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III. LAND PLANTS. I am indebted to Andrew Dickson, Esq., for the opportunity of studying a large number of nodules containing plants, collected by him at Green's Creek, on the Ottawa. They contain numerous vegetable fragments, which appear to have been originally distributed over the surface of a tract of clay and covered by similar material, a layer of calcareous nodules subsequently forming along the plane of deposition and imbedding and preserving the remains, which are very little changed, though some of them appear to have been in an advanced state of decomposition before being imbedded. Among them I can recognize leaves or fragments of leaves of the Populas balsamifera---which seems to be a very abundant plant at this locality-leaves and stems of grasses, needles of pines, and a moss apparently of the family Fontinaleæ or Hypnea.* There is also a well preserved small dicotyledonous leaf, which I have not yet been able to identify
The most curious point in connection with these remains is their association with what seem to be remains of Algæ, and with shells of Leda Portlandica having the valves cohering. They would thus appear to have been deposited in the sea and in deep water. I observed something of the same kind in Gaspé Bay, where, at the mouth of the North-west river, I found Leda limatula living in dark-coloured mud containing vegetable matter, much of it no doubt washed down by streams from the land.
IV. MISCELLANEOUS Fossils.
Ophiocoma.—In my paper of last year I mentioned an organism in a nodule from Ottawa which seemed to be the remains of an ophiuroid star-fish. I have since found similar remains in the Leda clay at the Tangeries, near Montreal. The specimens are entirely disintegrated, but show the internal joints of the rays and also the external plates and spines. From their form I judge that they may have belonged to a small Ophiocoma, not very dissimilar from the O. bellis now found in the Gulf of St. Lawrence; but whether identical with that species, or with that found by Sir W. E. Logan at Ottawa, I cannot certainly determine. I figure some of the remains merely to direct the attention of other observers to these curious objects. (Figs. 18, 19.)
• Sullirant, in a note just received, says it is probably not far from Hypnum riparium,
Figs. 18 and 19.-Joints of Ophiocoma, magnifled. Modiola glandula.—A single valve of this pretty ittle shell has been found at Logan's farm. It now inhabits deep water in the Gulf of St. Lawrence. I may also mention that I have found perfect specimens of Modiolaria discors both at Logan's farm and Beauport, which quite confirm Dr. Gould's identification of my fragment of last year with that species.
Pusus (Clavatula) turricula.-Specimens of this shell have been found by Mr. R. Ramsay at the Brick-yards at the Tanneries. It occurs extensively in the North Atlantic, and fossil in the British Crag.
Rissoa.—Since the publication of my last paper, Mr. Bell of the Geological Survey, has shewn to me in that collection a Rissoa with five distinct revolving bands, separated by a flattish space from the suture. On comparison of this shell with my specimens referred last year to R. minuta, I am inclined to think that they are the same, but that the latter were worn, so as to present a smooth surface. It is not unlike R. obsoleta of Wood's Crag Mollusca. I have another little shell which closely resembles Alvania ascaris of the same author, but it is too incomplete for its certain identification.
Spirorbis spirillum.—This common species is found of small size, attached to pebbles, at Beauport.
In so far as general conclusions in Geology are concerned, the observations of the past year do not in any way conflict with the conclusions stated in my former paper.
The arrangement of the deposits at Logan's farm and Beauport, confirms the subdivision which I have attempted to establish, of an underlying non-fossiliferous boulder clay, a deep-water bed of clay or sand (the Leda clay of Montreal), and overlying shallowwater sands and gravels, the Saxicava sand of my former paper. This arrangement shows a gradual upheaval of the land from its state of depression in the boulder-clay period, corresponding with what has been deduced from similar appearances in the Old World. “The upheaval of the bed of the glacial sea," says Forbes, “ was not sudden but gradual. The phenomena so well described by Prof. Forchhammer in his essays on the Danish drift, indicating a conversion of a muddy sea of some depth into one choked up with sand-banks, are, though not universal, equally evident in the British Isles, especially in Ireland and the Isle of Man."*
We now have in all, exclusive of doubtful forms, sixty-three species of Marine Invertebrates from the Post-Pliocene or Pleistocene clays of the St. Lawrence valley. All, except four or five species belonging to the older or deep-water part of the deposit, are known as living shells of the Arctic or Boreal regions of the Atlantic. About half of the species are fossil in the Pleistocene of Great Britain. A majority of the whole are now living in the Gulf of St. Lawrence and on the neighbouring coasts; and I have reason to believe that the dredging operations carried on by the officers of the Geological Survey in the past summer, will enable us to recognize all but a few as living Canadian species. In so far, then, as marine life is concerned, the modern period in this country is connected with that of the boulder clay by an unbroken chain of animal existence. These deposits in Lower Canada afford no indications of the terrestrial fauna; but the remains of Elephas Primigenius in beds of similar age in Upper Canada, show that during the period in question great changes occurred among the animals of the land; and we may hope to find similar evidences in Lower Canada, especially in localities where, as on the Ottawa, the debris of land-plants and land-shells occur in the marine deposits.
• Memoirs of Geological Survey.
ARTICLE IV.----Report on the Fisheries of the Gulf of Saint
Lawrence. By M. H. PERLEY, Esq., Her Majesty's Emi
gration Officer at Saint John, N.B.* Laid before the Houso of Assembly by command of His Excellexey the Lieutenant
Goverwor, and ordered to be printed 8th Marsh, 1849. There is probably no part of the world in which such extensive and valuable Fisheries are to be found, as within the Gulf of Saint Lawrence. Nature has bountifully provided within its waters, the utmost abundance of those fishes which are of the greatest importance to man, as affording not only nutritious and wholesome food, but also the means of profitable employment.
These Fisheries may be prosecuted as well in the open waters of the Gulf, as within every Bay, Harbour, Creek, Cove, and Inlet in connection with it. Whether on the bleak and sterile coast of Labrador; or on the western coasts of Newfoundland and Cape Breton; or along the eastern shores of Nova Scotia and New Brunswick; or within the Bay of Chaleur; or around Prince Edward Island, Anticosti, or the Magdalen Islands, the Fisherman may pursue his labours with nearly equal chances of success, and the full prospect of securing an ample reward for his toil.
With such valuable and uplimited Fisheries in close proximity to these Colonies, and as it may be said at the very doors of the inhabitants, it is no less strange than true, that they are prosecuted to the greatest extent, and with most profit, by citizens of France, and of the United States.
The French exercise an almost exclusive right of fishing upon the western coast of Newfoundland, the fertility and great mineral wealth of which have only recently become known, and are not yet fully appreciated.
From seven to eight handred sail of America fishing vessels enter the Gulf of Saint Lawrence annually; and scattering over the whole of its wide extent, with little heed of the limits to which they are restricted by treaty, pursue their business unmolested, and but rarely leave their stations without full and valuable fares.
The Jersey merchants also prosecute these Fisheries with great zeal and assiduity, and, as it is believed, with much profit. They have permanent establishments and Fishing Stations in Gaspé,
• This Report although issued ten years ago, contains the best account of the Fisheries of the Gulf at present extant. Believing it to be important on account of the statistical and natural history information that may be gleaned from it, we republish it without abridgement.
Labrador, and Newfoundland, and three or more establishments in New Brunswick; but they by no means confine themselves to any particular locality. They employ upwards of one hundred vessels almost exclusively in carrying the rich products of the deep to various foreign markets, besides the smaller craft required upon the coast. Two of the leading Jersey firms, Messieurs Robin and Company, and Nicolle Brothers, are supposed respectively to afford employment, directly or indirectly, to nearly one thousand persons.
The inhabitants of those shores of Cape Breton and Nova Scotia wbich are within the Gulf, pursue the Fisheries in their immediate neighbourhood to a moderate extent; and a few of their vessels visit the Magdalen Islands, and the Labrador coast, during the season. The people of Prince Edward Island, who are favourably placed for securing a goodly portion of the riches of the sea, mako still more limited efforts ; but their efforts can scarcely be described as more limited, or more feeble, than those of the people of New Brunswick, who dwell upon its shores, from Baie Verte to the western extremity of the Bay of Chaleur—those shores commanding as great an extent and variety of fishing ground, and as abundant supplies of valuable fish of every description, as can be found in any other part of the unrivalled Gulf of Saint Lawrence, while they possess equal, and perhaps superior, facilities for prosecuting its Fisheries, both extensively and profitably. '
The most vaiuable Fisheries of the Gulf are those for Herring, Cod, and Mackerel. But before entering upon the question of their encouragement and extension, by increased facilities of communication, it will be proper to give some description of each. With this view they will be taken up in the order of the fishing season; after which, the secondary Fisheries of the Gulf will be briefly noticed.
The common Herring (Clupea harengus) appears in the Gulf of Saint Lawrence at the end of April, or early in May, and the fishing continues until about 10th June, when they retire to deep water, having deposited their spawn. These “Spring Herring,” as they are termed, are taken in “set nets” along the whole eastern shore of New Brunswick, around Miscou Island, and within the Bay of Chaleur. Being caught while in the very act of spawning, they are thin and poor, of little value as an article of food, whether fresh or salted. Another Herring appears on the