was on Feb. 3,1776, to be rear-admiral of the White j early in Jan. 1778, to be rear of the Red, and on the 29th of the same month to be vice-admiral of the Blue. On Sept. 26, 1780, he was farther advanced to be vice-admiral of the White, and on Sept. 24,1787, made admiral of the Blue. His death took place in January, 1788.]

Richard Gedket.—Can you oblige me with a few particulars regarding the life of this juvenile poet; the date of his death, &c.? R. I.

[Richard Solomon Gedney was born at New York on Oct. 15, 1838. At the age of two years he was brought over to England, and educated first at Chorlton High School, near Manchester, and afterwards at Cheltenham College. In his late years he manifested a strong partiality for dramatic literature; but, alas 1 this youthful aspirant for literary fame did not live to complete his eighteenth year. After a protracted illness, he died on July 15, 1856, and his remains were embalmed and forwarded to America for interment in the family mausoleum at Malvern Hall, on the banks of the river Hudson. See a brief Memoir of this youthful genius by James Ogden, M.D., prefixed to R. S. Gedney's Poetical Works, Second Edition, New York, 8vo, 1857.]

Arms Of Sir William Sennoee.—The arms of Sennoke, Lord Mayor 1418, are seven acorns. I should be glad to know their relative position, and the tinctures of the coat. C. J. R.

[In Stow's Survey, 1633, fol. p. 561, the seven acorns of the coat of Sir William Sevenoke are placed as three, three, and one; but in Burke's Armory we read, " Sevenoke (Lord Mayor of London, 1418). Ac seven acorns or, two, three, and two." Under the local name "Sevenoke," Burke gives "Vert, seven acorns or, three, three and one," as in Stow.]

Wegh. — In an account, temp. Edw. III., this word seems to express a particular or certain weight or quantity: thus, j wegh talis et dimidium, a -weigh and half of salt. Bosworth's Ang.-Sax. Diet, translates " wteg, weg," a wey, weigh, weight; "wegg, wtecg," a mass. The modern usage—a weigh or wey of cheese, for instance—is also indefinite. A reference to any authority where used otherwise will oblige. G. A. C.

[The following passages in the " Statutum de ponderibus ct mensuris" (which we transcribe from a MS. copy in a hand temp. Edw. 1.; see also Statutes of tie Realm) will explain as well as may be the question asked by our correspondent: —

"Waga eiiim, tarn plumbi, quam lane, sepi, vel casei, ponderat xiiij petras." And in another place we have— "Quelibet petra habet xiij libras."]

Twelfth Night: The Worst Puk. — Among the amusements of Twelfth Night, did any one ever hear of a prize given to the party who could make the worst pun f Joseph Miller.

[ We never did; but we have heard many puns which might fairly be admitted to the competition. We once heard of a prize offered for the worst conundrum, which was won by the following:

"Why is the bellowing of a single bull less melodious than the bellowing of two? Give it up?"

Answer: "Because the first is only a bull, but the second is a boll-bull" (bulbul, a nightingale).

This was unanimously admitted by the friends assembled to bo the worst conundrum they had ever heard, and as such received the prize.]

Portrait or Bishop Horslet. — In any of the numerous publications of the Bishop, was there ever a portrait of him published in any of them, or in any contemporary publications of his time, or since? Geo. I. Cooper.

[A Memoir of Bishop Horsley, with a portrait, may be found in the European Magazine, lxiii. 371, 494. In Evans's Catalogue of Engraved Portraits, vol. i. p. 177, are the following: 8vo, 6rf. j large folio, 5». proof, 7s. Gd., by J. Green, engraved by Meyer; 4to, 2s. Cd. by Humphrey, engraved by Godby.]

"Education."—Who was the author of a work, entitled, Of Education, especially of Young Gentlemen f My copy is "the fifth impression, Oxford, printed at the Theatre for Amos Curteyne, anno 1687," and has a woodcut of the Sheldonian Theatre on the title-page. . H, T. D. B.

[This is one of the productions of Obadiah Walker, sometime Master of University College, Oxford, who espoused the faith of the Roman Church on the accession of Jame9 II., and abjured it on his abdication. Commont' Journals, Oct. 26, 1G89; and Dod's Church History, U.S.]



(3* S. iv. 390, 433.)

The notice of Collier's Short View in Colley Gibber's Apology, led me early to procure the book, and its own proper merit and interest, to search after the works of those who took part in the controversy with him. One of these led to another, till at length—(in the way that Charles Lamb said that he had managed to acquire the wonderful mastery over tobacco, by which he astonished the weaker nerves of Dr. Parr: "by toiling after it, Sir, as some men toil after virtue ")—I succeeded in obtaining a very complete collection. In looking this over with the list of your correspondent, I find that I am able to add the titles of the following : —

"Overthrow of Stage-Playes, by way of Controversy between 1). Gager and I). Rainoldes, wherein is manifestly proved that it is not only unlawful to be an Actor, but a Beholder of those Vanities. By Dr. John Reynolde." London, 4to, 1599.

"Theatrum Redivivum; or, the Theatre Vindicated, by Sir Richard Baker, in Answer to Mr. Pryn's HistrioMastix, Wherein his groundless assertions against StagePlavs are discovered, his mistaken Allegations of the Fathers manifested, as also what ho calls his Reasons, to be nothing but his Passions." London, 12mo, 1662, pp. 141.

[These pieces of coarse belong to former controversies. I mention them as connected with the subject, and just falling under my hand.]

"A Vindication of the Stage, with the Usefullness and Advantages of Dramatic Representation, in Answer to Mr. Collier's late Book, entituled," &c. 4to, London,lG98, pp. 29.

"A Letter to Mr. Congreve on his Pretended Amendments," &c. 8vo, London, 1698, pp. 42.

"A Further Defence of Dramatic Poetry; Being the Second Part of the Review of Mr. Collier's View, &c Done by the same Hand." 8vo, London, 1098, pp. 72.

"A Representation of the Impiety and Immorality of the English Stage, with Reasons for putting a stop thereto, and some Questions addrest ^to those who frequent the Play-Houscs." 12mo, London, 1704, pp. 24.

"Serious Reflections on the Scandalous Abuse and Effects of the Stage: in a Sermon preached at the Parish Church of St. Nicholas in the Citv of Bristol, on Sunday the 7th Day of January, 170J. By Arthur Bedford, M.A," &c 8vo, Bristol, 1705, pp. 44.

"The Stage-Beaux toss'd in a Blanket, or Hypocrisia

Alamode; Exposed in a true Picture of Jerry ,

a Pretending Scourge to the English Stage, a Comedy, with a Prologue on Occasional Conformity; being a Full Explanation of the Foussin Doctor's Book, and an Epilogue on the Reformers. Spoken at the Theatre Royal in Drury Lane. 4to, London, 1704, pp. 64.

[This piece was written by the celebrated Tom Brown.]

"The Evil and Danger of Stage Plays, shewing their Natural Tendency to Destroy Religion, and introduce a General Corruption of Manners, in almost Two thousand Instances, &c. By Arthur Bedford." 8vo, London, 1706, pp. 227.

[" As the eminent labours of Mr. Collier and others

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