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professor of ecclesiastical history. The first volume of his History appeared in Germany in 1824, and passed through three editions, 1824, 1827, 1831, before the completion of the second volume in 1835. two volumes, (three in the translation,) extend to the Reformation. Another volume, which has not yet appeared in Germany, is to bring down the history to the present time. Gieseler gives up the old division into centuries, and divides his work into periods. The first extends from the birth of Christ to the accession of Constantine. The second period embraces the events from Constantine to the contro. versy respecting images, A. D. 324-451. The third period extends from the controversy just named to the Reformation. Appropriate divisions under these periods are made. It will be seen, by a glance at the main body of the work,' says the translator, 'that by far the greatest part of it consists of extracts from the original sources; the text itself, though containing a complete view of the whole field of church history, being exceedingly compressed. The advantages of such a plan for a manual of this study will at once be manifest. On the one hand, the student does not wish to be encumbered with long disquisitions on subjects so hard and dry as for the most part are here treated of, and on the other it is important that he should have the means of investigating them on occasion; while, frequently, the points involved are so refined and delicate, that the mistranslation of a word, or even the substitution of one language for another, may essentially modify the idea.'

"As a specimen of the manner of the author, we quote a few sen. tences on the internal relations of the Christian Church in the apostolic age. 'The new churches everywhere formed themselves on the model of the mother church at Jerusalem. At the head of each were the elders, (πρεoßútepoi, éñíokotoi,) all officially of equal rank, though, in several instances, a peculiar authority seems to have been conceded to some one individual from personal considerations. Under the superintendence of the elders were the deacons and deaconesses; Rom. xvi, 1; 1 Tim. v, 9, 10. All these received their support, like the poor, from the free contributions of the church; 1 Tim. v, 17; 1 Cor. ix, 13. It was by no means any part of the duty of the elders to teach, though the apostle wishes that they may be apt to teach, (didaktikoí ;) 1 Tim. iii, 2; 2 Tim. ii, 24. The power of speaking, and exhortation, was considered rather the free gift of the Spirit, (xápious πvevμɑTIKOV,) and was possessed by many of the Christians, though exercised in various ways, (prophets-teachers-speaking with tongues; 1 Cor. xii, 28-31; ch. xvi.) There was, as yet, no distinct order of clergy, for the whole society of Christians was "a royal priesthood," (1 Pet. ii, 9;) "the chosen people of God;" 1 Pet. v, iii. Comp. Deut. iv, 20; ix, 29. They assembled for worship in private houses; in cities the churches were often divided into several societies, each having its particular place of meeting.' The characteristics of Professor Gieseler's work seem to be general candor and fairness-the great compres sion of ideas in the text-and the learning, research, and judgment displayed in the notes, quotations, and references. If this history gains currency among us, it will argue well for the cause of sacred learning. Recommendatory notices are prefixed from Professors Stuart, Emerson, Hodge, Sears, and Ware. We know not what Professor

Sears means by saying that Mosheim's History can no longer be used.' Mr. Cunningham remarks, very justly, that of all (the ecclesiastical historians hitherto accessible to the English reader,) Mosheim alone is fitted for a general and comprehensive study of the subject.' The translation by Dr. Murdock is particularly valuable for the great learning and fidelity displayed in the notes."

For the Methodist Magazine and Quarterly Review.

6.-An Examination of Phrenology. In two Lectures. Sewall, M. D., Professor of Anatomy and Physiology. City. Published by request. 1837.

By Thomas Washington

For a number of years past, the public press has been employed in discussing and canvassing the claims of phrenology; but although the subject had created great sensation, and attracted much attention in some of the countries of Europe, as was well understood here, yet it failed to awaken any considerable interest among scientific men in America until the year 1832, when Dr. Spurzheim visited the United States. For, though the works of Dr. Gall and others had been extensively read in this country, and a number of professional and literary men had embraced the doctrines of phrenology, yet the subject was much more frequently ridiculed than lauded by the critics of the day; and Phrenological societies had not attracted public attention any. where, nor had any of the publications emanating from them found their way to public favor.

But when it became known that the distinguished pupil and devoted friend of Dr. Gall, the father of modern phrenology, had arrived in this country for purposes purely phrenological, and impelled by an ardent zeal to propagate and defend his favorite system, a new impulse was given to the public mind on the subject, and Dr. Spurzheim availed himself of the curiosity which was so favorable to his object. Indeed, during the brief period which elapsed between his arrival at New-York and his lamented death at Boston, no man filled a larger space in the public eye. Everywhere he went, his society was courted by the lite. rati; and his learning, eloquence, and polished manners attracted to his lectures admiring crowds. Such was the impression made upon the élite of Boston and its vicinity by his public discourses and private conversations, that many of our larger cities had already given him most pressing and flattering invitations to lecture; and a field was opened before him in this country for the propagation of phrenology altogether unexpected, and proselytes to the "science" were already becoming numerous. A very general affliction and disappointment was felt throughout the country when the intelligence became circu. lated that Dr. Spurzheim had suddenly fallen a victim to a fever in the midst of his career, or rather, in its very commencement, from which he and his friends had anticipated both fame and fortune. The citi. zens of Boston mourned his early departure, and erected a monument to his memory at Mount Auburn, in token of their veneration for his genius and learning.

During the few weeks of his labors in America, however, Dr. Spurzheim had made many converts, and some of them among distinguished

men. So complimentary were the notices of the public press, both of the doctor and his science, that the latter became everywhere a subject of attention; and, on the announcement of his death, lecturers on the subject found curious and willing hearers in almost every considerable city and town in the country. Literally it might be said, "many were running to and fro, and knowledge was increasing," for itinerant phrenologists could scarcely be found in sufficient numbers to gratify the popular rage for this literary novelty; and, much to the disadvan tage of phrenology, the merest tyros, and even pretenders to the subject, became objects of public patronage. Books, pamphlets, plates, and busts without number, have ever since deluged the country; and scarcely a school-boy could be found whose bumps have not been phrenologically examined by some real or pretended savan in the science.

Meanwhile the greatest contrariety of opinion has been entertained and expressed in relation to the whole subject; for, while some learned and excellent men in all the learned professions have enthusiastically embraced the entire system, and regarded it as the most magnificent discovery of ancient or modern times, by far the greater number of American philosophers and scholars have rejected the whole as a visionary and silly conceit, altogether unworthy of sober criticism or refutation. Hence, the treatment the subject has received from such has been a subject of unceasing complaint on the part of phrenologists. They have remonstrated, and not without some reason, against the summary way of disposing of their "facts and arguments," by deny. ing the former and ridiculing the latter. They have insisted that the light confessedly thrown upon the physiology of the brain, and the im. provements in the philosophy of the mind, which they claim for Dr. Gall and other phrenologists, entitle them to a fair and candid hearing. And they are ever and anon proclaiming alleged "facts," as confirming and establishing the science, and to these they importunately claim the public attention.

Under such circumstances, the lectures of Dr. Sewall must be regarded by all parties as a most timely publication. The subject is, undoubtedly, one of high and commanding importance in every aspect. It involves physical, mental, and moral science; for if phrenology be true, in whole or in part, all the learning of the schools on these several topics is exploded, and "the world is turned upside down;" and on the other hand, if it be false, it is calculated, by its specious plausibility and pedantic pretensions, to inflict irremediable wounds both upon philosophy and religion. It is, therefore, strictly within the province of science and philanthropy to give to the whole subject a rigid investigation. This its enemies need, to arm them in the conflict with its zealous advocates, from which it is impossible to escape; and the honest friends of the science ought not to shrink from such an ordeal, if conducted with candor and liberality.

Professor Sewall, in these two lectures, has taken a course the most unexceptionable in all respects that can well be conceived. In the first lecture he gives a succinct, but comprehensive history of phrenology, together with a brief exhibition of its nature, its claims, and the argu. ments by which it is vindicated by its authors and disciples. And in the second lecture he examines the science by the only true criterion, the anatomical structure and organization of the cranium and brain.

The warmest admirer of phrenology will be constrained to admit that the author has not misrepresented the science in his first lecture, and such will read it without finding any want of candor or magnanimity in the exhibition of its principles or claims. Indeed, it is obviously his design to give the true character of phrenology, so that the reader may discover its multiplied and important bearings, and appreciate the propriety of a patient and sober examination. And, indeed, the author attaches censure to those who have caricatured and satirised the science and its votaries, and maintains that it is entitled to other treatment than that of ridicule.

But, in the second lecture, Professor Sewall has grappled with the "science" in a style of manly and logical reasoning which shows him to be a master of the subject. As an able and practical anatomist, he has dissected both phrenology itself, and the human head, of which it speaks with such oracular dogmatism; and as a physiologist and metaphysician, he has contented himself with environing the science with inextricable difficulties; and although this is accomplished by a few brief hints, yet the sect will find them to be absolutely unanswerable. Indeed, the plates which accompany the volume, even if unaccompa. nied by the argument, would be sufficient to overthrow the whole fabric of phrenology; for it is impossible to examine these drawings, and the summary explanations which accompany them, without perceiving the physical impossibility of determining, from any inspection or admeasurement of the scull, either the "volume of the brain," whether absolute or relative, or the size, much less the configuration of the organs into which "the science" has arbitrarily divided the structure of the brain.

By the publication of these lectures, Professor Sewall has greatly added to his well-earned professional reputation, and performed an essential service to the cause of science and religion. He deserves and will receive the thanks of the public for thus interposing the shield of science, to protect the young and rising generation from the ingenious and mischievous influence of a species of philosophy which might else deceive by its learned empiricism, and beguile from the truth by the gaudy plumes it has borrowed from true philosophy, to conceal its errors and follies under the name of discoveries and facts. Phrenologists can no longer clamor for candid and liberal opposition, for these lectures have furnished facts and arguments which will give employ. ment to the whole clique for a century.


For want of room we are obliged to close this article here, though it contains several additional paragraphs.-EDS.

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