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Taking the high-pressure steam boiler--the older shown at fig. 1, fig. 2 being used as a bridge. paper “On the City Terminus Latvusin oi the invention-first, our readers, on referring to our Fig. 4 is a vertical section of fig. 3; fig. 5 is a sec- Charing Cross Railway." engravings, will find it to be a combination of tion through the steam dome in fig. 4; fig. 6 shows

7. A Watt Medal to Edwin Clark, M. Inst. C.E. two systems of boiler construction, the upper por- a section at A B in fig. 4; fig. 7 shows a boiler for his paper "On Engineering Philosophy: the tion being on the tubular, and the lower on the fitted with the generators as shown at fig. 2, fig. 8

Durability of Materials. Cornish principle. Fig. 1 of the engraving is a being a similar view.

8. A Telford Medal to William Jarvis McAlpine, transverse section, fig. 2 a longitudinal section, These circulating generators are welded up in Power of Piles; and on the Pneumatic Process

M. Inst. C.E., for his paper “On the Supporting and fig. 3 a front view of this compound boiler. one piece, and are entirely free from rivets, which for Sinking Iron Columns, as practised in America." The lower boiler may be fitted with either one or permits what little cleaning they may require to 9. A Telford Premium, in books, to Thomas two fireboxes, the upper boiler being fitted with be done very readily. The method of fixing these Login, M. Inst. C.E., for his paper “On the Benefits tubes, and both boilers being connected by two generators in the tubes of Cornish boilers is by of Irrigation in India ; and on the Proper Construcnecks of large diameter, and flanged round their cutting a top and bottom hole about 6in, diameter; tion of Irrigating Cauals." odges, by which they can either be riveted or the ends of the generators are then inserted and 10. A Telford Premium, in books, to Allan Wilson, bolted to the boilers. As each boiler is complete expanded in the same way as are locomotive tubes. M. Inst. C.E., for his paper “On Irrigation in India." in itself, and of small diameter, they will be found These generators can be readily applied to any Airy, Assoc. Inst. C.E., for his paper “On the

11. A Telford Premium, in books, to Wilfrid very convenient for shipment and transit. It will Cornish boiler now in use, without the necessity Experimental Determination of the strains on the be seen that great facilities are obtained in this of taking the tubes out of the boiler, and any one Suspension Ties of a Bowstring Girder." boiler for thoroughly cleaning the incrustation of the generators can be readily taken out and re 12. The Manby Premium, in books, to Andrew from the tubes and the tube plate. From the fixed in case of repair being required, as there are Cassels Howden, Assoc. Inst. C.E., for his paper large diameter of the two connecting necks there no flanges nor rivets to contend with. On the “On Floods in the Nerbudda Valley; with Remarks is ample room for a man to sit or stand on the whole, we think Mr. Kendrick's boilers possess on Monsoon Floods in India generally.” tops of the furnaces in the lower boiler, and thereby features of novelty and great utility, which must

The Council of the Institution invite communicato thoroughly clean both tubes and tube plates. bring them largely into use.

tions on the subjects comprised in the following list, The absence of these facilities for cleaning in the

as well as upon others; such as, first, authentic ordinary tubular boiler causes the tubes to burn

details of the progress of any work in civil engineerout very fast, also the tube plate to crack from

ing, as far as absolutely executed (Smeaton's account hole to hole. These boilers recommend them

of the Eddystone Lighthouse may be taken as an selves for their great strength and simplicity in

INSTITUTION OF CIVIL ENGINEERS. example); second, descriptions of engines and ma

chines of various kinds; or, third, practical essays construction, economy in consumption of fuel, and

PREMIUMS, SESSION 1867-68.

on subjects connected with engineering, as, for inthe small space required for their erection, a boilor

THE Council of the Institution of Civil Engineers stance, metallurgy. For approved original commudiameter. papers read during the session 1867-68.

premiums arising out of special funds devoted for the The engraving benoath the one wo have just i. A Telford Medal, and a Telford Premium, in purpose. described represents Mr. Kendrick's improvements books, to George Higgin, M. Inst. C.E., for his 1. On the present State of Knowledge as to the in the Cornish boiler. Fig. 1 shows one of Mr. paper “ Irrigation in Spain, chiefly in reference to Strength of Materials. Kendrick's circulating generators, which are made Construction of the Henares and the Esla Canals in 2. On Steam Cranes, and on the Application of of a semicircular or half-moon shape, to suit the that country.”

Steam Power in the execution of Public Works. tubes in which they are to be placed: The gene- books, to Christer Peter Sandberg, Assoc. Inst. C.E., Metal and Timber Arches:

2. A Telford Medal, and a Telford Premium, in

3. On the Theory and Details of Construction of rators are fitted to the tubes in positions so as to for his paper “On the Manufacture and Wear of

4. On Land-slips, with tho best means of preventcause the flame to travel in a serpentine or up and Rails."

ing, or arresting them, with examples. down and from side to sido direction, thereby

3. A Telford Medal, and a Telford Premium, in

5. On the Principles to be observed in Laying-out causing the products of combustion to impinge books, to Lieut.-Colonel Peter Pierce Lyons O'Con- lines of Railway through mountainous countries, upon the whole surface of the tube as well as upon nell, R.E., Assoc. Inst. C.E., for his paper “On the with examples of their application in the Alps, the the generators. Fig. 2 shows another form of Relation of the Fresh Water Floods of Rivers to Pyrenees, the Indian Ghats, the Rocky Mountains these circulating generators, also another arrange- the Areas and Physical Features of their Basins."

of America, and similar cases. nient of placing them in the tubes. It will be seen 4. A Telford Medal, and a Telford Premium, in

6. On Railway Ferries, or the Transmission of that these generators present a large amount of books, to William Wilson, M. Inst. C.E., for his Railway Trains entire across Rivers, Estuaries, &c. surface to the heated gases, as well as causing the * Description of the Victoria Bridge, on the line of

7. On the Systems of Fixed Signals at present in

use on Railways. flame to have great effect on the present surfaces. the Victoria Station and Pimlico Railway."

8. Description of a Modern English Locomotive There is also a rapid circulation of water through books, to Charles Douglas Fox, M. Inst. C.E., for Engine, designed with a view to cheapness of conthem, which, consequently, keeps them very clean, his paper " On New Railways at Battersea ; with the struction, durability, and facility of repair. and they will be found greatly to economize the Widening of the Victoria Bridge and Approaches to

9. On the leading points of difference between tho consumption of fuel, and will also strengthen the the Victoria Station." tubes of the present Cornish boilers. Fig. 3 is a 6. A Telford Medal, and a Telford Premium, in sectional plan of a boiler fitted with the generators books, to John Wolfe Barry, M. Inst. C.E., for his * Has previously received a Telford Medal.

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Engines and Carriages in use on Railways in the out of seventeen persons from the Government rate statement, financial and statistical, presented United States and in Great Britain, and the reasons lighter" Doyon," which was wrecked on the Bris- by the secretary. From this document it appeared for any peculiarities in the American practice, with son's Rocks. The rescued man was seen on the that the Association now numbers 104 ordinary and details of the cost of maintenance.

10. On the most suitable Materials for, and the best rocks at the dawn of the day, and the service per- 59 honorary members. The total funds in hand Mode of Formation of, the Surfaces of the Streets of remarkable that he bears the same name—George considerable advancement since last year, and, in

formed in his rescue was a most gallant one. It is amount to £1,391 Os. 8d. These figures indicate large Towns.

11. On the Construction of Catch-water Reservoirs Davis--as the late husband of the donor of fact, the Institution was shown to be in a highly in Mountain Districts, for the Supply of Towns, for lifeboat to the Institution. Rewards amounting to prosperous condition. In the course of the evening, Irrigation, or for manufacturing purposes.

£253 were voted to the crews of lifeboats of the two honorary members, Mr. Archibald Thomson, 12. Accounts of existing Water Works; including Institution for various services during the heavy superintending engineer of the Bombay and Bengal the source of supply, a description of the different storms of the past month. The Blackpool lifeboat Steam Ship Company, and Mr. W. Marchant, of the modes of collecting, filtering, the distribution through- saved twelve men from the schooner " Theodorus," firm of Atchley & Co., engineering publishers, were out the streets of Towns, and the general practical from Liverpool. The lifeboat at Broughty Ferry elected. results.

Mr. Chapman, of Henley's Submarine 13. On Pumping Machinery, for raising water, Louise," of Hamburgh. The Great Yarmouth Benbow's Iron Foundry, were also electod as ordi

rescued nine men from the barque " Betty and Telegraph Works, and Mr. G. Cutler, of Messrs. both for high and low lifts.

14. On the Drainage of Towns, and the ultimate lifeboat brought ashore the crow of the " Francis," nary members. The sitting closed at a late hour. disposal of town refuse.

of Shields. The Silloth lifeboat saved one man 15. On the Employment of Steam Power in Agri- from the smack “Rover," of Annan. The Lytham culture.

lifeboat had brought ashore three men from the TOOTH'S SYSTEM OF BOILING SUGAR. 16. On the Ventilation and Warming of Public schooner " Theodorus," and subsequently assisted Buildings. 117. 09 the Design and Construction of Gas Works, lifeboats of the Society at Stromness, Anstruther, alone forms the evaporating surface, and evaporation

says:-"In an fire bringing the vessel safely into harbour. The Temii Produce Markets Review ** with a view to the Manufacture of Gas of high illu- Padstow, and Porthdinllaen assisted in bringing the would, of course, be more rapid were a greater porminating power; and on the most economical system following distressed vessels and their crews into tion of the liquid exposed. of Distribution of Gas, and the best modes of Illumi- port :-Schooner * Victor," of Grimsby, 5; fishing- feature of Mr. Tooth’s invention consists in pump

The most notable nation in Streets and Buildings. 18. Critical Observations on Estuary Tides.

boat “ Active," of Cellardyke, 4; steamer ing the juice down from the top of the vacuum pan, 19. On the Construction of Tidal, or other Dams, "Augusta,” of Bristol, 13; and the flat " William," at the moment of granulation, through a rose. The in a constant or variable depth of water ; and on of Carnarvon, 2. The lifeboats of the Society at juice is thus distributed in small streams through the use of wrought iron in their construction. Ilfracombe, Kingstown, Rye, Winchelsea, Chap- the air contained in the evaporating vacuum cham

20. On the Arrangement and Construction of Float- man's Pool, Port Logan, Peterhead, Dungeness, ber, and the surface exposed, as compared with the ing Landing Stages, for passenger and other traffic, Tynemouth, Whitehaven, Hasborough, St. An- old system, is said to be as 1,000 to 50. The evawith existing examples.

drow's, Porthcawl, and Girvan also rendered vari- porating chamber differs from the old vacuum pans and other opening Bridges, with existing examples. Altogether, the Institution had contributed to the The juice, before reaching the evaporating chamber,

21. On the different systems of Swing, Lifting, ous services during the storms of the past month. in shape, being, to speak roughly, a long cylinder,

22. On the Measure of Resistance to Bodies saving of 639 lives and 16 vessels. The silver is pumped up through a number of pipes surrounded passing through Water at High Velocities.

23. On the results of the best modern practice in medal of the Institution was voted to Viscount by steam in a cylinder. The following advantages Ocean Steam Navigation, having regard particularly Bury, P.C., and to Charles Pride, a coastguard- are stated by the inventor to be secured by this proto economy of working expenses, by superheating man, and £1, in addition, to the latter, in acknow- cess:-1. The juice is protected from excessive and surface condensing, great expansion, high pressure, ledgment of their gallant services in pntting off long-continued heat. Long exposure to the injurious &c.; and on the life ” and cost of maintenance of in a small boat and saving, after much difficulty, influence of the atmosphere is avoided. 3. Great Merchant Steam Ships.

one of the crew of the fishing-boat “Alarm," rapidity in carrying on the evaporation is secured. 24. On Ships of War, with regard to their Armour, which had capsized on Christchurch Bar on 4. The juice is transferred to the vacuum pan (or Ordnance, Mode of Propulsion and Machinery, 25. On the measures to be adopted for protecting also granted to Edmund Gray, Esq., son of Sir 5. Any extent of heating and evaporating surface is October 6. The silver medal of the Society was evaporating chamber) immediately after defecation

and filtration, avoiding the necessity of open pans. Iron Ships from Corrosion. 26. On Coal Mining in Deep Workings, including John Gray, M.P., and £2 to John Freeny, for

easily obtained. machinery for dispensing with gun powder in swimming out in a very heavy sea, and bringing lessened. 7. Vacuum pans now in use may be mado "getting " coal.

a line on shore and otherwise assisting to save the available for the improved system at a comparatively 27. On the present systems of Smelting Iron Ores, crew of five men of the schooner " Blue Vein,” small cost. 8. The finest sugar is produced without of the conversion of cast iron into the malleable of Portmadoc, which during a strong E.S.E. gale the expense of animal charcoal, and the crystallizastate, and of the manufacture of iron generally, stranded opposite Ballybrack railway station on tion being perfect there is no loss by drainage. 9. comprising the distribution and arrangement of Iron September 25. Various other rewards were also There is no formation of molasses beyond that Works.

granted to the crows of different shoreboats for naturally existing in the juice, as the temperature 28. On Machinery for Rolling heavy Rails, Shafts, saving life from shipwrecks on our coasts. Their never need exceed 140deg. to 160deg. Fahr. and Bars of large sectional area, and for forging Royal Highnesses the Prince and the Princess of The system is also useful in beetroot sugar manu29. On Steel, and its present position as regards K.C.B., most kindly consented to become the granulated sugar passes, is remedied. The idea of

Wales had, through General Sir Wm. Knollys, clogging of the rose, through which the partly production and application.

30. On the Safe Working Strength of Iron and patrons of a grand bazaar that was to be given at exposing a greater surface to evaporation seems to Steel, including the Results of Experiments on the Exeter during Easter next, in aid of the support of us excellent in theory, but it belongs, of course, to Elastic Limit of long bars of Iron, and on the Rate of the lifeboats of the Society on the coasts of Devon practical men to say if it will work. Mr. Tooth has Decay by Rusting, &c., and under prolonged strains, and Cornwall. Admiral the Earl of Carysfort had another patent to compete with Mr. Fryer's bon

31. On Machinery for Washing Lead Ores. sent the Institution a second donation of £100; cretor, for rapid and cheap evaporation. This con

32. On the present state of Submarine Telegraphy, and the workpeople in the employ of Mrs. R. sists in passing the partially granulated juico through and on the Transmission of Electrical Signals through Aaron, of Birmingham, had forwarded an additional a rose, and letting it drop down through a long Submarine Cables.

contribution of five guineas to the Society. The late cyliuder or tower filled with heated air. The paof forming an “ Appendix ” to the minutes of pro- a legacy of £200. Payments amounting to rp

The Council will be glad to receive, for the purpose Mr. C. W. Jones, of Norwich, had left the Institution tentee states that the juice reaches the bottom in the ceedings, the details and results of any experiments wards of £2,100 were ordered to be made on varior observations, on subjects connected with engineering science or practice.

ous lifeboat establishments. Thomas Gray, Esq., The Council will not consider themselves bound the Assistant Marine Secretary of the Board of MONUMENT TO THE LATE ADMIRAL to award any premium, should the communication Trade, had presented to the Society a beautiful

SIR CHARLES NAPIER. not be adequate of merit, but they will award more song, set to music, entitled the “Lifeboat's Crew,” than one premium, should there be several commu- which was to be published, with the music, in the

THE ceremony of unveiling this relief monunications on the same subject deserving this mark next number of the little quarterly journal of the of distinction.

It is to be understood that, in Institution. It was decided to send a new lifeboat Cathedral, near the north entranco, took place on awarding the premiums, no distinction will be made, to Fraserburgh in place of a boat at present on Friday afternoon. Amongst the company present a member, or an associate of the Institution, or from The thanks of the Institution inscribed on vellnm Major-General Napier, C. B., Major-General W. Na

The communications must be forwarded, on or were ordered to be given to Mr. G. C. Begbie, the pier, Admiral Sir Michael Seymour, G.C.B., Colonel before February 1, 1869, to the house of the Institu- public accountant, in acknowledgment of his long Hamley, C.B., Captain W, Napier, Captain W. tion, No. 25, Great George Street, Westminster, S.W., and valuable services in his capacity of auditor of Morris, R.N., Captain Ingledue, Captain Norton where any further information may be obtained from the Society during the past sixteen years. A life- Taylor, &c. The expense of this monument was Mr. Charles Manby, the Honorary Secretary, and boat was ordered to be stationed at Kimmeridge, defrayed by a few friends and companions in arms Mr. James Forrest, the Secretary of the Institution. on the coast of Dorset. Reports were read from of the late admiral. It is in white marble. In the

the inspector and assistant-inspector of lifeboats to centre is the head in bold relief, surrounded by a THE LATE STORMS.

the Institution on their recent visits to various wreath of laurel and oak, and upon two flags are in

lifeboat stations on the coast. The proceedings scribed the names of most of his battles; in the back ESTERDAY. wook, a meeting of the Royal then terminated. We may add that contributions ground is the ship “Wellington," gụn boats, and house, John-street, Adelphi, London, Mr. Thomas boat Society will be thankfully received by all the tion, Charles Napier, M.P.) Admiral, Count NaChapman, F.R.S., V.P., in the chair. Mr. Richard bankers in the United Kingdom, and by Richard pier St. Vincent, born 1786, died 1860.". The work the previous meeting, the silver medal of the In- Lewis, Esq., the Secretary of the Institution, at was designed by George G. Adams, sculptor, who

has now five monuments in the cathedral, two being stitution and £l each were voted to Mr. Matthew its house, John-street, Adelphi, London.

colossal statues to the admiral's cousins, Generals Nicholas, coxswain of the Sennen Cove (Land's

Sir Charles J. and Sir William Napier. End) lifeboat, and to Mr. S. Morrison, officer of LONDON ASSOCIATION OF FOREMEN coastguard at that station, and a reward of £12 to

ENGINEERS. the crew of the lifeboat for going off on the 23rd T the monthly meeting on Saturday, the 7th

THE details furnished of the damages done in in conjunction with the rocket apparatus, which Mr. J. Newton, of the Mint, presided, and the main severe, not to be so great as anticipated. Prompt was fired from the lifeboat by Mr. Morrison, one business consisted in the consideration of an elabo-measures are being taken to repair the public works.

10.

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ADDIS'S IRON PERMANENT WAY. if it is found in practice that the solution permeates For brass, he places a salt generator containing a THE general tendency of railway engineers is cathode, then he would prefer the porous diaphragm dissolving plate of copper, or there might be any

and deposits too freely on the plaster-covered dissolving plate of zine and another containing a very properly to substitute iron for wood, or porous cell containing dilute acid and the number of salt generators employed, each containing ways. An iron permanent way properly worked cathode, which in this case had better be a pla- a dissolving plate of zinc or copper, according to

tinized surface, to facilitate the escape of the the quantity of brass required, whether containing out will be found to prove the most efficient hydrogen gas. Mr. Howard has had a cell working a small or large percentage of zinc. In the same and durable of any system. The most recent ex- several weeks in which he used at first the plaster- way, an alloy of other metals containing two or ample we have in this direction has just reached covered cathode, and afterwards a clean copper more metallic elements, as the salt generators are us from India, having been forwarded to us by the cathode in a porous cell containing dilute sulphuric in connection with and keep up the strength of the patentee and inventor, Mr. W. J. Addis, executive acid. The cathode, whether a plaster-coated plate compound electrolyte in the large depositing vat. engineer to the Local Fund Works, Bombay. This of metal or a clean or platinized metallic plate (or In the single cell process, Mr. Howard employs a system is shown in the annexed engraving, in which graphite), is used simply as a conductor. fig. 1 is a cross section of a portion of the perma

salt generator containing the dissolving plate of nent way, A is an ordinary single-headed rail, apparatus. In figs. 1, 2, and 3, A is a copper

Our engravings are illustrative of Mr. Howard's the metal required. which is supported on sleepers B formed of plates cylinder in a porous cell containing sulphate of Howard's invention:-çe are two copper cylinders,

Fig. 4 is another mode of carrying out Mr. of iron or steel rolled in the shape to the desired form, so that when brought together and riveted

within which are placed porous cells a 1 a 2 filled by bolts and nuts C, or by other suitable means,

with dilute sulphuric acid. In al is immersed they assume the sectional form of a triangle, the

FIC.1

a cylinder of copper b, cr a rod of platinized

silver or graphite. In a? is immersed a cylinder sides of which are hollow or concave, as shown.

of amalgamated zinc. The two copper cylinders The rail is embraced by the jaws formed at the

are connected by a wire. There is a small uppor angles of the sleepers and are thus firmly

tube passing from the base of the top copper secured by the bolts and nuts passing through the

cylinder through cork or other material which jaws, and through holes formed in the web of the

surrounds the top of porous cell a? and prerail. The sleepers are formed in lengths of 3ft. fixed at distances of 6ft. from centro to centre,

vents the copper solution from flowing over. As

the interior of the topmost of the copper cells thereby allowing three sleepers on an 18ft, rail,

is dissolved to keep up the strength of the copper and affording facility for fishing the rails in the

solution, and becomes thinner, so the bottom one centre of a sleeper. They are kept together by tie-rods or bars E passing through the holes formed

receives a corresponding deposit, and becomes

thicker; and if this is not allowed to go too far, in the plates of the sleepers, and secured to the

but by exchanging the cells when one has been sleepers by gibs and keys F.

sufficiently coated to relieve the one that is electriIt will thus be seen that this system forms a

cally wasting away, they may be kept in working cheap and durable road. With regard to the first

order for any length of time, and keep up the point-economy-we give an approximate state

strength of the copper solution, thus doing away ment of the weights and costs per mile of various

with the use of crystals of sulphate of copper. permanent way as summarized by Mr. Addis, the estimates being for materials only :

FIG. 4
No. of
FIG. 2.

VARLEY'S PATENT BOILER FEEDER.
System.
tons per mile.
Cost per mile.

THE accompanying engraving represents a comAddis

182
1,389

the invention of Mr. Varley. It is manufactured Livesey and Edwards 226 1,395

by Mr. H. L. Norton, of Belle Sauvage Yard, Greaves's

220
1,399

London, whose name has become identified with the Griffin's.

239
1,442

Abyssinian tube well. In our engraving, A is a De Bergue

238
1,520

stationary copper vessel containing two valves; the Cross wood sleeper

one marked E is the inlet water valve; the other, road

275
1,852

F, is the steam valve; both work by the shaft H Longitudinal wood

passing through the vessel A. The ball, B, works sleeper road

290
2,139
F

or rocks upon the joint L, and communicates with

the vessel A through the pipes D and C, and is The advantages of Addiz's permanent way, in

counterbalanced by the weight I; the object of this addition to its cheapness and durability, consists

ball is the working of the valves and index. There in its being a longitudinal sleeper road ; it com

is also a valve in the casting G, through which the bines the office of sleeper and fish-plate, thus

water passes to the boiler. The feeder works in the enables chairs, spikes, and trenails to be dispensed

following manner:-Suppose the apparatus to be with. The parts being fewer, in cases of shipment

in the position shown by the dotted lines, fig. 1, the to foreign countries, is a matter of great impor

steam valve F and the outlet valve in the casting tance in saving of freight, as well as easy, from

Gare shut, the inlet valve E is open, through which their facility of close packing of carriage over long

the water will pass into the vessels A and B, until land distances. It has also great advantage in

FIG.3

both are full up to the flange M; the increased simplicity of laying and cheapness in maintenance.

weight of the ball B, by the fact of its being full of The staff of men needed for this purpose may be

water, will cause it to fall to its lowest position, limited, and no special or previous knowledge is

and in so doing shuts the water valve E and opens required.

the steam valve F. The steam is then conducted

by means of an internal pipe O, fig. 2, to the top of HOWARD'S GALVANIC BATTERY.

the water in each vessel, which establishes an equi

librium of pressure between the feeder and the THE THE following is a description of some im

H

boiler ; the water passes out of the feeder into the provements in the construction of galvanic

boiler, and the ball B is held down by the cam K batteries which have been made by Mr. James

until it is empty, when the weight I will raise it Howard, of 95, Cross-lane, Salford. In forwarding

to the position of the dotted lines. In this moveus sketches and particulars, Mr. Howard mentions

ment the steam and outlet valves are shut, and the that he has decided not to patent his invention, but

feed-water valve is opened; the feeder will receive to give it to the public, through the medium of our

its charge of water, and the ball will again fall; columns. Mr. Howard observes that Daniell's

steam being admitted, the result will be as before, battery is furnished with crystals of sulphate of copper ; B, a zinc cylinder in a vessel containing and so on, until the water in the boiler has reached copper to keep up the strength of the copper solu- acidulated water ; o, a funnel-shaped vessel (to the desired level, when the feeder will continue to tion. His improvement does away with the supply keep the plates separate), containing sulphate of supply the water as fast as it is evaporated. of erystals of sulphate of copper, the strength of the copper commmunicating with the sulphate of The water level in the boiler is maintained in copper solution being kept up by a plate of metallic copper in the porous cell by means of a small tube ; the following manner: The valve in the casting copper which is electrically dissolved. He also D, dissolving copper plate, which is connected by a G opens downwards, and is kept to its seat by the uses the same or similar apparatus in the deposi-wire to the copper cylinder A; E, a copper plate weight N. The object of this weight is to balance tion of brass and other alloys of two or more metals, covered with plaster of Paris, F, wire from the the column of water in the feed pipe between the and also in the single cell process of electro deposi- zinc cylinder or positive pole; G, wire from the feeder and the water level in the boiler, so that tion, in which it does away with the supply of plaster-covered plate or negative pole ; H, cork until the water in the boiler sinks low enough to oxide of the metal which is being deposited, is a fitting into porous cell. Instead of the plaster-increase the weight of the column of water in the metallic plate is used which is electrically dissolved covered platé E, the vessel C might be made pipo, this valve remains closed; but when the and keeps up the strength of the solution instead of copper coated inside with plaster of Paris, water sinks below the desired lovel, it increases the of adding to the electrolyte the oxide of the metal, and having a wire soldered to it, to form the nega- length or distance between the water level in the as is usually done when working the single cell tive pole, as in fig. 2. Or the salt generator might boiler and the feeder; and the column of water process of electro deposition. All this is done by be divided by porous partitions H, in fig. 3, whon being increased in weight, it acts upon the valve using an apparatus which Mr. Howard calls a salt E would be clean plates or platinized, and D and opens it, so that the feeder may resume its generator, which is simply a miniature depositing would be the dissolving plate in the middle com- working until the level is attained. This appavat in which the dissolving plate is placed, and partment in sulphate of copper, the E E in dilute ratus has been in use for some time at the works which is separated from the cathode by a porous acid.

of Messrs. Hayward, Tyler, and Co., of Whitecrossdiaphragm. Or the cathode might be covered with Mr. Howard uses these salt generators in the street, and at the Hodge-lane Dye Works, Manplaster of Paris to prevent electro deposition. But deposition of brass and other alloys as follows:-chester, and is very favourably spoken of.

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cylinders, 26in. ; length of stroke, 3it.; centro to Europe and America is an American invention, HORIZONTAL NON-CONDENSING ENGINES. centre of cylinders, 3ft. 8.1in.; centre of cylinders known there as the globe valve. It has been in

to centre of crank'shaft, í3ft. 8 in. ; total length general use for about a quarter of a century withTE illustrate above a pair of engines constructed of framos, 18ft. 9ļin. ; total width of frame, out a successful competitor, and, strange to say, chester. A considerable number, wo understand, 12in. broad.

tured by all who felt disposed to make it, from the of these engines have already been supplied

largest machinist down to the most primitive lathe among others, to Messrs. Bessemer and Co., John

and bungling hand tool of a single indifferent meBrown and Co., and to several American and

THE PEET VALVE

chanic. This has resulted in a sharp and unFrench firms—and are doing good work. The THERE is, perhaps, no single line of engineers' healthy competition, which has produced poor crank shaft, piston, connecting, and other rods are made of Bessemer steel. The following are cations of durability and economy than taps. The ings constitute by far the greater part of the first some of the principal dimensions :-Diameter of ordinary wheel valve now in general use both in cost of the tap, there has been great inducement

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