« EelmineJätka »
by 4ft. 9in. high. On the top of the boiler aro fixed two steam cylinders, Sin. diameter and 12in. stroke. The pistons drive a crank shaft 3 in. in diameter. The length of the bearings of this shaft is 5 in. The crank pins are 3fin. in diameter. The connecting rod measures 3ft. 1 in. between centros, or more than threo times the stroke, which is a very good proportion. The distance between the cranks from centre to centre, is 19in., so that ample room is left for the valve chest between the cylinders, and for the eccentric gear. This last is similar to that of a locomotive. The length of the link slot is Sin. The piston rod slides are of anglo steel, 2ļin. by 2}in. The slide blocks measure bin. by 2}in., so that ample wearing surfaco is provided. At the foot-plate side of the engine, a fly-wheel, 4ft. in diameter and 6in. wide on the faco, is fitted on the rank shaft. The fly-wheel shaft carries spur pinions, gearing into and driving the winding drums. Below one of the drums is fitted a spur-wheel on a horizontal shaft which runs back under the foot-plate ; on the other end of this shaft is keyed an exceedingly strong bevel wheel, which gears into another on the road wheel axle, and so imparts motion to the driving wheels, which, like the leading wheel, are all of wrought iron except the bosses. They are 5ft. 10in. by 18in. wide on the face. The drum can be coupled to the spur wheel or not at pleasure, and the spur wheel can be lowered out of gear by an exceedingly beautiful arrangement, when the engine is employed in threshing or driving machinery by a strap from the fly-wheel.
The diameter of the main road axle is 4 in.; the foot-plate is very roomy, measuring 5ft. by 3ft. 6in. None but those who have driven road locomotives for days together can properly appreciate how great an advantage this is. Beneath the foot-plate is located a water tank of unusual size, holding. 200 gallons. The design appears singular, but it possesses several manifest advantages; among others, it permits the adoption of the large foot-plate and tank. The workmanship is very excellent. Before leaving the works these engines are driven repeatedly at full speed over large logs of wood, measuring 8in. or 10in. square, in a hard gravelled yard. A jump over such an obstruction as this is no moan test of the qualities of a traction engine, and it is rendered yet more severe by running only one driving wheel over a log. Mr. Howard's engines are all thus tested before they are sent out; because, if they stand this, they may be trusted to endure any subsequent strain they are likely to meet with. The steering gear has been removed from the foot-plate to a place in front, where the steersman is much better situated for controlling the machine. Owing to the fact that but a single leading wheel is used, the ongine gets round corners with great facility. It will turn completely round; indeed, in little more than its own length -19ft. 3in. over all. The engine will haul a load of from 20 to 30 tons on a good road; and will ascend an incline of one in six with ease.
INSTITUTION OF CIVIL ENGINEERS.
first meeting of the Institution of Civil
November 17, 1868, Mr. Charles Hutton Gregory, President, in the chair. The meeting was held in the new building, erected during the recess, and upon the completion of which, according to the promise made by the Council, the President congratulated the members; taking occasion to remark that the Council had placed upon their private minutes a unanimous vote of thanks to the architect, Mr. T. H. Wyatt. The President observed that the contractors, Messrs. Holland and Hannen, were also entitled to commendation for the manner in which they had carried out the works within the time specified in the contract-a result to which the personal care of the secretaries had largely contributed. The paper read was on lighthouse apparatus and lanterns, by Mr. David M. Henderson, Assoc. Inst. C.E. As we have not space for an abstract of this paper in our prosent
number we reserve it for next week. affords a wide bearing surface for a species of turn
A report was brought up from the Council PLOUGHING AND TRACTION ENGINE.
table or circular framework, within which is fitted stating that, under the provisions of Section IV. of THE accompanying engravings illustrate one of a single leading wheel 4ft. 10in. in diameter and the by-laws, the following candidates had been and constructed by Messrs. J. and F. Howard, of straps. The boiler is disposed transversely on the of the Institution:-Charles Toler Burke, George the Britannia Works, Bedford. The engine con- frames in order to keep the water level constant Ernest Faithfull, Henry James Samson, and sists of two main longitudinal frames of plate iron, while the engine is working up or down hill, the Herbert do Symons Skipper. united at the rear end by a species of buffer beam, fire-box overhanging the frames at one side and the while at the front they curve round and are united smoke-box at the other. The barrel of the boiler by a half circle. They are fitted with an angle is 3ft. 44in. in diameter and 6ft. long. The fire-box, PROFESSOR GRIEBINGER, of Berlin, a well-known iron at the lower edges, which stiffens thom and which is flush with the boiler, is 3ft. 5in. by 2ft. 6in. authority on mental diseases, is dead.
THE PROSPECTS OF THE ENGINEERING it might be expected that the American flag, so and reflect on what has been passed, and to conPROFESSION.
close to the resources of its great territory, would sider whether, under similar cases, we might not
outnumber us. But we must recollect that if they devise some improvements; and thus when the THE THE following remarks on the above important have a California and a San Francisco, wo are pos- busy time comes again, as I anticipate will shortly
subject are taken from an address delivered sessed of a British Columbia and a Victoria, and be the case, we shall return to our task with rebefore the Civil and Mechanical Engineers' So- that we make more use of the Mexico port of Pa- newed vigour and ability, better fitted for overciety, by the President, B. Haughton, Esq., on Oc-nama, &c., than all the seafaring peoples put to- coming the numerous obstacles we may have to tober 28, last, at the opening of the session. After gether, what with our monthly line of steamers to encounter, / with greater advantage to our emreferring to the matters of more personal interest the antipodes and our lines that sweep the west ployers and benefit to ourselves, and thus from to the members, the President continued, as coasts of North and South America.
evil wo may derive good." follows:
The only point where it would appear our supe
This extract will give us every clue that is The selection of a subject for an annual address riority is at all threatened in this region is that of essential to an unravelling of the future of onsuch as this is a matter of difficulty. The address the Great Pacific Railway, now being pushed gineering; the capitalist is on strike. His capital may, as in some cases it is, be devoted to the consideration of some one particular subject of in. less bid highly for our Chinese trade with Europe. shown by the Government returns, the State has across the American continent, which will doubt- | accumulatos, as may be seen from the circum
stance that during the last twelve months, as terest to tho society to which it is dolivered ; or it That it may be successful in this rosport, however, received the largest amount ever before realized by may touch on a variety of matters of general in- is not by any means assured, as it will involve the the income tax; a little more, and the Shakterest in the society's speciality. The latter is necessity of a breaking of cargo twice on the route the course that I propose to adopt on this occasion, from China to England. With such a drawback to sperian estimate of coin will come home to him, and foremost the question that presents itself is this route in view, it is quite possible that the that his money is trash. A little further bo will 4. The Prospects of the Engineering Profession.” British clipper ship will successfully continue to probably relax his purse-strings, and avoiding It must be confessed that they do not show much run ber rapid voyages on the lines of communica- foreign loans, not very seductive at present, seeing sign of improvement. As far as the home field is tion between Barbaric England and the Celestial that Columbia talks of paying her five-twenty concerned, England seems to have had a surfeit Empire.
bonds in greenbacks, he will be persuaded to try of railways, and the capitalist refuses to invest as
the old species of investment, to rest satisfied with
In the Indian Ocean and in antipodal waters we a safe three to five per cent. dividend from public usual upon the soil of mother country. The cise state of affairs is well known to all who are in-are at home, and of courso supreme. We have works, judiciously undertaken at home and in the terested in such matters, and it would be irrelevant London, twenty-four lines from Liverpool, two pacity of his guide, philosopher, and friend, the
several lines of ocean-going steamships from colonies ; and directed by the more matured cato go into the detail of a subject that has already lines from Southampton, with two German com- civil engineer, he shall again bask in the sunshine still many districts where railways are required, pany's vossols calling there, ono line from Bremen, of a fructifying capital with all its attendant amenior, in other words, where capital may be profitably line from Marseilles, and one line from Baltimore.
one line from Hamburgh, one line from Havre, one ties and pleasures. invested in railways. We cannot, however, expect There are in addition to these some ocean-going there is a great deal to be said, and we will look
Engineering architecture is a subject on which that any further extension of railway enterprize in lines from ports in America to the Gulf of Mexico, forward to further consideration of it. It is one such quarters will obtain in the present jaded condition of the public mind. Those amongst us who &c., but I have not been able since I began to pre- which the Society would do well to keep continuhave faith in the destiny of England, and of her pare this address to find their destinations and ally before it, because it is a line in which we can sons, who reason from the great past which she has titles, while I find to-day that the American line see our way, and in which everyone admits there is inscribed upon her records, and who having studied trading from Panama northwards on the Pacific, room for improvement; it is, indeed, humiliating carefully the political and physical geography of has succumbed lately to the competition of the to think of the vast sums that have been spent in the earth's surface, believe that her geographical British line on the same route.. It will be seen England on grand engineering works, with an utter advantages still remain with her; that the pro- thence.
that there is only one transatlantic line hailing disregard of appearances, and where a modicum gress of neighbouring countries does not of neces
of esthetic skill would have given us so much sity demand a new arrangement of the great tracks This preponderance of England in ocean-going effect and beauty. It will be said that utility and of commerce, both on land and sea, and the adapta- steamships is increasing annually. It is in part not beauty should be the cry of the engineer ; but tion of a new centre of exchange, such as at due to the circumstances that iron is a more this is, after all, only the twaddle of incompetency, present is possessed by England. These persons durable material than wood for ships, that speed is for it is well known to those who have given attonwill look hopefully on the future, and will predict more important than ever, and that we alone tion to art, that it costs no more to arrange matethat the railway system of the country will be possess that special knowledge and that flood of rials in effective and pleasing forms, than to pile further developed to the extent of many thousands skilled mechanical labour which is required to con- them in the shapeless masses that attract the eye. of miles ; that her docks and ports will be further struct such vessels. The standing objection to We must at once dismiss the assertion that perfected and extended, until every coast shire the iron ship is her tendency to foul externally beauty is costly; it is not moretricious ornament may boast its own harbour ; that her clipper ships below the water line, by which her course is greatly that is advocated, such as may be seon in at least and steam vessels will almost cover the seas; and impeded from increase of friction in passing one of the latest engineering works, and which is a that her towns will so spread themselves that by through the water. No device equivalent to that reactionary effort worthy of praise, as showing a and by London and Liverpool will shake hands of coppering the wooden ship's bottom having yet step in the right direction, but still unworthy as with Birmingham.
been discovered, a large reward awaits the suc- having overshot the mark, and having given us, as
cessful inventor in this direction. It must be confessed that those who look hopo- added that the scrowship is fast suporseding that allude to the Abbey Mills Sewage Pumping
It may be it were, "a jewel of gold in a swine's snout." I fully to this result have much sound argument on their side ; for example, what is there at present in laying out the breadths of their locks and able, seeing that it has come from the hand of the
propelled by paddles—a hint to dock engineers Station, the design for which is the more remarkto prevent its achievement? Let us look at the entrances. All these things being considered, then, engineer who has shown so much artistic excelrests on the eastern seaboard of the Atlantic, her I cannot see that as a seafaring and commercial lence in the severe lines in which the Thames commercial strength embodied in her ports, graphical advantage which our salient position on
people we have suffered any loss of that geo- Embankment is conceived. London, Liverpool, Glasgow, Belfast, &c. What is the continental profile has given to us, or that any gineering works upon which you are, and shall be
What I ask you to aspire after in those onthere on the same seaboard to threaten hor su- material change has of late taken place in those in the future, engaged is form in the æsthetic premacy ? There is nothing from the Cape of lines of communication to which our trade bas sense, in place of that deformity which is sown Good Hope to Tarifa ; between that and Gibraltar been accustomed. If this be admitted, which I broadcast around us, in which the British enthere is Marseilles, an emporium whose commerce think it must be, and if progress is to continue to gineer has hitherto glorified bimself, and in which is chiefly confined to its Mediterranean entourage. be Nature's watchword, our trade will continue to he would seem to wish to idealize and deify sheer From Gibraltar to the Land's End there are Bordeaux, Brest, and Havre, each of them inferior to be, and, indeed, is at this moment, a source of strength, which in his simplicity he sees to be inMarseilles, and whose shipping may be said to conprofit to our merchants.
compatible with beauty of outline. How, then, is sist of little else than coasting vessels. Havro no There is at the present moment a plethora of this desideratum to be attained? The British endoubt possesses aspirations, and sends forth a line money, and this brings me to a formula of my gineer in his efforts to redeem engineering archiof ocean steamers, kept afloat by immense State previous address that, " Wherever there is capital tecture must look to himself, and to himself alone, subventions. Still, in the eyes of the merchant, it in excess, there will be necessity for the services of and the present recess is perhaps an opportunity is shipless. As for the Baltic, and its wreath of the engineer.” This you will perhaps answer is all given him for this very purpose, and to enable him marine villages, thoy aro land-locked, and out of very fine, but, in the place of your pretty theories, to direct his mind to a subject which demands his the world ; while Holland slumbers at Rotterdam. the fact is that engineering is at a standstill, closest attention. He will again, notwithstanding So far as Europe and the eastern wing of the At- that Westminster offices are being closed, and that our prophets of evil, be called upon to constract lantic are concerned, there is nothing to dispute many of our best men aro accepting service in works on English soil equal to, if not surpassing the commercial pre-eminence of England. Then, India at salaries greatly below what their qualifica- in magnitude, those of to-day. Let him endeavour looking to its western board, we find New York, tions ought to command. I reply, quite true; but in them to improve on those of a bygone generaand half-a-dozen other ports, sharing with us the so it has always been-periods of reaction will tion, and to hand down to posterity a legacy of office of supplying the requirements of some forty arise in engineering, such as the present.
We beauty in connection with such works, as he has millions of persons north of the line and ten millions must only wait for better days, endure the annoy- received from the past its legacy of strength and south. Is there any symptom hero of British com- ances of the moment, ondeavour to live on our ox- endurance. Let him above all things refuse to mercial decadence? On the contrary, none what-pectations, and find consolation in the fact that entertain the thought that veneration for the beau
our predecessors have had to do likewise, to con- tiful is beneath him as a man, or derogatory to While many of the most important ports named firm which I shall give you an excerpt from Sir the dignity and character of his race; for during complain of a falling off, we find Liverpool, London, John Rennio's address to the Instituto of Civil En- all times those races which made themselves
famous for their prowess and their majosty, their Leith, Hull, Glasgow, and Belfast adding to their ginoors, delivered oxactly twenty years ago, viz. :
power alike over matter and mind, were equally dockage largely each year, and each year organiz
“ It becomes important that we should leave renowned for the beauty and for the magnificence ing new lines of ocean iron steamers and sailing nothing undone so long as there is anything to do, of their public works—those monuments of glory vessels to meet, and to some extent to keep in and in this way we may turn to our ultimate by which, history apart, we can now alone judge front of, the necessities of the age. Turning to benefit the general stagnation which at present of their aristocracy of race. the Pacific Ocean, we shall find that in that pervades engineering, in common with almost quarter we are also able to hold our own. There every other profession. We have to look back
(To be continued)
box and that of the rollers. These rollers remain / which are applied to common watches on account vertical axis which the workman commands with
fine. The legal weight of the sovereign is 0.2568 whence the name of cheve given to glass which has MYERS' PATENT WATER METER.
ounce of standard gold, or 123.474 grains. The undergone it, and cheveur to the workman who THE meter illustratod in the annexed engraving weight came from one pound of standard gold, practises it. The moulds are carefully made to
dimensions which correspond to those which trade action to be entitled to a place in our pages. Apart Sovereigns are legal tender to any amount pro adopts for watch-glasses. As to the mufles, several from its general arrangement, the great peculiarity vided that the weight of each doos not fall of them are put in the same oven side by side, and lies in the construction of the valve, which works below. 122.5 grains, or in the case of a half each is attended to by a workman (cheveur) who perfectly water-tight, without any sliding friction. sovereign 61.125 grains; these are the least produces on an average six gross per day. The pay It consists of a sheet of india-rubber lying over current" weights of the coins. One pound troy of for shaping is 60 centimes per gross. the ports, as shown in section, and held down to standard silver is coined into 66 shillings, of which Third operation.-Once flattened and classed its place by a frame carrying four rollers, two of the metal is worth from 60s. to 62s. according to according to their thickness and dimensions, the which rest against an overhead plate, while the the market price of silver. The standard fineness glassos aro submitted to dressing. The operation other two run on the india-rubber. There are five of silver is 0-925, three alloy in 40. The fineness of dressing, which is performed by women, consists waterways or ports: two in connection with the of the French standard silver is 0-900 in the five-in shaving each glass by chipping away with flat supply pipe from the main, marked 2, one for con- franc piece, but an inferior alloy of 0.835 is used and wide chisels that part of the border which gets nection with the outlet pipe from the meter, for the lower denominations. The single franc This work demands more delicacy than the ordinary marked 1, one to the upper part of the cylinder, piece composed of the latter alloy is still made to cutting out, for here the breakage is more expensive marked 3, and one to the lower part marked 4. weigh five grains, the weight originally chosen for since the glass has already received two workings The two latter are connected alternately with the the franc as the unit of the monetary scale when It is paid at the rate of 20 to 25 centimes per gross, inlet and outlet. The whole of these ports open on the fineness of the coin was 0.900. It has now according to the thickness of the glass. a surface which is, by planing or facing, made per- become a token, like the British shilling, of which Fourth operation.-We now come to the bezellfectly flat, and are covered, as we have said, with a the nominal value exceeds the metallic value. ing. Stuck with pitch upon a wooden chuck, which piece of stout india-rubber. A small box having a The material of our copper coinage is now a bronze the workman holds in his hand, the glass undergoes bottom (increased by flanges to make it large mixture composed in 100 parts by weight of 95 a first reducing by means of a grindstone and sand enough to cover the whole of the planed surface of copper, 4 tin, and 1 zinc, the same as in the copper has to fit in the circle of the watch. Then it is the ports), in the centre of which is left an aper- coinage of France. the ports to view when it is laid on the surface of grains, or 453-59 grains; the halfpenny at 80 in to 3 francs per gross according to the thickness of ture of just sufficient size to expose the whole of rate of 48 pence in one pound avoirdupois, of 7,000 placed in a lathe and the bezel is finished off with the valve-and, which is also planed—is then laid the pound avoirdupois, and the farthing at 160. the glass ; he delivers from one to two gross per on the top of the india-rubber and screwed down British silver coins are a legal tender in payments day. with bolts passing through the india-rubber into the to the amount of 40s. only; copper pence to the Fifth operation.-From the hands of the bezeller, valve-face of the ports, thus forming a water-tigh- amount of ls.; half-ponce and farthings to the the glass is carried to the smoothing shop, where it
is submitted to the action of joint all round the ports. The proper communicat amount of 6d.
smoothing wheel tions are made by the rollers running in a light
mounted upon a horizontal axis and upon which
pumice-stone powder with water is poured from time frame, and arranged so that the two top rollers
to time. This wheel, which has a diameter of 4 rest on the two bottom ones, each to each, thus A MANUFACTORY OF WATCH GLASSES. decimetres when new, is formed of two cheeks of reducing the friction to a minimum. When the
By GUSTAVE MAURICE.*
wood, between which is wrapped and strongly rollers stand at one end of the valve chest in which they are contained, the rise of the piston is caused A" Warehouse, whichmnumbers a pour 2.200 eighteen similar smoothers placed in movement be by the flow of water entering at port 2, raising the
one water-wheel. This operation is paid at the india-rubber and flowing down 4, and so into the owes its origin to the well-known glass works of rate of 2 francis 25 centimes per gross: bottom of the cylinder ; and the water which is Valerysthal in its vicinity, whence the blown glass finished, but it is dull and would not in this state ba occupying the portion of the cylinder above the is obtained. . It is well known that watch glassos accepted by the trade; hence the operation of piston flows under the india-rubber into the outlet are of two kinds. One kind is simply cut out of polishing, which consists in polishing and brightenport No. 1, it being impossible for the water to blown globes, and receives no other preparation, so flow anywhere else on accouut of the water-tight to speak, than that of a trimming of the border and ing at a wheel with English rouge or with tin-ashes joint formed all round the two sets of ports which more or less imperfect smoothing. This kind which bears the name of mushroom, is formed with
(oxide of tin obtained by calcination). This wheel, are intended to ho coupled by the pressure of the includes all the common concave-convex glasses Cloth like the previous one, but it is mounted upon a in this position until the piston has been depressed inconvenience.
of their cheapness. Their convexity is a great his foot. The pay for this operation is 1 franc per
The other kind consists of flat to the required depth, when, by means of a connect- glasses. These are formed from the primitive con- friss for thin glasses, and 1 franc 25 centimes for ing rod (operated upon by the wedge seen at the vex glasses by operations which render them more top of the piston rod) and two weights, one of costly, it is true, but then they are much more con
Thus, the different operations are the cutting-out, which is shown at A, in which the power for mov- venient. At Sarrebourg these are called verres the flattening, the dressing, the bazelling, the ing the valve has been stored during the stroke of cheves. Chever is an old French word which signi- smoothing, and the polishing. On arriving at the, the piston, they are suddenly caused to change fies to bulge or hollow out, but has now no other store, where they are prepared for sending out, the their position and couple the inlet No. 2 to the port use than that to which allusion has been made. If glasses are again examined one by one and tried No. 3, leading to the lower portion of the cylinder, the flat watch-glass had been prepared from glass in a gauge which finally classes them, and
to be returned to the workshops, those which have and the port No. 4 from the top portion to the out- designation chure which has been given to it, for not the proper size. There are then six payments let No. 1. The piston of the meter is formod by the cheve glass is not absolutely flat, and to form it for fashioning which represent for a gross a total two leathern collars turned up at the edges and a bulging out from its border would have to be made. varying from 5. franes 55 centimes, to 7 francs 50 fastened one on each side of a metal disc.
But it is not worked; so on the contrary, the con- 1 centimes, to which should be added the price of the The London and Westminster Meter Company, by vexity of the common watch-glass has to be blown globes which is from 1 franc 50 contimes the whom this meter is manufactured, claim for it, that diminished in order to obtain a flat glass; hence, it
kilogramme. being a piston meter, which is the only kind that seems that the expression used designates precisely It is known that flat glasses fetch in retail a franc can actually measure the water, it possesses a the reverse of what it ought to indicate.. The a piece, on an average ; which places the gross at valve which takes up little room, is perfectly manufacture of flat glasses, although not compli- 114 francs. Now, the gross being tought wholewater-tight, almost entirely without friction, and not cated, requires a series of operations which the sale at the price of 9, 12, 16 and even 25 franes oxposed to wear in the least. That it will answer fragile nature of the material must render very according to the quality and thickness of the glass,
delicate. We will now pass them in review. either as a high or low pressure meter. That on
it is seen that there is a margin for huckstering account of the small amount of friction in
First operation.--The first operation is that of which unhappily is often to the detriment of
cutting out. It consists in cutting according to retailing and of making: It is necessary, then, that its parts it requires little power to work it, and the pattern the blown globes supplied by the glass- the manufacturer should produce a large quantity in consequently water will rise to nearly the same works. To effect this, a concavo-convex watch- order to insure himself at the end of the year & level after having passed through the meter as it glass of the size wanted is applied to the surface of fair income, and that he should reduce the costs of stood at before entering; and, finally, that it is the globe; and, both being held with one hand, the the establishment as much as possible; consevery portable, compact, accurate in measurement, glass is broken all round by striking little sharp quently there is no factory, properly so called The inexpensive, and occupying a very small space; and blows with a pipe-tube made red hot. As the glass workers receive the work at home and return it as it apparently deserves the character it has received does not crack according to an exact circumference, soon as finished. Each of them has his regularly from its makers.
merely an irregular bowl is thus obtained, the angles kept account to enable breakages to be assessed, å of which are afterwards taken off coarsely by grat- certain portion of which only falls upon the ing away the material with common flåt chisels manufacturer. In general, a woman earns
deprived of edge. This first work is done by than 1 franc 50 centimes per day and a man more THE BRITISH COINAGE.
women who are paid at the of 25 centimes per than three francs, remunerations high enough if it gross. Each worker can cut eight gross per day.
is considered that at Sarrebourg there is very good TH THE weight of gold is expressed in this country
Second operation. The glasses cut out in the account comparative with other localities of the in ounces troy and decimal parts of an ounce, rough form (calottes), and having already undergone same importance. and the metal is always taken to be of standard a first trial, which classes them according to their When the first cheve glass which was manufacfineness (11 gold and one alloy) unless otherwise qualities, are placed one by (ne on moulds of tured made its appearance one would have thought described.
refractory clay and submitted to softening in a Tho degree of fineness of gold, as mulle heated to redness and constantly open. The disappear. But it was not so, thanks to the low
concavo-convex glass would ascertained by assay, is expressed decimally, fine workman takes each mould successively with price of the latter, which has cortinued to assure it pure gold being taken as unity, or 1.000. Thus small pincors, places it for a few seconds in the a certain market, thanks above all to the existence of gold of British standard is snid to be 0.9166 fino, muffle ; and withdrawing it almost immediately, convex watches which recal another age and which of French standard 0:900 fine. Another method applies a pad of paper upon the softened glass, and by have been christened with the trivial and un-meof expressing fineness is still in pretty general use, rapid pressing in all directions causes it to lose it's chanical name of onions. Raised glasses, then, still founded on an ideal pound, " the carat pound," convexity and to take the form of the mould which continue to be manufactured. They are of two which is divided into 24 parts, called carats. When
is more or less flat but slightly arched at the kinds, selling at 5 and 6 francs per gross. They are tho gold is entirely fine it is said to be gold of 24 circumference. This operation is called cherage, far from requiring the same care as the preceding, carats. British standard gold contains two carats
because they are completed by a small number of of alloy, and is said therefore to be gold of 22 carats. Scientifique des Deux Mondes" for the “ Horological
* Translated by Mr. R. Strachan from the
Now that the railways have enabled us to learn Jewelry gold may be of 22, 18, 15, 12, or 9 carats Journal.
many things by the continual displacement of men
and ideas, it may be said that wherever there is a actions, was for supplying the ship with the water
TO CORRESPONDENTS. watch-maker one is almost sure of being able to which the lighters contained ; and the Court obtain a flat glass for his watch ; but it has not ordered the first suit to be discontinued.
THE MECHANICS' MAGAZINE is sent post-free to subscribers always been so, as witness the fact which we are about to relate in conclusion. Fourteen years since, state the first suit, by reason of the amount of bail
Mr. V. Lushington now moved the Court to rein- Llis. 88, yearly, or 103. 10d. hall-yearly payable in when, in order to go to the South of France the in the second suit being insufficient to answer the editor of the MECHANICS? MAGAZINE. Letters relating to
All literary communications should be addressed to the diligence “Laffitte et Caillard
the advertising and publishing departments should be ad vehicle at our disposal, we arrived at a little town claims in the two causes.
Tressed to the publisher, Mr. R. Smiles, MECHANICS MAGAin the Pyrenees, which we will not name so as not
Mr. Butt opposed the motion.
LINE Omce, 166, Fleet-street, London, to wound the susceptibilities of the sub-prefecture
The Court considered that, though the inadequacy To insure insertion in the following number, advertisecounting then scarcely 3,000 souls. Having broken of the bail might, perhaps, be a ground for further ments should reach the office not later than 5 o'clock on our watch-glasses during the journey, our first care bail in the second suit, it afforded no reason for Thursday evening.
We must absolutely decline attending to any communiwas to go to one of the two watchmakers of the rescinding the order dismissing the first suit. cations anaccompanied by the name and address of the town to have it replaced. Some hours after, having Motion refused, with costs.
writer, not necessarily for insertion, but as a proof of good returned for our watch, great was our surprise at
faith, ED, M. M. receiving its adorned with a raised glass, of such
Advertisements are inserted in the MECHANICS' MAGAconvexity that it was a veritable bell under which
ZINE, at the rate of 6d. per line, or 5d. per line for 13 inserthe movement taken to pieces could be stowed away
tions, or 4d. per line for 26 insertions. Each line consists Correspondence.
of about 10 words. easily.
Woodcuts are charged at the same rato * Bat Sir, we said in our astonishment,
as type Special arrangements made for large advertiseli we wanted a flat glass. “ A flat glass!" replied the rival of Breguet, “flat glasses are not made MURRAY'S TREATISE ON MARINE ENGINES.
RECEIVED.-G. E. P.-F. W.-R. H.-R. T.-S. E. Such a responce rendered it unnecessary for TO THE EDITOR OF THE “MECHANICS' MAGAZINE." P. and G. -S. B.-S. O. D.-R. F. F.-S. E. C.-W. B.
R. S.-T. G.-F.H.-P. C.-I. W. and Co.-R. M.-T. and us to go to his confrere, and we kept our globe of SIR, -A communication, signed " Robert Murray, B.-S. K. W.-P. M.-1. C. E.-J. H. L.-B. T.-J. H.which the gibbosity was scarcely convenient in the Surveyor of Steamships to the Board of Trade, L. P. S.-G. L.-W. S. N.-J. H. S.-F. H, E.-M.P. pocket. Evidently, the onions reigned in the published in the MECHANICS' MAGAZINE of the 23rd E. H. and Co.-11. (1. M.-E. F. R.-G. E. P.-J. S.country, and watchmakers without doubt did not ult., escaped my attention until recently, or I should W. H. W.-D. J.-P. and Son—O. F. judge it to their purpose to keep a stock of cheve have replied to it sooner. glasses, for which they had not then found a sale. Mr. Murray asserts, without producing one tittle of But why tell us that they were no longer made ? evidence to sustain his assertions, that certain state
There was but one alternative, of which the solu- ments of mine are "untruths," “ most ridiculous and Meeting for the ideek. tion is still in our mind, either the watchmaker was untrue," &c. Mr. Murray, in his treatise on marine a fool who had never seen a cheve glass, or knowing engines, had stated that, * as the barometer is very Tues.—The Institution of Civil Engineers.--" Description such glasses but having none of them he hoped to often found to show incorrect results (either through
of the River Witham, and the Works upon it," deceive us by making a reply so little satisfyin to ignorance or design on the part of the foreman who
by Mr. W. H. Wheoler, M. Inst. C.E., at 8 p.m our self-conceit.
saw it fitted), it would be well if every commander
before giving credence to strange wonders about
vacuum.” As a serious charge is here made against, Naval, Military, and Gunnery Items. it may be, intelligent, honest, and worthy men, upon
grounds which seemed to me untenable, I ventured, We understand that a direct line of steamers beCOURT OF COMMON PLEAS.
in preparing a new edition of the work, to offer tween Stettin and New York is contemplated. Nov. 21.
evidence, of an exculpatory character, from the report
THE friends of the officers and crew of Her Ma(Sittings in Banco before Lord Chief Justice course of a paper, read before that Society, on jesty's late screw,sloop “ Rattler," will be gratified BoviLL and Justices WILLES, KEAting, and Bretr.) "Storm signals and forecasts, their utility and public to hear that all who were on board the vessel when EDMUNDS V. GREENWOOD. importance with respect to navigation and commerce,"
she was wrecked, arrived in safety at Yokohama, on This was an action by Mr. Edmunds, the late clerk by C. Cooke, Esq., that gentleman stated that “ the the 7th of October, in the French corvette Dupleix," of the patents, to recover damages for alleged astronomic meteorologists teach that great changes
on board of which they were treated with the utmost libels contained in three official reports made by of pressure, temperature, draught, moisture, electrical courtesy and hospitality. Messrs. Hindmarch and Greenwood to the Com- displays, heat and cold, are caused by solar, lunar, We have to record the decease of General R. Pigot, missioners of Patents, and in a letter addressed to planetary, and cometary bodies, according to their on Sunday last, at his residence, Chieveley, near Lord Chancellor Westbury some days ago.
respective lights and aspects, as they move through Newbury, where he had lived in retiremeut with his Mr. Digby Seymour, Q.C., on behalf of the plain-author of " Astronomic Meteorology," states that Dragoon Guards, was in his 95th year, and the oldest
He was Colonel of the 4th space and form certain angles." Mr. A. J. Pearce, family for some years. tiff, moved for leave to exhibit cortain interroga- * on the approach of a northern gale, the mercury General in the British army. He entered the sertories to the defendant, and to-day the Court gave does not fall;" and Admiral Fitzroy admitted that vice in 1793. judgment upon this application.
some gales, especially from the north, come on sudTho Lord Chief Justice said that the object of denly and without warning. In the course of the the year 1867 the number of foreign seamen employed
A RETURN has just been issued showing that in the interrogatories was to show that the defendant discussion which followed the reading of the paper, in British ships registered in the United Kingdom had exceeded the authority given to him in mak- Captain Selwyn, R.N., said that “as in many climates was 21,817. În 1865 the number was 20,280. The ing the reports, and had circulated them to persons with which he was acquainted, the barometer did not to whom no privilege applicd ; and, further, to rise and fall at all, as in others there were a number British ships was 5,638 in 1865, 5,454 in 1866, and show that ho had acted from malicious motives. the mercury at which the change from fair to foul
5,444 in 1867. In other words, tho object was that the defendant, took place, all empirical rules must be applied with
THE Board of Trade have determined to present if he answered the questions in the affirmative, reference to the special locality alone to which they Captain F. A. Elers, of the Danish vossel " Felicia," should criminate himself, and render himself sub- were adapted. We need go no further than our
of Haltenau, with a binocular glass, in acknowledgject to criminal proceedings. In applications of own Westmoreland to find an abnormal state of mont of the services rendered by him to the master this kind the Court had always exercised a discre- things in this respect, and too much attention cannot |(Greensides) and mate of the smack - Criterion," tion in reference to the particular case, and in be given to this point.” Perhaps - Robert Murray, who were picked up on the Dogger Bank by the many cases questions had been allowed which Surveyor of Steamships to the Board of Trade," · Folicia" on August 23, and landed at Bergen on tended to criminate the parties questioned. But would still ascribe to the ignorance or evil design of September 7. Captain Elors declined to accept any in " Tapling v. Ward,” 6 H. J. N., an action for the foreman who saw the barometer fitted all the dire remuneration in respect of the subsistence of tho libel, the Court of Eschequer refused to allow the effects produced by solar, lunar, planetary, and rescued seamen on board his vessel. defendant to be asked questions to prove the cometary bodies.
The reductions in the Government establishments, authorship and publication ; and the Court of regarding the depolarization of iron ships by, Mr. past two months are suspended, the men being put
Mr. Murray again says that what I have stated Royal Arsenal, which have been going on for the Common Pleas, in “Storno v. Sevastopulo," 40. B., Evan Hopkins is “ most ridiculous and untrue.” New Series, acted on the same principle. In the Mr. Murray will refer to the various engineering off work at the dinner hour on Friday, and not re
upon short time, and consequently less pay, leaving present case, the Court did not find that there were publications which gave accounts of the launching suming it again until the Monday morning following. anysuch special circumstances as would take it out of of H.M.S. Northumberland,” he will find full con- The amount of wages thus reduced must form a conthe principle acted upon in the case of “ Tapling firmation of the statement made by me. Mr. Murray siderable item in the estimates voted for the manuv. Ward,” and “ Sterno v. Sovastopulo." The case further questions the accuracy of my description of facturing departments for the financial year termihad been before Mr. Baron Martin at chambors, Ruthven's hydraulic propeller. If he will reconsider nating on the 31st of March next. and they were asked to say that the learned judge is correct.' Mr. Murray states " that interpolations
THE constitution of the Ordnance Select Commithad exercised his discretion improperly; but so far have been made in the original text, and new matter teo, it is rumoured, will be considerably modified, and from that, they thought that he had acted very ruthlessly introduced in the shape of commendatory the work hitherto performed by that body will be properly in saying that the interrogatories ought notices of questionablo inventions, or of reckless in future carried on by the heads of departments, of not to be allowed. The application must, there- assertions of quasi-scientific untruths." The quasi- which there are some four or five, concentrated fore, bo refused.
scientific untruths are those already noticed ; no in- under one. A new appointment will be made, that Application refusod.
terpolations whatever have been made by me in the of Commandant of the Royal Arsenal. The office
text, and the whole new matter in the appendix will, it is said, be filled by Brigadier-General Lefroy, COURT OF ADMIRALTY.
refers to new and useful inventions of tho most at present holding the office of President of the Nov.24.
unquestionable character, or consists of descriptions Ordnance Select Committee. The above arrange(Before the Right Hon. Sir R. J. PAILLIMORE.)
of the hulls, engines, boilers, &c., of ironclad ships ment will effect a considerable saving of public
of war, of an alphabetical list of all the vessels in expense in the salaries of officers and other officials GREAT EASTERN."
Her Majesty's navy, in which the number of guns, attached to the establishment as at present constiIt seems as though the troubles of this unfortunate tonnage, and nominal horse power of each are given ;
tuted. vessel were never to have an end. In the present as also the Admiralty form of specification and tender THE “ Ringdovo" double screw gun vessel, 666 instance there were two suits, brought by the same for a pair of marine steam engines, with surface con- tons and 160-horse power, has made her final trial plain tiff, against the “Great Eastern," and on the densors and superheaters, &c.
of speed over the measured mile in Stokes Bay, near 17th inst. the Court made an order dismissing on Murray with all coneidoration and respect ; in addi- service.
Hence it will appear that have treated Mr. Portsmouth, previous to her departure on foreign suit, because the claim for which it was institutod tion to which I pay him a special compliment in the commission, had her crew, armament, and all her
On her trial, the “Ringdlove," being in was embodied in the other. It appeared that the advertisement to the fourth edition. I am Sir, yours, weight on first suit was for towage of lighters containing water
board to her sea trim, and under full &c.,
E. NUGENT, C.E. boiler power she attained a mean rate of speed of for the supply of the ship, and the second suit, in 5, Upper Charles-street, Westminster,
10-721 knots per hour; under half-boiler power she stituted after the ship had been arrested in other
attained a mean rate of 9-383 knots per hour.