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are not less remarkable for the sagacity which directed, I tions of the planets with the axiul rotation of the sun. than for the inspiration which prompted them. With the This notion, it is plain, tended rather towards Descartes's sure instinct of genius, he seized the characteristic features theory of vortices than towards Newton's theory of gravitaof the phenomena presented to his attention, and his tion. More valid instances of the anticipation of modern inferences, except when distorted by polemical exigencics, discoveries may be found in his prevision that a small have been strikingly confirmed by modern investigations. annual parallax would eventually be found for some of the Of his two capital errors, regarding respectively the theory fixed stars, and that extra-Saturnian planets would at some of the tides and the nature of comets, the first was insidi- future time be ascertained to exist, and in his conviction ously recommended to him by his passionate desire to find that light travels with a measurable although, in relation & physical confirmation of the earth's double motion ; the to terrestrial distances, infinite velocity. second was adopted for the purpose of rebutting, an anti- The invention of the miscroscope, attributed to Galileo Copernican argument founded on the planetary analogies of by his first biographer, Vincenzo Viviani, does not truth those erratic subjects of the sun. Within two years of belong to him. Such an instrument was made as early as their first discovery, be had constructed approximately 1590 by Zacharias Jansen of Middleburg; and although accurate tables of the revolutions of Jupiter's satellites, and Galileo discovered, in 1610, a means of adapting his telehe proposed their frequent eclipses as a means of determin- scope to the examination of minute objects, he did not ing longitudes, not only on land, but at sea. This method, become acquainted with the compound microscope until on which he laid great stress, and for the facilitation of 1624, when he saw one of Drebbel's instruments in Rome, which he invented a binocular glass, and devised some and, with characteristic ingenuity, immediately introduced skilful mechanical contrivances, was offered by him in 1616 some material imprcrements into its construction. to the Spanish Government, and afterwards to that of The most substantial, if not the most brilliant part of Tuscany, but in each c je unsuccessfully ; and the close of his work consisted undoubtedly in his contributions towards his hfe was occupied with prolonged but fruitless negotia- the establishment of mechanics as a science. Some valutions on the same subject with the states-general of Holland. able but isolated facts and theorems were previously disThe idea, though ingenious, has been found of little covered and proved, but it was he who first clearly grasped {'ractical utility at sea, where the method founded on the the idea of force as a mechanical agent, and extended to ubserved distance of the moon from a known star is that the external world the conception of the invariability of the usually employed.

relation between cause and effect. From the time of A series of careful observations made him acquainted Archimedes there had existed a science of equilibrium, but with the principal appearances revealed by modern instru- the science of motion began to exist with Galileo. It is ments in the solar spots. He pointed out that they were not too much to say that the final triumph of the Copernican limited to a certain defined zone on the sun's surface; he system was due in larger measure to his labours in this noted the faculæ with which they are associated, the department than to his direct arguments in its favour. The perumbra by which they are bordered, their slight proper problem of the heavens is essentially a mechanical one; and quotions, and their rapid changes of form. He inferred without the mechanical conceptions of the dependence of from the regularity of their general movements the rotation motion upon force which Galileo familiarized to men's of the sun on its axis in a period of little less than a month minds, that problem might have remained a sealed book (the actual period is 25d. 7h. 48m.); and he grounded on even to the intelligence of Newton. The interdependence the varying nature of the paths apparently traversed by of motion and force was not indeed formulated into definite them a plausible, though inconclusive, argument in favour laws by Galileo, but his writings on dynamics are everyof the earth's annual revolution. Twice in the year, he where suggestive of those laws, and his solutions of dynaobserved, they seem to travel across the solar disk in mical problems involve their recognition. The extraorstraight lines; at other times, iu curves. These appear- dinary advances made by him in this branch of knowledge ances be referred with great acuteness to the slight inclina- were owing to his happy method of applying mathematical tion of the sun's axis of rotation to the plane of the ecliptic. analysis to physical problems. As a pure mathematician Thus, when the earth finds herself in the plane of the sun's he was, it is true, surpassed in profundity by more than one Equator, which occurs at two opposite points of her orbit, among his pupils and contemporaries, and in the wider the spots, travelling in circles parallel with that plane, imaginative grasp of abstract geometrical principles he necessarily appear to describe right lines; but when the cannot be compared with Fermat, Descartes, or Pascal, to earth is above or below the equatorial level, the paths of say nothing of Newton or Leibnitz. Still

, even in the the spots open out into curves turned downwards or up. region of pure mathematics, his powerful and original mind wards, according to the direction in which they are seen. left notable traces of its working. He studied the properThe explanation, however, of this phenomenon is equally ties of the cycloid, and attempted the problem of its consistent with the geocentric as with the heliocentric theory / quadrature earlier than Mersenne ; and in the “infinitesiof the solar system.

The idea of a universal force of mals,” which he was one of the first to introduce into geogravitation seems to have hovered around the borders of metrical demonstrations, was contained the fruitful germ of this great man's mind, without ever fully entering it. He the differential calculus. But the method which was perceived the analogy between the power which holds the peculiarly his, and which still forms the open road to dismoon in the neighbourhood of the carth, and conipels coveries in natural science, consisted in the combination of Jupiter's satellites to circulate round their primary, and the experiment with calculation-in the transformation of the attraction exercised by the earth on bodies at its surface ; concrete into the abstract, and the assiduous comparison of but be failed to conceive the combination of central force results

. The first fruits of the new system of investigation with initial velocity, and was disposed to connect the revolu- was his determination of the laws of falling bodies. Con"The passage is sufficiently remarkable to deserve quotation in the ceiving that the simplest principle is the most likely to be Friginal:-"* Le parti della Terra hanno tal propensione al centro di true, he assumed as a postulate that bodies falling freely pisa, che quando ella cangiasse luogo, le dette parti, benchè lontane towards the earth descend with a uniformly accelerated dal globo nel tempo delle mutazioni di esso, lo seguirebbero per tutto; motion, and deduced thence the principal mathematical conmempio di ciò sia il seguito perpetuo delle Medicce, ancorché separate sequences, as that the velocities acquired are in the direct, tontanameite da Giove. L'istesso si deve dire della Luna, obbligata * seguir la Terra." Diolngo dii Jassimi Sistemi, Giornata terza, P.

and the spaces traversed in the duplicate ratio of the times, l of Alben'. cilities.

counted from the beginning of motion ; finally, he proved,


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by observing the times of descent of bodies falling down that the floating of solid bodies in a liquid depends not upon long inclined planes, that the postulated law was the true their form, but upon their specific gravities, relative to such law. Even here, he was obliged to take for granted that liquid. the velocities acquired in descending from the same height In order to forın an adequate estimate of the stride maze along planes of every inclination are equal; and it was not by Galileo in natural philosophy, it would be necessary to until shortly before his death that he found the mathe- enumerate the confused and erroneous opinions prevailing matical demonstration of this not very obvious principle. on all such subjects in his time. His best eulogium, it has

The first law of motion—that which expresses the prin- been truly said, consists in the fallacies which he exposed. ciple of inertia—is virtually contained in the idea of uni- The scholastic distinctions between corruptible and incorformly accelerated velocity. The recognition of the ruptible substances, between absolute gravity and absolute second-that of the independence of different motions- levity, between natural and violent motions, if they did not must be added to form the true theory of projectiles. This wholly disappear from scientific phraseology, ceased thencewas done by Galileo. Up to his time it was universally forward to hold the place of honour in the controversies of held in the schools that the motion of a body must cease the learned. Discarding these obscure and misleading with the impulse communicated to it, but for the "reaction notions, Galileo taught that gravity and levity are relative of the medium ” which helps it forward. Galileo showed, terms, and that all bodies are heavy, even those which, like on the contrary, that the nature of motion once impressed the air, are invisible ; that motion is the result of force, is to continue indefinitely in a uniform direction, and that instantaneous or continuous ; that weight is a continuous the effect of the medium is a retarding, not an impelling one. force, attracting towards the centre of the earth ; that, in Another commonly received axiom was that no body could a vacuum, all bodies would fall with equal velocities; that be affected by more than one movement at one time, and it the "inertia of matter” implies the continuance of motien, was thus supposed that a cannon ball, or other projectile, as well as the permanence of rest; and that the substanco moves forward in a right line until its first iinpulse is ex- of the heavenly bodies is equally “corruptible" with that hausted, when it falls vertically to the ground. In the of the earth. These simple elementary ideas were emiafourth of Galileo's dialogues on mechanics, he demonstrated ently capable of development and investigation, and were that the path described by a projectile, being the result of not only true, but the prelude to further truth ; while those the combination of a uniform transverse motion with a they superseded defied inquiry by their vagueness, end uniformly accelerated vertical motion, must, apart from the baffled it with their obscurity. Galileo was a man born in resistance of the air, be a parabola. The establishment of due time. He was superior to his contemporaries, but not the principle of the composition of motions formed a con- isolated amongst them. He represented and intensified a clusive answer to the most formidable of the arguments growing tendency of the age in which he lived. It was used against the rotation of the earth, and we find it beginning to be suspected that from Aristotle an appeal lay accordingly triumphantly brought forward by Galileo in the to nature, and some were found who no longer treated the second of his dialogues on the systems of the world. It ipse dixit of the Stagirite as the final authority in matters was urged by anti-Copernicans that a body flung upwards of science. A vigorous but ineffectual warfare had already or cast downwards would, if the earth were in motion, be been waged against the blind traditions of the schools by left behind by the rapid translation of the point from which Ramus and Telesius, by Patricius and Campanella, and the it started; Galileo, however, proved that the reception of a revolution which Galileo completed had been prepared by fresh impulse in no way interfered with the movement his predecessors. Nevertheless, the task which he so already impressed, and that the rotation of the earth was effectually accomplished demanded the highest and rarest insensible, because shared equally by all bodies at its sur- quality of genius. He struck out for himself the happy face

His theory of the inclined plane, combined with his middle path between the a priori and the empirical systems, satisfactory definition of "momentum,” led bim towards the and exemplified with brilliant success the method by which third law of motion. We find Newton's theorem, that experimental science has wrested from nature so many of "action and reaction are equal and opposite,” stated with tor secrets. His mind was an eminently practical one.

He approximate precision in his treatise Della Scienza concerned himself above all with what fell within the range Meccanica, which contains the substance of lectures de- of exact inquiry, and left to others the larger but less livered during his professorship at Padua ; and the sam fruitful speculations which can never be brought to the principle is involved in the axiom enunciated in the third direct test of experiment. Thus, while far-reaching but of his mechanical dialogues, that “the propensity to fail of hasty generalizations have had their day and been forgotten; a body is equal to the least resistance which sufficas to his work has proved permanent, because he made sure of support it.” The problems of percussion, however, did not its foundations. His keen intuition of truth, bis vigour and receive a definitive solution until after his death.

yet sobriety of argument, his fertility of illustration and His services were no less conspicuous in the statical than acuteness of sarcasm, made him irresistible to his antagin the kinetical division of mechanics. He gave the first onists; and the evanescent triumphs of successful contru. direct and entirely satisfactory demonstration of equilibrium versy have been succeeded by the lasting applause of on an inclined plane, reducing it to the lever by a sound posterity. and ingenious train of reasoning; while, by establishing the The first complete edition of Galileo's writings pas published at theory of “virtual velocities,” he laid down the fundamental Florence (1842-1856), in 15 8vo vols., by the Società Editrice Fiorprinciple which, in the opinion of Lagrange, contains the entina, under the able supervision of Signor Eugenio Albèri. Besides

the works already enumerated, it contains the hitherto inedited general expression of the laws of equilibrium. He studied

Sermones de Motu Gravium, composed at Pisa between 1589 and with attention the still obscure subject of molecular co- 1591 ; his letters to his friends, with many of their replies, as well hesion, and little has been added to what he ascertained on as several of the essays of his scientific opponents; his private com the question of transverse strains and the strength of beams, admirer, and on the Gerusalemme Liberata, of which he was cat

ments on the Orlando Furioso, of which he was an enthusiastic brought by him for the first time -within the scope of equally persistent depreciator; some' stanzas and sonnets of no great mechanical theory. In his Discorso intorno alle cose che merit, together with the sketch of a comedy; finally, a reprint of c'anno su I acqua, published in 1612, he used the principle Viviani's Life, with valuable notes and corrections. The original of virtual velocities to demonstrate the

more important documents from the archives of the Inquisition, relating to the theorems of hydrostatics, deducing from it the equilibrium of Count Rossi, and now in the Vatican Library, were to a limited

events of 1616 and

1633, recovered from Paris in 1846 by the efforts oi fuid in a siphon, and proved against the Aristotelians extent made public - by Monsignor Marino-Alarini in 1850, and

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not tnreservedly by M. Henri de l'Epinois, in an essay entitled | excited considerable controversy in the scientific world. Calilée," son Procés, sa Condemnation," published in 1867 in

He had almost reached the zenith of his fame when, in the Raric des Questions Historiques. He was followed by M. Karl FCE Gebler, who, in an able and exhaustive but somewhat pre.

1807, he repaired to Paris and established himself there as judiced pork, Galileo Galilei und die Rönische Curic (Stuttgart, a medical practitioner, at the same time continuing his : 1576), sought to impeach the authenticity of a document of prime activity as a lecturer and writer. In 1808 appeared his

importance in the trial of 1633. He has, however, been victoriously. Introduction au cours de physiologie du cerveau, which was andwered by Signor Domenico Berti, in I? Processo originale di followed in 1809 by the Recherches sur le système nerveux Gilileo Galilei (Rome, 1876), and by M. de l'Epinois, with Les Phea du Proces de Galilée (Rome, Paris, 1877). The touching

en général, et sur celui du cerveau en particulier (originally letters of Galileo's eldest daughter, Sister Maria Celeste, to her | laid before the Institute of France in March 1808), and in father were printed in 1864 by Professor Carlo Arduini, in a pub 1810 by the first instalment of the Anatomie et Physiologie lication entitled La Primogenita di Galileo Galilei. See also M. Th. Henri Martin's excellent biography, Galilée, les Droits de la

du système nerveux en général, et du cerveau en particulier, Science at la Méthode des Sciences Physiques, Paris, 1868; and the avec des observations sur la possibilité de reconnaître plusieurs anonymous Private Life of Galileo, London, 1870. (A. M. C.) dispositions intellectuelles et morales de l'homme et des

GALITCH, or HALICZ, a town of Russia, at the head | animaux par la configuration de leurs têtes. The Recherches, of a district in the government of Kostroma, 80 miles N. E. and the first two volumes of the Anatomie, bear the conjoint of Kostroma, in 57° 15' N. lat. and 42° 56' E. long., on names of Gall and Spurzheim. The latter work was comthe low south-eastern shore of Galitch Lake. Among its pleted in 1819, and appeared in a second edition of six 8vo public buildings are a hospital, a poorhouse opened in 1855, volumes shortly afterwards (1822–25). In 1811 he replied about 15 churches, and a convent of the third class. The to a charge of Spinozism or atheism, which had been chief occupation of the inhabitants is the manufacture of strongly urged against him in certain quarters, by a treatise leather and gloves; and the fisheries of the lake yield about entitled Des dispositions innées de l'âme et de l'esprit, which 30,000 rubles per annum, and give employment to about he afterwards incorporated with his greater work. In 1819. 400 fishermen, whose rights are secured by ancient charters. he became a naturalized French subject, but his efforts two At the annual fair a considerable trade is done in woollen years afterwards to obtain adinission to the Academy of and cotton goods, earthenware, and miscellaneous articles. Sciences, although supported by Geoffroy St Hilaire, were In 1860 the population was 6536 ; but in the St Petersburg unsuccessful

. In 1823 he visited London with the intention Calendar for 1878 it is given at 56?0.

of giving a series of phrenological lectures, but was disGALL, FRANZ JOSEPH (1758–1828), anatomist, physio- appointed of the reception he had anticipated, and speedily logist, and founder of phrenology, was born at Tiefenbrunn abandoned his plans. He continued to lecture and practise Dear Pforzheim, Baden, on the 9th of March 1758. After in Paris until the beginning of 1828, when he was disabled completing the usual literary course at Baden and Bruchsal, by an apoplectic seizure. His death took place at Montrouge he began the study of medicine under Hermann at Strasburg, near Paris, on the 22d of August 1828. The Anatomie has whence

, attracted by the names of Van Swieten and Stoll, been translated into English by Lewis (Boston, U.S., 1835). he removed to Vienna in 1781. Having received his GALLAND, ANTOINE (1646–1715), Orientalist and diploma, he began to practise as a physician there in 1785 ; archæologist, the first European translator of the Arabian but his energies were mainly devoted to the scientific Nights, was born in 1646 at Rollot, in the department of investigation of problems which, even from boyhood, had Somme. The completion of his school education at Noyon been occupying his attention. At a comparatively early was followed by a brief apprenticeship to a trade, from period he had formed a generalization which he believed which, however, he soon escaped, to pursue his linguistic to be a sound one, that in the human subject at least a studies at Paris. After having been employed for some powerful memory is invariably associated with prominent time in making a catalogue of the Oriental manuscripts at eres ; and further observation had enabled him, as he the Sorbonne, he was, in 1670, attached to the French thought , also to define

the external characteristics indicative embassy at Constantinople ; and in 1673 he also accomof special talents for painting, music , and the mechanical panied his chief (De Nointel

) to Syria and the Levant, eine Following out these researches, he gradually reached where he availed himself of the opportunity to copy á the strong personal conviction, not only that the talents great number of inscriptions

, and also to sketch, in some and dispositions of men are dependent upon the functions cases even to remove, historical monuments.

After a of the brain, but also that they may be inferred with perfect brief visit to France, where his collection of antiquities exactitude and precision from the external appearances of attracted some attention, Galland returned to the Levant ins skull. Gall's first appearance as an author was made in 1676 ; and in 1679 he undertook a third voyage, being in 1791, when he published the first two chapters of a commissioned by the French East India Company to collect

never completed, work entitled Philosophisch-medicinische for the cabinet of Colbert ; on the expiry of this commission Untersuchungen über Natur u. Kunst im Krankenu.gesunden he was instructed by the Government to continue his Zustande des Menschen." The first public notice of his researches

, and had the title

of “ antiquary to the king inquiries in cranioscopy, however, was in the form of a conferred upon him. hieland's Deutscher Mercur in 1798.; but two years before Turkish, and Persian languages and literatures

, whichi


thorough knowledge of the Arabic, this Gall had commenced giving private courses of phreno on This" final return to a France, enabled him to render end lectures in Vienna, where his doctrinest soon attracted valuable assistance to Thevenot

, the keeper of the royar in 1802, they were interdicted by the Government on the ettention, and met with increasing success until

, library
, and to D'Herbelot. After

their deaths he lived for

some time at Caen under the roof of Foucault the intendant, dangerous to religion. This step on himself no mean archæologist ; and there he began the the part of the lating public curiosity and increasing Gall's celebrity. In lation which excited immense interest during the time of Germany, in the course of which he lectured in Berlin, / admitted into the Academy of Inscriptions, and in 1709 friend and associate Spurzheim, and made a tour through translation (last edition 1872). In 1701 Galland had been Dresden, Magdeburg, and several of the university towns. he was appointed to the chair of Arabic in the Collége de These expositions, which he knew how to make popular France. He continued to discharge the duties of this post and attractive, were much resorted to by the public, and I until his death, which took place February 17, 1715.

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Besides a number of meritorious archeological works, especially the stranto privilege of bag the only merchant for his people, but In the department of nninismatics, he also published a compilation in all pelle concerns must take the advice of the fathers of familien from the Arabic, Persian, and Turkish, entitled Paroles remar. assemwed in council. The greater proportion of the tribes are still quables, bons mots el marimes des Orientaux (1694), and a translation pagan, worshipping & suprone god Wakt, and the subordinate god froin an Arabic manuscript, De l'origine et du progrès du Co.116 and goddess Oglia and Atilia, whose favour is secured by sacrificed (1699). The former of these works appeared in an English trans- of oxen and sheep. With a stranca liberality of sentiment, they lation in 1795. His Contes ut Fables Indiennes de Bipas et de say that at a certain time of the year Waka leaves them and goed Lokman was published after his death (1724). Among his numer. to attond to the wants of their enemies the Somali, whom also be ous unpublished manuscripts are said to be included a translation has created. Some tribes, and notably the Wollo-Galla, have been of the Koran and a Turkish dictionary.

converted to Mahometanism, aud very bigoted adherents of the LLARATE, a flourishing town of Italy, the head of prophet they are. In the north a kind of superficial Christianization a circle in the province of Milan, situated on the railway has taken placo, to the extent at least that the people are familiar 23 miles N. W. of Milan at the junction of the line running

with the names of Maromma or Mary, Balawold or Jesus, Girgis

or St George, &.; but to all practical intents paganism is still in N. to Varese. It has a technical school, and carries on force. The serpent is a special objeot of worship, the northern the manufacture of cotton and linen. In the Middle Ages Gallas believing that he is the author of the human race. A conit is mentioned as Galaratum and Glareatum, and especially siderable number of the men find employment in the Abyssinian in the 10th century it appears to have been a strongly like. The total niimber of the Gallas was estimated by Krapf at

armies, and in comparison with their neighbours are brave and war fortified and important place. Population in 1871, 7576. from six to eight millions, and Plowden mentions individual tribe

GALLAS, or more correctly GALLA, a powerful race that could bring into the field 20,000 or 30,000 horse. Among the 6f eastern Africa, scattered over the wide region which

more important tribes in the south (the name in each instance being extends for about 1000 miles from the interior of compounded with Galla) are the Rawatta, the Kukatta, the Baðle,

the Aurdva, the Wadjole, tho llani, the Arrar, and the Kanigo Abyssinia to the neighbourhood of the river Sabacki, Galla ; the Borani, a very powerful tribe, may be considered to mark in 3° 12' of S. latitude. Almost nothing has been de- the division between north and south; and in the north we find finitely ascertained about the early homes and migrations the Amoro, the Jarso, the Toolama, the Wollo, the Ambassil, the of the race; but it appears to have occupied the southern Aijjg, and the Azobo Galla.

See Beke, “On the Origin of the Gallas," in Trans. of Brit. portion of its present territory for nearly four centuries at Assoc., 1847; Krapf., Travels

in Eastern Africa, least. According to Ludolf and Bruce, the Galla invaders 1860;'D'Abbadie, Douze ans en Haute-Ethiopie, 1868 ; Brenner tirst crossed the Abyssinian frontiers in the year 1537.

Forschungen in Ost-Afrika,” in Peterinann's Mittheilungen, 1868; The Gallas of Gojam (a district along the northern side of Plowden, Travels in Abyssinia and the Galla Country, 1868 ; and

a paper by Louis Lande in Revue des Deux Mondes, 1878. the river Abai) tell how their savage forefathers came from the south-east from a country on the other side of a bahr

ALBERT GALLATIN (luke or river), and the Yedju and Raia Galla also point towards tho east and commemorate the passage of a bahr. Jan. 29, 1761. His father, Jean Gallatin, was of Among the southern Gallas tradition appears to be mainly an illustrious family and claimed descent from A. Atilius concerned with the expulsion of the race from the country Callatinus, a Roman consul of the third century before now. occupied by the Somali. It is usually maintained Christ. This claim is not substantiated, as a period of that the Gallas are ethnographically of Semitic affinity, fifteen hundred years lies between the Roman Consul und find their nearest kinsmen in the Somali, the Dankali

, and the first authentic Gallatin who lived in Savoy in and the Abyssinians ; but M. Lejean is of opinion that the thirteenth century. This Gallatin was at that time they rather belong to the Aryan race, and this is so far family must have been of considerable importance for

of aristocratic blood, with titles of nobility; so that the supported by their physiological characteristics. One

at least a century before. In 1510 the family came to thing is certain, that they have nothing in common with Geneva, identified themselves with John Calvin and a the vegro type ; the "musculation ” of the arms, thighs, Republican form of government, gave up their titles, and calves is altogether different, and they have none of and in large measure their fortunes, but they still held the fetor developed by the negro skin; their frame is large to the purity of their blood and were powerful factors and powerful, their complexion a very dark brown, their in the social and political life of Switzerland. They brow broad and lofty, their eyes deep-sunk and lively, and

were a numerous family and the little government did description. Of the Semitic affinity of the language their tinction, and lost their lives in gallant action; and be their features nut unfrequently of a regular and finely-shaped not afford employment for the talents of all of them,

so they took service under different kings, is no question, and according to the usual classification it belongs to the same Semitico-Hamitic group as the Somali, personal friends were men whom accident or talent

came great civic potentates in foreign cities. Their the Saho, and the Dankali.1

made famous, such as Voltaire and the Landgrave of The Gallas are for the most part still in the nomadic and pastoral Hesse. stage ; though, as we advance northwards into Abyssinia, we find them more and more assimilated to the settled and agricultural in.

Albert's father, Jean Gallatin, married Sophie habitants of that kingdom. Among the southern tribes it is said

Albertine Rolaz du Řosey, of Rolle, and died in 1765, that about 7 or 8 head of cattle are kopt for every man, woman, and

when Albert was but four years of age. His mother child; and among the northern tribes, as neither man nor woman

followed in 1770, thus leaving the boy an orphan at the ever thinks of going any distance on foot, the number of horses is early age of nine, with an invalid sister five years older. very large. The ordinary food consists of flesh, Llood, milk, butter, At the time of his father's death, one of his mother's and honey, the last being considered of so much importance by the southern Gallas that a rude system of bee-keeping is in vogue, and

intimate friends, Catherine Pictet, seeing the young the husband who fails to furnish his wife with a sufficient supply of

widow overwhelmed with the care of her husband's honey may bo excluded from all conjugal rights. This last fact is

business and of her sick daughter, took Albert into her one of those which indicate the comparatively high position occu.

own household. After his mother's death he became pied by the Galla women, who, moreover, have the right, but rarely virtually her own child, beside being the heir of his granted in a savage state of society, of refusing an unacceptablo grandfather, Abraham Gallatin, and the favorite of a offer of marriage. In the south monogamy is the rulo, but in the wealthy uncle, Alphonse Rolez, of Rolle. He had a north the number of a man's wives is limited only by his wishes and his wealth. Each tribe has its own heiitch or sultan, who enjoys

right to expect a fortune from these three people and

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was popular and beloved by all his friends and relatives; The similarity to the Semitic was pointed out by Benrey in

his education was carefully supervised by his foster Götting. Gelehrte Anzeigen, 18 16, in a review of Tutschek's lexicon mother, Mlle. Pictet. At sixteen years of age he was and grammar (1814, 1845). Further details in regard to its vocabu- sent to boarding school and afterwards to an academy, lary and structure will be found in Lottner's paper in the Transaclions yraduating in 1779. No expense was ni the Philological Society, London, 1860-61, anil in the Vovarc. education. His small property was so frugally mana Roise, 1807.. Krapf had published a grammar as early as 1810. aged that by the time he reached his majority his

spared in his


father's debts had all been paid from the income. About this time both his uncle and grandfather died insolvent, and owing to his own small patrimony, Albert

Yet was thrown almost entirely on his own resources. from the distinction of his family, and the mental 1cquisitions he had gained in college, he was on the road to success and could easily have gained fame and fortune in the city of his birth. At the age of eighteen he was clear-minded, sober and practical. The first year after graduation he returned to Mlle. Pictet and occupied himself as tutor to her young nephew, Isaac Pictet. He often visited his grandınother, who urged him to enter the services of the Landgrave of Hesse, but a military life had but little attraction for him. During this year he visited Voltaire; and widened his acquaintance among the many learned and distinguished men, who made Geneva their home. He breathed this balmy atmosphere of learning and was filled with ambitious dreams and at the same time with a noble discouragement. It seemed to the youth that where there was so much intellectual and moral worth in the market, distinction would be difficult to attain. This, together with his loss of fortune and a quarrel with his grandmother on account of his refusal to "serve under a tyrant,” as he termed the Landgrave of Hesse, made him resolve on a course of action, which lost a gladiator for the little arena of Geneva and gained Albert Gallatin for the larger political field which the young and growing government of the United States afforded.

He made silent preparations for his departure, and carrying with him such small resources as he could command, accompanied by his college friend Henri Serre, he departed from Geneva in the spring of 1780, leaving behind him the city of his ancestry, his influential friends, congenial society and prestige, and emigrated to America. He was but nineteen years of age when he thus took his fortunes in his own hands and cut himself off from the assistance of his grandmother and Mille. Pictet. He regretted this step

near the close of his life in spite of his wonderful successes, and said that he had advised only one

to emigrate, Jean bidoilet

, who afterwards joined him in America, and that he was sorry for having done so. He was proud, shy and reticent. He was moved by political ideals and filled with a spirit of adventure and leadership. For many years these traits of Albert Gallatin's char: acter controlled his actions. They explain the apparent perversity with which he abandoned his friends and prospects. He departed secretly from fear that This was a weak and unworthy excuse, as he afterwards acknowleged, for although his friends opposed him they would gladly have furnished him with the necessary equipment for his journey to the New World, if he had only declared to thein his intention to go. The two young men started with the small sum of 166 Louis d'or. The cost of their passage reduced the little amount to about $400, all of which belonged to Gallatin. The friends in Geneva strove in every way to smooth the path to success for these young men, and wrote letters of introduction for them to influential where his learning would have given him an immediate people in America, but Gallatin disliked large cities, foothold, and disdaining all these helps struck out into the wooded wilderness of Maine. He had courage, endurance, hope and discipline of a high order, else he would have fallen back on the "cushion of circun· He never used his letters of introduction. Mlle. Pictet stance," which was always held invitingly before him. wrote him long letters telling how she mourned his

Ilis life in Boston was unproductive and unsatisfactory, and he finally cut himself loose from it and plunged into the freer air of Pennsylvania and Virginia. Iere he found his natural element. He engaged in land speculation and local politics, married a Miss Sophia Allegre and settled down in a country where it needed energy to live. Here he would have developed naturally into a provincial potentate and wealthy land owner on a large plantation, had his young wife not died a few months after marriage. To ihis sad event is probably due his subsequent career. He was driven into the excitement of politics by his grief and loneliness. Soon his rare origin and attainments brought him forward rapidly in a pioneer settlement. The times needed such men. Independence had been wrested from England, but the government had not yet been established. The constitution was before the states for adoption. Gallatin belonged to the anti-Federalist, the minority party, and was thus one of the men who helped draft some of the amendments to the constitution. He could not speak Eng. lish plainly, and was hampered in debate, but the clear force of his reasoning, united with his grasp of the situation, at once brouglit him to the front in the legislature of Pennsylvania, and carried him to Congress. The impression he made on public men is to be explained only by his intellect and integrity, because he was not a man to whom many people ever became warmly attached. He was tall and strong, with a severe cast of countenance and cold manner, and disdained to conciliate anyone. He soon became the leader of the Republican party in Pennsylvania. He came into collision with Alexander Hamilton at this time account of the excise on spirits. This measure was the simplest way to meet the existing necessity for money in order to carry on the government. The tax was un popular, as any tax was bound to be with a people who had just successfully resisted taxation, but Hamilton forced the excise, and subsequent events proved his wisdom in having done so. Gallatin was one of the most powerful opponents of Hamilton's scheme, and thus, while fighting on purely legal grounds, identified himself with a lawless element and was thus practically at war both with the Federalists and with his own constituents. His own force and integrity kept him erect and compelled the respectful attention of both parties throughout this trying period, when he stood the severest test to which a man in public life can be subjected. He received a singular proof of this confidence in him by being chosen to represent Pennsylvania in Congress by a vote of both parties. The Federalists being in a powerful majority annulled his election on the grounds of his being the leader of the insurrectionists and retired him to private life. At the rise of the “ whiskey rebellion” by the anti-Federalists he risked his life to face a mob of his own constituents and denounced them in unqualified terms, and by his prompt action turned this movement into a ridiculous affair. "He had made a mistake in his estimate of the character of the population and hastened to oppose the rebellion. In history there will always be some doubts expressed as to Gallatin's part in the whole proceeding, and in the opinion of most people he must be held responsible for the first resistance to the government. But at the time he came out of the encounter with a spotless reputation,the only western anti-Federalist who did so. Shortly afterwards he was again elected to the House of Representatives. His previous mistake in gauging his constituency seems to have been the only time in a long public career when he was not endowed with a keen faculty for feeling the public pulse. This quality was felt by all public men who came in contact with him, and had instant effect when he returned to Congress. He became the leader of the Republican party at once and held his place easily during the six years he remained in the llouse. There was no one else who


unwilling to tell her of his hardships In 1781, after untold privations in the woods, and a College. But New England asceticism and the rigor

unfriendly to the Gallic youth.

loss, but he was

and did not write to her for a whole year. failure in trade, he obtained a French class in Harvard

of the climate were

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