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the difference. Maigrot did not know a word of Chinese; but the emperor deigned to grant that he should be told what he understood by King-tien Maigrot would not believe what was told him, but caused the emperor of China to be condemned at Rome!

The abuse of words is an inexhaustible subject. In history, in morality, in jurisprudence, in medicine, but especially in theology, beware of ambiguity.


Academies are to universities, as maturity is to childhood, oratory to grammar, or politeness to the first lessons in civility. Academies, not being stipendiary, ought to be entirely free: such were the academies of Italy; such is the French Academy; and such, more particularly, is the Royal Society of London.

The French Academy, which formed itself, received, it is true, letters patent from Louis XIII., but without any salary, and consequently without any subjection: hence it was that the first men in the kingdom, and even princes, sought admission into this illustrious body. The Society of London has possessed the same advantage.

The celebrated Colbert, being a member of the French Academy, employed some of his brethren to compose inscriptions and devices for the public buildings. This assembly, to which Boileau and Racine afterwards belonged, soon became an academy of itself. The establishment of this Academy of Inscriptions, now called that of the Belles-Lettres, may, indeed, be dated from the year 1661, and that of the Academy of Sciences from 1666. We are indebted for both establishments to the same minister, who contributed in so many ways to the splendour of the age of Louis XIV.

After the deaths of Jean Baptiste Colbert and the Marquis de Louvois, when Count de Pontchartrain, secretary of state, had the department of Paris, he entrusted the government of the new academies to his nephew, the abbé Bignon. Then were first devised honorary fellowships requiring no learning, and with

out remuneration; places with salaries disagreeably distinguished from the former; fellowships without salaries; and scholarships, a title still more disagreeable, which has since been suppressed. The Academy of the Belles-lettres was put on the same footing; both submitted to the immediate control of the secretary of state, and to the revolting distinction of honoraries, pensionaries, and pupils.

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The abbé Bignon ventured to propose the same regulation to the French Academy, of which he was a member; but he was heard with unanimous indignation. The least opulent in the Academy were the first to reject his offers, and to prefer liberty to pensions and honours. The abbé Bigno.., who, in the laudable intention of doing good, had dealt too freely with the noble sentiments of his brethren, never again -set his foot in the French Academy.

The word Academy became so celebrated, that when Lulli, who was a sort of favourite, obtained the esta blishment of his Opera, in 1692, he had interest enough to get inserted in the patent, that it was a Royal Academy of Music, in which Ladies and Gentlemen might sing without demeaning themselves. He did not confer the same honour on the dancers; the public, however, have always continued to go to the Opera, but never to thé Academy of Music.

It is known that the word Academy, borrowed from the Greeks, originally signified a society or school of philosophy at Athens, which met in a garden bequeathed to it by Academus.

The Italians were the first who instituted such societies after the revival of letters; the academy Della Crusca is of the sixteenth century. Academies were afterwards established in every town where the sciences were cultivated.

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The Society of London has never taken the title of Academy.

The provincial academies have been of signal advantage. They have given birth to emulation, forced youth to labour, introduced them to a course of good reading, dissipated the ignorance and prejudices of

some of our towns, fostered a spirit of politeness, and, as far as it is possible, destroyed pedantry.

Scarcely anything has been written against the French Academy, except frivolous and insipid pleasantries. St. Evremond's comedy of The Academicians had some reputation in its time; but a proof of the little merit it possessed is, that it is now forgotten; whereas, the good satires of Boileau are immortal.


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So much has been said and so much written concerning Adam, his wife, the Preadamites, &c. and the Rabbis have put forth so many idle stories respecting Adam, and it is so dull to repeat what others have said before, that I shall here hazard an idea entirely new,-one, at least, which is not to be found in any ancient author, father of the church, preacher, theologian, critic, or scholiast, with whom I am acquainted. I mean the profound secresy with respect to Adam which was observed throughout the habitable earth, Palestine only excepted, until the time when the Jewish books began to be known in Alexandria, and were translated into Greek under one of the Ptolemies. Still they were very little known; for large books were very rare and very dear. Besides, the Jews of Jerusalem were so incensed against those of Alexandria, loaded them with so many reproaches for having translated their Bible into a profane tongue, called them so many ill names, and cried so loudly to the Lord, that the Alexandrian Jews concealed their translation as much as possible: it was so secret, that no Greek or Roman author speaks of it before the time of the emperor Aurelian.

* Notwithstanding the ingenuity of Voltaire, there is much to be said on both sides. Dependent academies are only Staté Engines; and those which are independent, too likely to become sleepy nonentities, or jealous and intolerant factions. Provincial societies may be serviceable for a season, and probably areso.-T.



The historian Josephus confesses, in his answer to Appian, that the Jews had not long had any intercourse with other nations :-" We inhabit,' says he, a country distant from the sea; we do not apply ourselves to commerce, nor have we any commu→ nication with other nations. Is it to be wondered at that our people, dwelling so far from the sea, and affecting never to write, have been so little known?" *

Here it will probably be asked, how Josephus could say that his nation affected never to write anything, when they had twenty-two canonical books, without reckoning the Targum by Onkelos. But it must be considered that twenty-two small volumes were very little when compared with the multitude of books pre served in the library of Alexandria, half of which were burned in Cæsar's war.

It is certain that the Jews had written and read very little; that they were profoundly ignorant of astro nomy, geometry, geography, and physics; that they knew nothing of the history of other nations; and that in Alexandria they first began to learn. Their language was a barbarous mixture of ancient Phoenician and corrupted Chaldee; it was so poor, that se veral moods were wanting in the conjugation of their verbs.

Moreover, as they communicated neither their books nor the titles of them to any foreigner, no one on earth except themselves had ever heard of Adam or Eve, or Abel, or Cain, or Noah. Abraham alone was, in course of time, known to the Oriental nations; but no ancient people allowed that Abraham was the root of the Jewish nation.

Such are the secrets of Providence, that the father and mother of the human race have ever been totally

The Jews were well known to the Persians, for they formed part of their empire; afterwards to the Egyptians, for they carried on all the commerce of Alexandria; and to the Romans, for they had synagogues at Rome. But though in the midst of the nations, they were always separated from them by their institutions; they did not eat with strangers, nor did they communicate their books until a very late period,

unknown to their descendants; so that the names of Adam and Eve are to be found in no ancient author either of Greece, of Rome, of Persia, or of Syria, nor even amongst the Arabs until near the time of Mahomet. It was God's pleasure that the origin of the great family of the world should be concealed from all but the smallest and most unfortunate part of that family.

How is it that Adam and Eve have been unknown to all their children? How could it be, that neither in Egypt nor in Babylon was any trace--any tradition of our first parents to be found? Why were they not mentioned by Orpheus, by Linus, or by Thamyris?-for if they had said but one word of them, it would undoubtedly have been caught by Hesiod, and especially by Homer, who speak of everything except the authors of the human race. Clement of Alexandria, who collected so many ancient testimonies, would not have failed to quote any passage in which mention had been made of Adam and Eve. Eusebius, in his Universal History, has examined even the most doubtful testimonies, and would assuredly have made the most of the smallest allusion, or appearance of an allusion, to our first parents. It is, then, sufficiently clear that they were always utterly unknown to the nations.

We do, it is true, find among the Brahmins, in the book entitled the Ezourveidam, the names of Adimo and of Procriti his wife. But though Adimo has some little resemblance to our Adam, the Indians reply "We were a great people established on the banks of the Indus and the Ganges many ages before the Hebrew horde moved towards the Jordan. The Egyptians, the Persians, and the Arabs, came to us for wisdom and spices when the Jews were unknown to the rest of mankind. We cannot have taken our Adimo from their Adam; our Procriti does not in the least resemble Eve; besides, their history and ours are entirely different.

"Moreover, the Veidam, on which the Ezourveidam is a commentary, is believed by us to have been com posed at a more remote period of antiquity than the

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