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by trustworthy observers to creep down the stems of it emerges from the egg to the time when it leaves the aquatic plants several inches below the surface, emerging water to be transformed into the aerial perfect insect. after the act of oviposition has been effected ; and in the The number of moults is uncertain, but they are without case of Lestes sponsa, Von Siebold saw the male descend doubt numerous. At probably about the antepenul. with the female. The same exact observer noticed also in timate of these operations, the rudimentary wings begin this species that the female makes slight incisions in the to appear as thoracic buddings, and in the full-grown stems or leaves of water plants with the double serrated nymph these wings overlap about one-half of the dorsal apparatus (vulva) forming a prolongation of the ninth seg- surface of the abdomen. In structure there is a certain ment beneath, depositing an egg in each excision. He has amount of resemblance to the perfect insect, but the body seen two pairs thus occupied beneath the surface on one is always much stouter and shorter, in some cases most disAnd the same stem.

proportionately so, and the eyes are always separated; even in those genera (e.g., Æschna) in which the eyes of the imago are absolutely contiguous, the most that can be seen in the larva is a prolongation towards each other, and there are no ocelli. The legs are shorter and more fitted for crawling about water plants and on the bottom. In the mouth parts the mandibles and maxillæ are similar in form to those of the adult, but there is an extraordinary and unique modification of the lower lip. This is attached to an elongate and slender mentum articulated to the

[graphic]

Fig. 4.—The perfect insect (the wings having acquired their full dimensions) resting to dry itself, preparatory to the wings being horizon

tally extended. posterior portion of the lower surface of the head, slightly widened at its extremity, to which is again articulated the labium proper, which is very large, flattened, and gradually dilated to its extremity ; but its form differs according to group as in the perfect insect. Thus in the Agrionidæ it is deeply cleft, and with comparatively slender sidepieces (or palpi), and strongly developed articulated spines ; in the Eschnidæ it is at the most notched, with narrow side-pieces and very strong spines ; in the Libellulidoe it is entire, often triangular at its apex, and with enormously developed palpi without spines, but having the opposing inner edges furnished with interlocking serrations. The whole of this apparatus is commonly termed

the mask. In a state of repose it is applied closely Fra. S.-—The whole body extricated.

against the face, the elongated mentum directed backward

and lying between the anterior pair of legs; but when an is requisite to enable the creature to attain its full growth, approaching victim is seen the whole apparatus is suddenly and three years have been stated to be necessary for this in projected, and the prey caught by the raptorial palpi; in the large and powerful Anax formosus. Like all insects some large species it is capable of being projected fully half with incomplete metamorphoses, there is no quiescent pupal an inch in front of the head. The prey, once caught and condition, no sharp line of demarcation between the larval held by this apparatas, is devoured in the usual manner. and 30-called “ nymph” or penultimate stage. The

creature There are two

pairs of thoracic spiracles, but respiration is poes on eating and increasing in size from the moment mostly affected by a peculiar apparatus at the tail end, and

there are two different methods. In the Agrionide there twig or other resting place like a Ag-catcher among birde, are three elongate Aattened plates, or false gills, full of darting off after prey and making long excursions, but tracheal ramifications, which extract the air from the water, returning to the chosen spot. Mr Wallace, in his Malay and convey it to the internal tracheze (in Calopteryx these Archipelago, states that the inhabitants of Lombock usa plates are excessively long, nearly equalling the abdomen), the large species for food, and catch them by means of the plates also serving as means of locomotion. But in the limed twigs. other groups these external false gills are absent, and in their They are distributed over the whole world excepting the place are five valves, which by their sudden opening and polar regions, but are especially insects of the tropics. At closing force in the water to the rectum, the walls of which the present day about 1700 species are known, dispersed are furnished with branchial lamellæ. The alternate opening unequally among the several sub-families as follows: and closing of these valves enables the creature to make Agrionina, 490 species ; Calopterygina, 170; Gomphina, quick jerks or rushes (incorrectly termed "leaps '') through 210; Eschnina, 150 ; Corduliina, 100 ; Libelluline, the water, and, in conjunction with its mouth parts, to 580. In Europe proper only 100 species have been make sudden attacks upon prey from a considerable dis- observed, and about 46 of these occur in the British islands tance. The lateral angles of the terminal abdominal New Zealand is excessively poor, and can only number 8 segments are sometimes produced into long curved spines. species, whereas they are very numerous in Australia. In colour these larvæ are generally muddy, and they some species are often seen at sea, far from land, in calm frequently have a coating of muddy particles, and hence weather, in troops which are no doubt migratory; our are less likely to be observed by their victims. If among common Libellula quadrimaculata, which inhabits the cold insects the perfect dragon-fly may be termed the tyrant of and temperate regions of the northern hemisphere, has been the air, so may its larva be styled that of the water. frequently seen in immense migratory swarms. One species Aquatic insects and larvæ form the principal food, but (Pantala flavescens) has about the widest range of any there can be no doubt that worms, the fry of fish, and insect, occurring in the Old World from Kamtchatka to even younger larvæ of their own species, form part of the Australia, and in the New from the Southern States to bill of fare. The "nymph” when arrived at its full growth Chili, also all over Africa and the Pacific islands, but is sallies forth froin the water, and often crawls a considerable not found in Europe. The largest species occur in the distance (frequently many feet up the trunks of trees) | Eschnina and Agrionina ; & member of the former subbefore it fixes itself for the final change, which is effected family from Borneo expands to nearly 6] inches, and with by the thorax splitting longitudinally down the back, a moderately strong body and powerful form ; in the latter through which fissure the perfect insect gradually drags the Central American and Brazilian Megaloprepus cærulatus itself. The figures on last page indicate this process as and species of Mecistogaster are very large, the former observed in schna cyanea.

expanding to nearly 7 inches, and the latter to nearly as For a considerable time after its emergence a dragon-fly much, but the abdomen is not thicker than an ordinary is without any of its characteristic colours, and is flaccid grass-stem and of extreme length (fully 5 inches in and weak, the wings (even in those groups in which they Mecistogaster). Among living entomologists the dragonpro afterwards horizontally extended) being held vertically flies have received, and are receiving, great attention, in a line with the abdomen. · By degrees the parts hardea, especially from the Baron de Selys-Longchamps of Liége, and the insect essays its first flight, but even then the wings and from Dr H. A. Hagen, formerly of Königsberg, now of have little power and are semi-opaque in appearance, as if Cambridge, Massachusetts. dipped.in mucilage. In most species of Calopterygina, and It is impossible to prepare dragon-flies for the cabinet so in some others, the prevailing colour of the body. is a as to retain all the brilliant colours the bodies have in life. brilliant bronzy green, blue, or black, but the colours in the They are excessively brittle when dry, and in the smaller other groups very much, and often differ in the sexes. species it is advisable to run a bristle into the under side Thus in Libellula depressa the abdomen of the fully adult of the thoraz, pushing it down till it reach the extremity male is covered with a bluish bloom, whereas that of the of the abdomen, when the other end can be cut off close to female is yellow ;- but several days elapse before this the thorax. But the larger species should be disembowelled pulverulent appearance is attained, and a comparatively through a slit along the under surface of the abdomen, and young male is yellow like the female. The wings are then filled (but not too tightly) with clean' white cotton typically hyaline and colourless, but in many species wool. The colours stand a much better chance of pot (especially Calopterygina and Libellulina) they may be greatly altering if the insects be not killed until some hours wholly or in part opaque and often black, due apparently to after they are captured, so as to allow the contents of the gradual oxydization of a pigment between the two intestinal canal to be naturally passed away, for it is the membranes of which the wings are composed; the brilliant decomposition of the food that assists materially to alter or iridescence, or metallic lustre, so frequently found is no obliterate the colour and markings. doubt due to interference the effect of minute irregularities Among fossil insects dragon-flies hold a conspicuous of the surface—and not produced by a pigment. A beauti- position. Not only do they belong to what appears to have ful little genus (Chalcopteryx) of Calopterygina from the been a very ancient type, but in addition, the large wings Amazon is a gem in the world of insects, the posterior and strong dense reticulation are extremely favourable for wings being of the most brilliant fiery metallic colour, preservation in a fossil condition, and in many cases all the whereas the anterior remain hyaline.

intricate details can be as readily followed as in a recent These insects are pre-eminently lovers of the hottest example. In this country they have been found more sunshine (a few are somewhat crepuscular), and the most especially in the Parbeck beds of Swanage, and the vales of powerful and daring on the wing in fine weather become Wardour and Aylesbury, in the Stonesfield Slate series, and inert and comparatively lifeless when at rest in dull in the Lias and Rhætic series of the west of England. But weather, allowing themselves to be captured by the fingers the richest strata appear to be those of the Upper Mioveno without making any effort to escape. Many of the larger at Eningen, in the Rhine valley; the Middle Miocene at species (schna, &c.) have a habit of affecting a particular Radaboj, in Croatia ; the Eocene of Aix, in Provence; and

more especially the celebrated Secondary rocks furnishing : A similar contrivance was suggested and (u the writer mistakes the lithographic stone of Solenhofen, in Bavaria. This not) actually tried as a means of propelling storm-ships.

látter deposit would appear to have been of marine origin,

and it is significant that, although the remains of gigantic and from cracks in the trank of Dracena Draco, a tree of dragon-flies discovered in it are very numerous and perfect, the natural order Liliacece. The hardened juice of a no traces of their sub-aquatic conditions have been found, euphorbiaceous tree, Croton Draco, a resin resembling kino, although these as a rule are numerous in most of the other is the sangre del drago or dragon's blood of the Mexicans, strate, hence the insects may be regarded as having been used by them as a vulnerary and astringent. drowned in the sea and washed on shore. Many of these Rumphins, Herbarium Amboinense, p. v. 114-119, tab. lviii., Solenhofen species differ considerably in form from those now 1747 ; Flückiger and Hanbury, Pharmacographia, 1874. existing, so that Dr Hagen, who has especially studied them, DRAGUIGNAN, the chief town of the department of says that for nearly all it is necessary to make new genera. Var, in France, and of an arrondissement of the same name, A notice of fossil forms should not be concluded without the on the River Pis, a branch of the Nartuby, lies at the foot remark that indications of at least two species have been of the wooded height of Malmont, in 43° 32' 18" N. lat. found in amber, a number disproportionately small if com- and 6° 27' 56" E. long. The préfecture, palace of justice, pared with other insects entombed therein; but it must be theatre, hospital, and prison are the most important remembered that a dragon-fly is, as a rule, an insect of great public buildings. The town possesses a communal college, power, and in all probability those then existing were able to & training school for teachers, a botanical garden, a fine extricate themselves if accidentally entangled in the resin. promenade, a library of about 18,000 volumes, collections

See De Selys-Longchamps, Monographie des Libellulidtos of coins, pictures, and natural history objects, and an & Europe, Brussels, 1820 ; Synopses des Agrionines, Caloptérygines, archæological society. The inhabitants, who in 1872 Gomphines, & Cordulines, with Supplements, Brussels, from 1858 numbered 8177, are engaged in agriculture and the manud'Europe, Brussels, 1858, Monographie des Calopterygines et des facture of wine, coarse cloth, earthenware, silk, soap, Gomphines, Brussels, 1854 and 1868; Charpentier, Libelluline candles, oil, brandy, copper wares, and leather. europea, Leipsic, 1840.

(R. M'L.) DRAINAGE. See AGRICULTURE, ARCHITECTURE, DRAGON'S BLOOD, & name applied to the resins BUILDING, and SEWAGE. obtained from several species of plants. Calamus Draco DRAKE, SIE FRANCIS (c. 1545–1595), a celebrated (Willd.), one of the Rotang or Rattan Palms, which pro English admiral, was born near Tavistock, Devonshire, doces much of the dragon's blood of commerce, is about 1545 according to most authorities, but Barrow, in his 8 native of Further India and the Eastern Archipelago. life, says the date may have been as early as 1539. His When young it grows erect, but with age it becomes climb father, a yeoman and a zealous Protestant, was obliged to ing. The leaves are pointed, about a foot long, of a take refuge in Kent during the persecutions in the reign of finger's breadth, and, like the stems, armed with spines. Queen Mary. He obtained a naval chaplaincy from Queen The flower has a three-cleft corolla, and the ovary is egg. Elizabeth, and is said to have been afterwards vicar of shaped. The fruit is round, pointed, scaly, and the size of Upnor Church, on the Medway. This, however, must le a large cherry, and when ripe is coated with the resinous a mistake, as there is no evidence of any church ever havexudation known as dragon's blood. The finest dragon's ing existed at Upnor. Young Drake was educated at the blood, called jernang or djernang in the East Indies, is exponse and under the care of Sir John Hawkins, who was obtained by beating or shaking the gathered fruits, sifting his kinsman; and, after passing an apprenticeship on a out impurities, and melting by exposure to the heat of the coasting vessel, at the age of eighteen he had risen to be son or by placing in boiling water; the resin thus purified purser of a ship trading to Biscay. At twenty he made a ia then usually moulded into sticks or quills (the sanguis voyage to Guinea ; and at twenty-two he was made draconis in baculis of pharmacy), and wrapped in reeds or captain of the “Judith.” In that capacity he was in the palm-leaves, and is then ready for market. An impurer harbour of San Juan de Ulloa, in the Gulf of Mexico, and inferior kind, ‘sold in lumps of considerable size where he behaved most gallantly in the actions under Sir (sanguis draconis in massis), is extracted from the fruits by John Hawkins, and returned with him to England, having boiling. Dragon's blood is dark red-brown, nearly opaque, acquired great reputation, though with the loss of all the and brittle, contains small shell-like flakes, and gives when money which he had embarked in the expedition. In ground a fine red powder ; it is soluble in alcohol, ether, 1570 he obtained a regular privateering commission from and fixed and volatile oils, and in the pure condition has, Queen Elizabeth, the powers of which he immediately &ccording to F. W. Johnston (Phil. Trans., 1839, p. 134), exercised in a cruise in the Spanish Main. Having next the composition CyH2O, If heated it gives off fumes of projected an attack against the Spaniards in the West benzoic acid. In Europe it was once valued as a medicine Indies to indemnify himself for his former losses, he set sail 02 account of its astringent properties, and is now used for in 1572, with two small ships named the “Pasha" and colouring plasters, dentrifice, and varnishes ; in China, the “Swan.” He was afterwards joined by another vessel; where it is mostly consumed, it is employed to give a red and with this small squadron he took and plundered the facing to writing paper. The drop dragon's blood of com- Spanish town of Nombre de Dios. With his men he penemerce, called cinnabár by Fliny (N. H.xxxii. 39), and sangre trated across the isthmus of Panama, and committed great de dragon by Barbosa, was formerly and is still one of the havoc among the Spanish shipping. From the top of a tree products of Socotra, the Dioscoridis insula of ancient which he climbed while on the isthmus he obtained his first geographers; it was known to the Arabs by the term kátir, view of the Pacific, and resolved “ to sail an English ship from which the nate of the island may have been derived in these seas." In these expeditions he was much assisted (see A. Sprenge, Alte Geographie Arabiens, 1875). It is the by a tribe of Indians, who were then engaged in a desultory spontaneous exudation of a leguminous tree, Pterocarpus warfare with the Spaniards. Having embarked his men Draco, which grows at elevations between 800 and 2000 and filled his ships with plunder, he bore away for England, feet above sea-level (see Wellsted, Journ. R. Geog. Soc., and arrived at Plymouth on the 9th August 1573. 1835, p. 198). Jacquin states (Select. Stirpium Amer. His success and honourable demeanour in this expedition Hist., p. 283, 1763) that the tree grown in the woods of gained him high reputation; and the use which he made of Tierra Bomba, off Cartagena, id Colombia, and that his riches served to raise him still higher in popular esteem. dragon's blood, obtained from it by incision, was at one Having fitted out three frigates at his own expense, he time imported into Spain for medicinal purposes. The sailed with them to Ireland, and rendered effective service dragon's blood of the Canary Islands is a tonic and as & volunteer, under Walter earl of Essex, the father of astringent resin procured from the surface of the leaves I the famous but unfortunate earl. After the death of his

patron he returned to England, where Sir Christopher having received intelligence of a great fleet being assembial Hatton introduced him to Queen Elizabeth, and procured in the bay of Cadiz, and destined to form part of tho him a favourable reception at court. In this way he Armada, he with great courage entered the port on the 19th acquired the means of undertaking that grand expedition April

, and there burnt upwards of 10,000 tons of shipping,which has immortalized his name. The first proposal be a feat which he afterwards jocosely called “singeing the made was to undertake a voyage into the South Seas king of Spain's beard.” In 1588, when the Spanish Arnında through the Straits of Magellan, which no Englishman had was approaching England, Sir Francis Drake was appointed hitherto ever attempted. This project having been well vice-admiral under Lord Howard, and made prize of a very received at court, the queen furnished him with means ; large galleon, commanded by Don Pedro de Valdez, who and his own fame quickly drew together a sufficient force. was reputed the projector of the invasion, and who struck The fleet with which he sailed on this enterprise consisted at once on learning his adversary's name. of only five small vessels, and their united crews mustered It deserves to be noticed that Drake's name is mentioned only 166 men. Having sailed on the 13th December in the singular diplomatic communication from the king of 1577, he on the 25th made the coast of Barbary, and on Spain which preceded the Armada :the 29th Cape Verd. He reached the coast of Brazil on Te veto ne pergas bello defendere Belgas; the 5th of April, and entered the Rio de la Plata, where he

Quæ Dracus eripuit nunc restituantur

oportet ; parted company with two of his ships ; but having met

Quas pater evertit jubco te condere cellas:

Religio Papæ fac restituatur ad unguem. them again, and taken out their provisions, he turned them adrift. On the 29th May he entered the port of St Julian's, To these lines the queen made this extempore response :where he continued two months for the sake of laying in a

Ad Græcas, bone rex, fiant mandata kalendas. stock of provisions. On the 20th August be entered the In 1589 Drake commanded the fleet sent to restore Straits of Magellan, and on the 25th September passed Dom Antonio, king of Portugal, the land forces being them, having then only his own ship. On the 25th Nov. under the orders of Sir John Norris ; but they had hardly ember he arrived at Macao, which he had appointed as the put to sea when the commanders differed, and thus the place of rendezvous in the event of his ships being separ- attempt proved abortive. But as the war with Spain ated ; but Captain Winter, his vice-admiral, lad repassed continued, a more formidable expedition was fitted out, the straits and returned to England. He thence continued under Sir John Hawkins and Sir Francis Drake, against kis- voyage along the coast of Chili and Peru, taking all their settlements in the West Indies, than had hitherto opportunities of seizing Spanish ships, and attacking them been undertaken during the whole course of it. Here, on shore, till his men were satiated with plunder; and then however, the commanders again disagreed about the plan; coasted along thë shores of America, as far as 48° N. lat., and the result in like manner disappointed public expectain an unsuccessful endeavour to discover a passage into the tion. These disasters were keenly felt by Drake, and were Atlantic. Having landed, however, he named the country the principal cause of his death, which took place on board New Albion, and took possession of it in the name of his own ship, near the town of Nombre de Dios, in the Queen Elizabeth. Having careened his ship, he sailed West Indies, January 28, 1595. thence on the 29th September 1579 for the Moluccas. See Lives of Drake by Samuel Clarke (1671) and John Barrow, On the 4th November he got sight of those islands, junr. (1848). and, arriving at Ternate, was extremely well received DRAKENBORCH, ARNOLD (1684–1748), a celebrated by the king. On the 10th December he made the Celebes, scholar and editor, was born at Utrecht on the 1st January where his ship unfortunately struck upon a rock, but was 1684. Having studied belles-lettres under Grævius and taken off without much damage. On the 16th March he | Burmann, and law under Cornelius Van Eck, he succeeded arrived at Java, whence he intended to have directed his Professor Burmann in 1716, and continued to hold his procourse to Malacca ; but he found himself obliged to alter fessorship till his death in 1748, in the sixty-fourth year his purpose, and to think of returning home. On the 25th of his age. His earliest work was a dissertation entitled March 1580 he again set sail ; and on the 15th June he Disputatio philologico-historico de Præfectis urbis, in 4to doubled the Cape of Good Hope, having then on board only (1704), and its merit caused it to be reprinted at Frankfort, fifty-seven men and three casks of water. He passed the in 1752, by Professor Uhl, accompanied with a life of its line on the 12th July, and on the 16th reached the coast of learned author. His next work, entitled Disputatio de Guinea, where he watered. “On the 11th September he made officio præfectorum prætorio, was published in 1707; and the Island of Terceira, and on the 30 November he entered ten years afterwards he issued his edition of Silius Italicus the harbour of Plymouth. This voyage round the world, (1717), undertaken at the suggestion of Burmann. In the first accomplished by an Englishman, was thus performed order to render this edition as perfect as possible, nothing in two years and about ten months. The queen hesitated was omitted ; and many historical subjects were engraved for some time whether to recognize his achievements or not, for the purpose of elucidating the text, to which his own on the ground that such recognition might lead to complica- copious and learned annotations greatly contributed. But tions with Spain, but she finally decided in his favour. his splendid edition of Livy (Lugd. Batav. 1738 and 1746. Accordingly, soon after his arrival she paid a visit to Dept. 7 vols.), with a life of that historian, is that on which his ford, Hent on board his ship, and there, after partaking of fame as a scholar chiefly rests. The preface to this work a banquet, conferred upon him the honour of knighthood, is replete with erudition, and gives a particular account of at the same time deciaring her entire approbation of all all the literary men who have at different periods comthat he had done. She likewise gave directions for the mented on the works of Livy. His edition is based on preservation of his ship, the “Golden Hind," that it might that of Gronovius; but he made many important altersremain a monument of his own and his country's glory. tions on the authority of manuscripts which it is probable After the lapse of a century it decayed and had to be broken Gronovius either had never seen, or had not taken the up. Of the sound timber a chair was made, which was pains to consult. The edition is peculiarly rich in various presented by Charles II. to the university of Oxford. In readings, but the text is, of course, inferior to that which 1585, open hostilities having commenced with Spain, Drake has been furnished by the skill of later editors. Upon the sailed with a fleet to the West Indies, and took the cities whole, this edition of Livy was, at the time of its publiof St Jago, St Domingo, Cartagena, and St Augustine. cation, one of the most elaborate, interesting, and instruc In 1587 he went to Lisbon with a fleet of thirty sail; and tive that had ever been given to the world.

391

DRAMA

applied to compositions which imitate action by re- tion; but though the term literary drama is sometimes presenting the personages introduced in them as real and as used of works kept apart from the stage, it is in truth a employed in the action itself. The varieties of the drama misnomer, since, properly speaking, no drama is such till differ more or less widely, both as to the objects imitated it is acted. and as to the means used in the imitation. But they all The whole body of the laws and rules of the drama, agree as to the method or manner which is essential to the could it be written down with completeness, would dramatic art, viz, imitation in the way of action.

indicate, together with the ends proper to the art, the The desire to give expression to feelings and conceptions means by which it is able to accomplish them. But neither is inseparable from human nature. Man expresses his the great authorities of dramatic theory-an Aristotle or thoughts and emotions by gesture and by speech, or by a a Lessing-nor the resolute apologists of more or less combination of both; and these expressions he soon learns transitory fashions—a Corneille or a Dryden-have exin the society of other men—and more especially on joyous hausted the exposition of the means which the drama or solemn occasions—to vary or regulate in dance and song. has proved or may prove capable of employing. The Another way of expression, often combined with the other, multitude of technical terms and formula which has is imitation. To imitate, says Aristotle, is instinctive in gathered round the practice of the art has at no time man from his infancy; and from imitation all men seriously interfered with the operation of creative power, naturally receive pleasure. Gesture and voice are means whose inventive activity the existence of accepted systems of imitation common to all human beings; and the aid of has frequently—in the Greek drama, for instance, and in some sort of dress and decoration is generally within the the Spanish-served to stimulate. On the other hand, it reach of children, and of the childhood of nations. The is self-evident that no dramaturgic theory has ever given assumption of character, whether real or fictitious, is there rise to a single dramatic work of enduring value, unless the fore the earliest step towards the drama. But it is only a creative force was there to animate the form. preliminary step ; nor is the drama itself reached till the The task of this creative force begins with the beginnings imitation extends to action.

of the dramatist's labours. For it is in the dramatic idea Action, which man is not wont to attribute (except that the germ of the action of a play lies--not in the figuratively) to any but members of his own species and to subject, which is merely its dead material

The story the superior Being or beings in whose existence and power of the Scottish thane as it stood written in the chronicle, he believes, implies an operation of the will and an execu- is the subject, not the action, of Macbeth. To convert tion of its resolution, whether or not amounting to a fulfil a subject--whatever its kind or source-into the action ment of its purpose. It implies a procedure from cause to or fable of a play is the primary task, which in its result Action must therefore present itself to the human progressive development becomes the entire task, of the mind as having its source in a human or superhuman will. aramatist; and though the conception may expand or Every imitation of action by action is in germ a drama modify itself with the execution, yet upon the former the But to this point not all nations have advanced.

latter depends. The range of subjects open to a dramatist After this step has been taken, it only remains for the may be wide as the world itself, or it may be limited by drama to assume a form regulated by literature, of which usage, by imperious fashion, by the tastes and tendencies art it thus becomes a branch. We may then speak of a of a nation or an age, by the author's own range of dramatic literature ; but this only a limited number of sympathies, by a thousand restrictions of an historical, moral, nations has come to possess. A nation may, however, or æsthetical origin ; it may be virtually confined (as with have a drama without a dramatic literature ; it may even the earlier Greek tragedians) to a body of legend, or (as continue in possession of the former after having ceased to with the English comedians of the Restoration) to the cultivate the latter. On the other hand, both before and social experiences of a particular epoch. But in all cases after the drama of a nation has assumed a literary form, it the transformation of the subject into the action is equally may allow one or more of its adventitious elements-music, indispensable ;'and an imperfect transformation is (as in the dancing, decoration-predominantly to assert themselves, old Chronicle Historius) the work of a rude, or (as in ninetyand thus eventually to bring about the formation of new, or nine out of a hundred modern plays " founded upon fact”) the revival of disused, dramatic species. But as a branch that of a careless method of dramatic production. of literature the drama necessarily includes speech among What, then, are the laws which determine the nature of its means of imitation ; and its beginnings as such are all actions properly such, however they may vary either in accordingly, in the history of all literatures known to us, subjects or in form ? In the first place, a dramatic action preceded by the beginnings at least of other forms of poetic must possess unity and this requirement at once distincomposition, the lyric and the epic, or by those of one of guishes it from the subject which has suggested its idean these forms at all events. It is in the combination of both The events of real life, the facts of history, the incidents that the drama in its literary form takes its origin in the of narrative fiction, are like the waves of a ceaseless flood; case of all national civilizations in which it has found that which binds a group or body of them into a single a place and with which we are more than superficially action is the bond of the dramatic idea, and this it is which acquainted.

the dramatist has to supply. Within the limits of a The art of acting is the indispensable adjunct of the dramatic action all its parts claim to be connected together dramatic art, while the aid of all other arts is merely an as contributions to a single stream ; and upon the degree accident. But though really inseparable from one another, in which they are true to this purpose their primary the courses of the dramatic and the histrionic arts do not dramatic significance depends. The unity of action which at all times run parallel The actor is only the temporary & drama shot possess, therefore, means that everything in interpreter of the dramatist, though he may occasionally it should form a link in a single chain of cause and effect. be left to supply some of the proper functions of his text. This law is incumbent upon every kind of drama-alike giver. On his side, the dramatisi may in practice, though I upon the tragedy which solves the problems of a life,

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