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(6 sp.), and Pelomedusa (3 sp.), inhabit Tropical and South Africa and Madagascar. . .

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The distribution of the Trionychidae, or Soft Tortoises, is very different from that of the Chelydidae, yet is equally interesting. They abound most in the Oriental region, extending beyond it to Northern China and Japan. In the Nearctic region they are only found in the Eastern States, corresponding curiously to the distribution of plants, in which the affinity of Japan to the Eastern States is greater than to California. The Trionychidae are also found over the Ethiopian region, but not in Madagascar. The genera are—Trionya (17 sp.), which extends over the whole area of the family as above indicated; Cycloderma (5 sp.), peculiar to Africa; Emyda (3 sp.), the peninsula of India, Ceylon, and Africa. X- .

FAMILY 60–CHELONIIDAE (2 Genera, 5 Species)

GENERAL DISTRIBUTION.—All the warm and tropical Seas.

The Marine Turtles are almost universally distributed. Dermatochelys (1 sp.), is found in the temperate seas of both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres; Chelone (4 sp.), ranges over all the tropical seas—C. viridis, the epicureans' species, inhabiting the Atlantic, while C. imbricata which produces the “tortoiseshell” of commerce is found in the Indian and Pacific OC63.11S,

Remarks on the Distribution of the Chelonia.

The four families into which the Chelonia are classed have all of them a wide distribution, though none are universal. The Ethiopian region seems to be the richest, as it possesses 3 of the four families, while no other region has more than 2; and it also possesses 7 peculiar genera. Next comes the Neotropical region with 2 families and 6 peculiar genera; the Australian with 3, and the Nearctic with 2 peculiar genera; while the Oriental and Palaearctic regions possess none that are peculiar. There are about 30 genera and 200 species in the whole order. r

Fossil Chelonia.-The earliest undoubted remains of this order occur in the Upper Oolite. These belong to the Cheloniidae and Emydidae, which are also found in the Chalk. In the Tertiary beds Chelonia are more abundant, and the Trionychidae now appear. The Testudinidae are first met with in the Miocene formation of Europe and the Eocene of North America, the most remarkable being the gigantic Colossochelys Atlas of the Siwalik Hills. It appears, therefore, that the families of the order Chelonia were already specialised in the Secondary period, a fact which, together with their more or less aquatic habits, sufficiently accounts for their generally wide distribution. Species of Testudo, Emys, and Triomyo, are found in the Upper Miocene of the south of France.

AMPHIBIA.

Order I—PSEUDOPHIDIA.

FAMILY 1.—CAECILIADAE (4 Genera, 10 Species.)

GENERAL DISTRIBUTION.

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NEOTROPICAL NEARCTIC PALAEARCTIC ETHIOPIAN ORIENTAL AUSTRALIAN SUB-REGIONS. SUB-REGIONS. SUB-REGIONS. SUB-REGIONS. SUB-REGIONS. SUB-REGIONS. -*.* - ||--|--|----|--|--|- a. a- ---

The Caeciliadae are a curious group of worm-like Amphibia sparingly scattered over the three great tropical regions. The genera are, Caecilia, which inhabits West Africa, Malabar and South America; Siphonopsis, peculiar to Brazil and Mexico; Ichthyopsis, from Ceylon and the Khasya Mountains; and Rhinatrema from Cayenne.

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The genus Siren, consisting of eel-like Batrachians with two anterior feet and permanent branchiae, inhabits the SouthEastern States of North America from Texas to Carolina.

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The Proteidae have four feet and persistent external branchiae. The two genera are, Proteus (1 sp.), found only in caverns of Central Europe; and Memobranchus, which are like newts in form, and inhabit the Eastern States of North America.

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The genus Amphiuma, or Muraenopsis, consists of slender eellike creatures with four rudimentary feet, and no external

branchiae. The species inhabit the Southern United States from New Orleans to Carolina.

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There are large Salamanders of repulsive appearance, found only in Eastern Asia and the Eastern United States. The genera are, Sieboldia (2 sp.), Japan and north-west China; Monopoma = Protonopsis (2 sp.), Ohio and Alleghany rivers.

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The Salamandridae, of which our common Newts are characteristic examples, form an extensive family highly characteristic of the North Temperate regions, a few species only extending into the Neotropical region along the Andes to near Bogota, and one into the Oriental region in Western China. The genera, as arranged by Dr. Strauch, are as follows:—

Salamandra (2 sp.), Central and South Europe and North Africa; Pleurodeles (1 sp.), Spain, Portugal, and Morocco; Bradybates (1 sp.), Spain; Triton (16 sp.), all Europe except the extreme north, Algeria, North China and Japan, Eastern States of North America, California and Oregon; Chioglossa (2 sp.) Portugal and South Europe; Salamandrina (1 sp.), Italy to Dalmatia; Ellipsoglossa (2 sp.), Japan; Isodactylium (2 sp.), East Siberia; Onychodactylus (1 sp.), Japan; Amblystoma (21 sp.), Nearctic region from Canada and Oregon to Mexico, most abundant in Eastern States; Ranodon (1 sp.), Tartary and North-east China; Dicamptodon (1 sp.), California; Plethodon (5 sp.), Massachusetts to Louisiana, and Vancouver's Island to California; Desmognathus (4 sp.), Eastern United States south of latitude 43°; Anaides (1 sp.), Oregon and Northern California; Hemidactylium (2 sp.), South-eastern United States and Southern California; Heredia (1 sp.), Oregon and California; Spelerpes (18 sp.), Eastern United States from Massachusetts to Mexico, Guatemala, Costa Rica and Andes of Bogota, with a species in South Europe; Batrachoseps (2 sp.), South-eastern United States and California; Tylotriton (1 sp.), Yunan in West China.

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