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pasture of the cultivated area, about 158,000 acres in hill pasturage. Devonshire, Spencer Compton CayOver 86,000 acres are under woods and about 27,000 acres under endish, 8th DUKE OF (1833– -), was born on orchards, chiefly of apple trees, nearly every farm having a large

23rd July 1833. He was the son of the seventh duke orchard for the manufacture of cider. Of the acreage under corn crops, more than one-half is under oats, and less than a third under

of Devonshire (who died in 1891 at the age of 83), a wheat, the acreage of which has diminished since 1880 about a man who, without playing a prominent part in public third.' The bulk of the acreage under green crops is occupied affairs, exercised great influence not only by his position by turnips, mangold, and cabbage, potatoes occupying only about

but also by his abilities. In 1854 the marquis of a tenth of the whole acreage. The following table gives the larger main divisions of the cultivated area at intervals of five

Hartington, as he then was, took his degree at Trinity years from 1880:

College, Cambridge, and in 1857 was returned Par

liament for North Lancashire. At the opening of the Clover. ent Past- Fallow.

new Parliament of 1859 he moved the amendment to Crops. Crops.

the address which overthrew the Government of Lord 1880 1,150,888 278,413 138,735 190,197 509,694 33,833 Derby. In 1863 he was Under Secretary for War, and on 1885 1,193,108 252,244 140,822 196,743 582,203 21,063 the formation of the Russell-Gladstone administration at 1890 1,208,467 242,864 132,485 201,326 615,230 15,532 the death of Lord Palmerston he entered it as War 1895 1,213,913 222,896 127,905 218,965 633,055 9,596 1900 1,210,034 225,203 122,769 219,091 634,427 7,179

Secretary. He retired with his colleagues in July 1866;

but upon Mr Gladstone's return to power in 1868 he The following table gives particulars regarding the principal became Postmaster-General, which office he exchanged in live-stock for the same years :

1871 for that of Secretary for Ireland. When Mr Gladstone,

after his electoral defeat and consequent resignation in 1874, Sheep. Pigs. temporarily withdrew from the leadership of his party in

January 1875, Lord Hartington was chosen his successor. 1880 53,914 229,471 80,280 773,916 84,815 Mr W. E. Forster, who had taken a much more prominent 1885 54,579 253,421 90,937 874,606 99,513

part in public life, was the only other possible nominee, 1890 55,280 259,876 95,960 913,562 123,227 1895 59,916 | 263,506 94,685 874,408 | 123,937

but he declined to stand. Lord Hartington's rank no 1900 54,526 | 279,728 91,872 846,324 95,944 doubt told in his favour, and Mr Forster's Education Bill

had offended the Nonconformist members, who would Industries and Trade.According to the annual report for 1898 probably have withheld their support. Lord Hartington's of the chief inspector of factories (issued 1900), the total number of persons employed in factories and workshops in 1897 was 36,887, as

prudent management in difficult circumstances laid his compared with 34,608 in 1896. Textile factories employed only

followers under great obligations, since not only was the 2356, of whom 1197 were employed in the manufacture of woollen opposite party in the ascendant, but his own former chief goods, lace employing 879. Honiton lace is made in other parts of was indulging in the freedom of independence. After the the county as well as in Honiton. In non-textile factories 24,002

complete defeat of the Conservatives in the general elecpersons were employed, there being an increase between 1895 and 1896 of 10-4 per cent., and between 1896 and 1897 of 7 -6 per cent.

tion of 1880, a large proportion of the party would have In the manufacture of machines, appliances, conveyances, and rejoiced if Lord Hartington could have taken the Premiertools, 8534 persons were employed, chiefly in the Government ship instead of Mr Gladstone, and the Queen, in strict establishments at Devonport and Keyham ; in the clothing in

conformity with constitutional usage, sent for him as leader dustry 2800, there being a considerable trade in costumes and outfitting; in the manufacture of paper 2755 ; in the clay and

of the Opposition. Mr Gladstone, however, was clearly stone industry (including articles in pottery and terra -cotta

master of the situation : no Cabinet could be formed without at Bovey Tracy, Watcombe, &c.), 1047. Of the 10,529 persons him, nor could he reasonably be expected to accept a suboremployed in workshops as many as 6342 were employed in the dinate post. Lord Hartington, therefore, gracefully abdi

, clothing industry, and 1576 in the manufacture of machines, appliances, conveyances, and tools. For mineral purposes Devon is

cated the leadership which he had temporarily assumed, and included in the duchy of Cornwall. The total number of persons

became Secretary of State for India, from which office, in employed in mining in 1899 was 3085. Increasing quantities of December 1882, he passed to the War Office. His adminismarble, granite, and other building stones, as well as limestone and tration was memorable for the expeditions of General roofing slates, are being dug. In 1899 as many as 527,026 tons of limestone were raised, 290,991 tons of clay (value £82,244), 48,651

Gordon and Lord Wolseley to Khartum. In June 1885 he tons of granite, 71,487 tons of sandstone, and 13,901 tons of slate.

resigned along with his colleagues, and in December was Manganese and tin are mined in only very small quantities. The elected for the Rossendale Division of Lancashire, created following table gives particulars regarding the production of by the new Reform Bill. Immediately afterwards the arsenic, china clay, and copper in 1890 and 1898 :

great political opportunity of Lord Hartington's life came China Clay.


to him in Mr Gladstone's conversion to Home Rule.

Lord Hartington's refusal to follow his leader in this Tons.

course inevitably made him the chief of the new Liberal 1890 4133 £34,224 60,346 £30,173 6038 £9197

Unionist party, composed of a large and influential 1899 2468 £40,941 | 52,198 £30,187 990 £2292

section of the old Liberals. In this capacity he moved Much of the fishing is carried on within the 3 mile limit.

the first resolution at the famous public meeting at Pilchard, cod, sprats, brill, plaice, soles, turbot, shrimps, lobster, the Opera House, and also, in the House of Commons, oyster, and mussels, are met with, besides herrings and mackerel,

moved the rejection of Mr Gladstone's Bill on the which are rather plentiful. The principal fishing stations are Brixham and Plymouth, but there are small ones in all the bays

second reading. During the memorable electoral conand river outlets. The total amount of fish landed at Brixham test which followed, no election excited more interest in 1899 was 62,337 cwt., valued at £70,685 ; and at Plymouth than Lord Hartington's for the Rossendale Division, where 138,972 cwt., valued at £89,003. The annual average for all he was returned by a majority of nearly 1500 votes. In stations is about 280,000 cwt., valued at £180,000. Much of the

the new Parliament he held a position much resembling fish landed at Plymouth is from Cornwall. BIBLIOGRAPHY.—Among later works are BOASE. Devonshire

that which Sir Robert Peel had occupied after his fall from Bibliography. London, 1883.-Sir W. R. DRAKE. Devonshire power, the leader of a small, compact party, the standing Notes and Notelets. London, 1888.—HEWETT. Peasant Speech and ability of whose members were out of all proportion of Devon. London, 1892.—CHUDLEIGH. Devonshire Antiquities.

to their numbers, generally esteemed and trusted beyond Exeter, 1893.—Worth. History of Devonshire (popular county history series). London, 1886, new edition 1895.-D'URBAN and

any other man in the country, yet in his own opinion MATHEW. Birds of Devon. London, 1895; and WORTHY'S forbidden to think of office. Lord Salisbury's overtures, Devonshire Wilis. London, 1896.

(T. F. H.) at all events, were declined, and Lord Hartington con








tinued to discharge the delicate duties of the leader of a Gases” before the British Association. In 1878 he middle party with no less judgment than he had shown devoted a Friday evening lecture at the Royal Institution when leading the Liberals during the interregnum of to the then recent work of Cailletet and Pictet, and 1875–80. It was not until 1895, when the differences exhibited for the first time in Great Britain the working between Conservatives and Liberal Unionists had become of the Cailletet apparatus. Six years later, in the same almost obliterated by changed circumstances and the habit place, he described the researches of Wroblewski and of acting together, that the duke of Devonshire, as he had Olszewski, and illustrated for the first time in public become by the death of his father in 1891, consented to the liquefaction of oxygen and air, by means of apparatus enter Lord Salisbury's third Ministry as President of the specially designed for optical projection so that the Council. The duke thus was the nominal representative actions taking place might be visible to the audience. of education in the Cabinet at a time when educational Soon afterwards he constructed a machine from which the questions were rapidly becoming of great importance; liquefied gas could be drawn off through a valve for use as and the duke's own technical knowledge of this difficult a cooling agent, and he showed its employment for this and intricate question being admittedly superficial, a good purpose in connexion with some researches on meteorites; deal of criticism from time to time resulted. His great about the same time he also obtained


in the contribution to public life, however, has been the weight solid state.

solid state. By 1891 he had designed and erected at the of character which procured for him universal respect and Royal Institution an apparatus which yielded liquid confidence, and exempted him from bitter attack, even from oxygen by the pint, and towards the end of that year he his most determined political opponents. No man ever showed that both liquid oxygen and liquid ozone are doubted the duke of Devonshire's patriotism, or felt entirely strongly attracted by a magnet. About 1892 the idea secure in differing from his judgment. Wealth and rank occurred to him of using vacuum-jacketed vessels for the combined with character to place him in a measure above storage of liquid gases, and so efficient did this device party: and he remained a luminous example of the prove in preventing the influx of external heat that it benefit which a democratic community may derive from is found possible not only to preserve the liquids for the existence within it of an aristocratic class and the comparatively long periods, but also to keep them so free participation of its members in public affairs. The duke from ebullition that examination of their optical prosucceeded his father as Chancellor of the University of perties becomes possible. He next experimented with a Cambridge in 1892, and is a Knight of the Garter. high-pressure hydrogen jet by which low temperatures

were realized through the Thomson-Joule effect, and the Dewar, James (1842- —), British chemist and

successful results thus obtained led him to build the large physicist, was born at Kincardine-on-Forth, Scotland, on refrigerating machine by which in 1898 hydrogen was 20th September 1842. He was educated at Dollar Academy for the first time collected in the liquid state, its solidiand Edinburgh University, being at the latter first a fication following in 1899 (see LIQUID GASES). The pupil, and afterwards the assistant, of the late Lord Play- Royal Society in 1894 bestowed the Rumford Medal fair, then professor of chemistry; he also studied under upon Professor Dewar for his work in the production Kekulé at Ghent. In 1875 he was elected Jacksonian of low temperatures, and in 1899 he became the first professor of natural experimental philosophy at Cambridge, recipient of the Hodgkins Gold Medal of the Smithsonian becoming a fellow of Peterhouse, and in 1877 he succeeded Institution, Washington, for his contributions to our Dr J. H. Gladstone as Fullerian professor of chemistry in knowledge of the nature and properties of atmospheric air. the Royal Institution, London. He has been president of the Chemical Society and of the Society of Chemical Dewas, a native state of India, in the Indore agency. Industry, served on the Balfour Commission on London For more than a century the state has been divided, Water Supply (1893-94), and as a member of the Committee almost equally, between the descendants of a former chief, on Explosives (1888–91) invented cordite jointly with known as the senior and junior branches, or as Baba and Sir Frederick Abel. His scientific work covers a wide Dada Saheb. Both live in the town of Dewas, but exercise field. Of his earlier papers, some deal with questions exclusive jurisdiction over their several shares. Total of organic chemistry, others with Graham's hydrogenium area, 289 square miles. Population (1881), 142,162; and its physical constants, others with high temperatures, (1891), 152,073, showing an increase of 7 per cent., which e.g., the temperature of the sun and of the electric spark, has been almost confined to the share of the senior branch; others again with electro-photometry and the chemistry average density, 526 persons per square mile. The chiefs of the electric arc. With Professor M'Kendrick, "of are Rajputs of the Puar clan, of the same family as the Glasgow, he investigated the physiological action of light, Raja of Dhar. The two chiefs ruling in 1901 were named and examined the changes which take place in the elec- Krishnaji Rao and Mulhar Rao, these names showing trical condition of the retina under its influence. With Maratha influence. Professor G. D. Liveing, one of his colleagues at Cam- The town of DEWAS is situated in 22° 58' N. lat. and bridge, he began in 1878 a long series of spectroscopic 76° 6' E. long., about 20 miles north-east of Indore. Popuobservations, the most recent of which have been devoted lation, 11,921. It has a high school and a hospital. to the spectroscopic examination of various gaseous constituents separated from atmospheric air by the aid of low Dewey, George (1837- —), American naval

temperatures. Since the time that liquid air and liquid commander, was born in Montpelier, Vt., on 26th December oxygen have been available in considerable quantities, he 1837, and graduated at the U.S. Naval Academy in 1858. has been joined by Professor J. A. Fleming, of University In the Civil War he served as lieutenant on the steam College, London, in the investigation of the electrical sloop Mississippi, during Farragut's passage of the forts behaviour of substances cooled to very low tempera- below New Orleans in April 1862, and at Port Hudson tures. His name is most widely known in connexion in March 1863. After the war he performed various with his work on the liquefaction of the so-called perma- routine duties, rising in grade to commodore (February nent gases and his researches at temperatures approaching 1896). On 30th November 1897 he was assigned, at his the zero of absolute temperature.

His interest in own request, to sea service, and sent to Asiatic waters. this branch inquiry dates back at least as

Being notified by telegraph in April 1898, while with his 1874, when he discussed the “Latent Heat of Liquid fleet at Hong Kong, that war had been declared with In

far as


Spain, and ordered to "capture or destroy the Spanish Government canals; the number of police was 945; the fleet” at the Philippines, he departed for Manila with his children at school in 1897–98 numbered 34,298, being 3:4 squadron, after procuring coal and provisions for the ex- per cent. of the total population; the death-rate in 1897 pedition. Steaming into Manila harbour, his fleet

was 37:57


thousand. The principal crops are millets, advanced on 1st May at early dawn against the Spanish pulse, and cotton. The centres of the cotton trade are vessels sighted at the other end of the bay. His flagship, Hubli and Gadak, junctions on the Southern Mahratta Railthe Olympia, led in a fight at close range which lasted, way, which now traverses the district in several directions. with slight intermission, until the afternoon, when the

Dholpur, a native state of India, in the Rajputana last Spanish flag was hauled down. The surrender of the city of Manila followed later.

agency, with an area of 1156 square miles. The populaAfter remaining in

tion in 1881 was 249,657; in 1891 it was 279,980, giving the Philippines under orders from his Government to main tain control, Dewey returned home, October 1899, receiving

an average density of 242 persons per square mile.

1901 the population was 271,496, showing a decrease of great ovations. He was advanced to rear-admiral, with the

3 thanks of Congress, soon after his victory, and was pro

per cent. The estimated revenue is Rs.12,50,000. There moted to admiral on 2nd March 1899.

were six schools, with 366 pupils, in 1897–98; and four

dispensaries, attended by 25,843 patients. The state is Dewsbury, a municipal and parliamentary borough crossed by the Indian Midland Railway from Jhansi to and market-town of Yorkshire, England, on the Calder, 7 Agra. In recent years it has suffered severely from miles east-north-east of Huddersfield by rail. The old church drought. In 1896–97 the expenditure on famine relief of All Saints has been enlarged; besides, there are five amounted to Rs.1,22,859. Established, a Roman Catholic, and several Nonconformist The town of DHOLPUR is 34 miles south of Agra by churches, grammar and technical schools, an infirmary, and, rail. Population, about 16,000. of recent erection, a town-hall, a free library, and public Dhrangadra, a native state of India, in the baths. The hall and library in the buildings of an Gujarat division of Bombay, situated in the north of the industrial co-operative society also deserve mention. A

peninsula of Kathiawar. Its area is 1156 square miles. public park was opened in 1893. There are iron foundries

The population in 1881 was 99,686, and in 1891 was and works for machinery. Area of municipal borough, 1468

103,751; the estimated gross revenue is Rs.5,75,110, of Population (1881), 29,637; (1901), 28,050.

which Rs. 25,790 was expended on public works in 1897– Dhar, a native state of India, in the Bhopawar

98; the tribute is Rs.44,677. A railway on the metre agency, Central India, includes many Rajput and Bhil gauge from Wadhwan to the town of Dhrangadra (21 miles) feudatories, and has an area of 1740 square miles. In

was opened for traffic in 1898. 1881 it had a population of 151,877, and in 1891 of

The town of DHRANGADRA is situated in 22° 59' N. lat. 169,474, showing an average density of 98 persons per

and 71° 31' E. long. There is a printing-press, issuing an square mile. The revenue in 1897–98 was Rs.8,57,909 ;

official gazette. Population (1891), 15,209. the police force numbered 1015 men. The state includes Dhuleep Singh (1837–1893), Maharajah of the ruins of Mandu, or Mandogarh, the Mahommedan Lahore, was born in February 1837, and was proclaimed capital of Malwa.

Maharajah on 18th September 1843, under the regency of The town of DAAR is 33 miles west of Mhow, 908 feet his mother the Ranee Jinda, a woman of great capacity above the sea. Population, about 15,000. It is a centre and strong will

, but extremely inimical to the British. of the opium trade, and has a high school and hospital. He was acknowledged by Runjeet Singh and recognized by

the British Government. After six years of peace the Dharampur, a native state of India, in the Gujarat division of Bombay, with an area of 794 square

Sikhs invaded British territory in 1845, but were defeated miles. The population in 1881 was 101,289; in 1891

in four battles, and terms were imposed upon them at

Lahore, the capital of the Punjab. Dhuleep Singh it was 120,498; the estimated gross Rs.4,12,712, of which Rs.88,000 was expended in public

retained his territory, but it was administered to a great

extent by the British Government in his name. This works in 1897-98; the tribute is Rs.9000. The state

arrangement increased the Regent's dislike of the British, has been surveyed for land revenue on the Bombay system.

and a fresh outbreak occurred in 1848–49. In spite of the The number of police was 170; the number of schools was

valour of the Sikhs, they were utterly routed at Gujarat, 20, with 940 pupils in 1897–98. The population of

and in March 1849 Dhuleep Singh was deposed, a Dharampur town in 1891 was 4775.

pension of £40,000 a year being granted to him and his Dharwar, a town and district of British India, in dependants. He became a Christian and elected to live in the Carnatic or Canarese-speaking division of Bombay, England. On coming of age he made an arrangement with a railway station. The population in 1881 was with the Government by which his income was reduced to 27,191 ; in 1891 it was 32,841. It has two ginning £25,000 in consideration of advances for the purchase of factories and a cotton-mill with 10,000 spindles, employing an estate, and he finally settled at Elvedon in Suffolk. 200 hands; two high schools, one maintained by the While passing through Alexandria in 1864 he met Miss Government and the other by the Basel German Mission, Bamba Muller, the daughter of a German merchant who with 466 pupils in 1896–97; training schools for masters married an Abyssinian. The Maharajah had been and for mistresses; fourteen printing-presses, eleven of interested in mission work by Sir John Login, and he met which issue periodicals in Canarese and Mahratti.

Miss Muller at one of the missionary schools where she The DISTRICT OF DHARWAR has an area of 4603 square was teaching. She became his wife on 7th June 1864, miles. In 1881 it had a population of 893,587, and in and six children were the issue of the marriage. In the 1891 of 1,051,314, giving an average density of 228 year after her death in 1890 the Maharajah married at persons per square mile. In 1901 the population was Paris, as his second wife, an English lady, Miss Ada 1,113,426, showing an increase of 6 per cent. The land Douglas Wetherill, who survived him. The Maharajah revenue and rates were Rs.33,01,157, the incidence of was passionately fond of sport, and his shooting parties assessment being R.1–3–5 per acre; the cultivated area were celebrated, while he himself became a persona grata in 1897–98 was 2,076,808 acres, of which 94,323 were in English society. The result, however, was financial irrigated from tanks, &c., including 4381 acres from difficulty, and in 1882 he appealed to the Government for




assistance, making various claims based upon the alleged of two Sassanian palaces, apparently built with materials possession of private estates in the Punjab, and upon from an older palace, perhaps that of Tigranes II. The the surrender of the Kohinoor diamond to the English churches of SS. Cosmas and Damian (Jacobite) and Crown. His demand was rejected, whereupon he started St James (Greek) are also of interest. The climate for India, after drawing up a proclamation to his former in winter is good ; snow often lies, and there is suffisubjects. But as it was deemed inadvisable to allow him cient ice for storage for summer

In summer to visit the Punjab, he remained for some time as a guest it is very hot and unhealthy. Epidemics of typhus are at the residency at Aden, and was allowed to receive frequent, and ophthalmia and the “ Aleppo button ” are some of his relatives to witness his abjuration of Chris- common. Scorpions, noted for the virulence of their tianity, which actually took place within the residency poison, abound. There are a few small industries, itself. As the climate began to affect his health, the silver filigree work, morocco leather, cotton, and silk. Maharajah at length left Aden and returned to Europe. Fruit is grown near the town, but little of the adjoining He stayed for some time in Russia, hoping that his claim land is cultivated. The principal exports are wool, against England would be taken up by the Russians; but mohair, copper ore, &c.; and the imports, cotton and when that expectation proved futile he proceeded to Paris, woollen goods, indigo, coffee, sugar, petroleum, &c. The where he lived for the rest of his life on the pension population is 25,000 (Turks, Kúrds, and Arabs, 13,000 ; allowed him by the Indian Government. His death from Armenians, Jacobites, Greeks, Protestants, and Jews, an attack of apoplexy took place at Paris, 22nd October 12,000). During the massacres of 1895 the Christians 1893.

(G. F. B.) successfully defended themselves against the Moslems. Dhulia, a town of British India, administrative

(c. W. w.) headquarters of Khandesh district in Bombay, on the right bank of the Panjhra river. The population in 1881

Diaz, Narcisse Virgilio (1808-1876), French was 18,449; in 1891 it was 21,880. It has cantonments

painter, was born in Bordeaux of Spanish parents, 25th

August 1808. At first a figure-painter who indulged in for the Bhil Corps and a detachment of the Poona Horse. Considerable trade is done in cotton and oil-seeds, and

strong colour, in his later life Diaz became a painter of the

forest and a “tone artist” of the first order. He spent much weaving of cotton. It contains the Garud High School, with 348 pupils in 1896-97, and five printing-presses, each

time at Barbizon ; and although he is the least exalted of the

; issuing a vernacular newspaper.

A railway to connect

half-dozen great artists who are usually grouped round that Dhulia with Chalisgaon, on the main line of the Great

name, he sometimes produced works of the highest quality. Indian Peninsula (37 miles), was commenced in 1900.

At the age of ten Diaz became an orphan, and misfortune

dogged his earlier years. His foot was bitten by a reptile in Diabetes. See PATHOLOGY (Metabolic Diseases). Meudon wood, near Sèvres, where he had been taken to live

with some friends of his mother. The bite was badly Diamantina, a town of Brazil, in the state of Minas Geraes, with a population of 13,000, is the centre

dressed, and ultimately it cost him his leg. Afterwards his of the diamond mine district, and yields the larger part of

wooden stump became famous. At fifteen he entered the the production of diamonds in Brazil, which is estimated

studios at Sèvres, where the decoration of porcelain

occupied him ; but tiring of the restraint of fixed hours, he at 40,000 carats a year.

took to painting Eastern figures dressed in richly coloured Diarbekr.-I. A viláyet of Asiatic Turkey through garments. Turks and Oriental scenes attracted him, and which the western arm of the Tigris flows. It extends many brilliant gems remain of this period. About 1831 southwards from Palu, on the Euphrates, to Mardin and Diaz encountered Théodore Rousseau, for whom he Nisibin, and is divided into three sanjaks — Arghana, entertained a great veneration, although Rousseau was : Diarbekr, and Mardin. Cereals, cotton, tobacco, rice, and four years his junior; but it was not until ten years later silk are produced ; but most of the fertile lands have that the remarkable incident took place of Rousseau teachbeen abandoned to the nomads and semi-nomads, who | ing Diaz to paint trees. At Fontainebleau Diaz found raise large quantities of live-stock. Copper, galena, Rousseau painting his wonderful forest pictures, and mineral oil, and silicious sand are found. The population determined to paint in the same way if possible

. Rousseau, is about 480,000 (Moslems, including nomad and semi- then in poor health, worried at home, and embittered nomad Kúrds, 336,000; Yezidis and Gypsies, 4000; against the world, was difficult to approach. Diaz folChristians, chiefly Armenians and Syrians, 139,000 ; lowed him surreptitiously to the forest, —wooden leg not Jews, 1000). II. The chief town of the viláyet and of a hindering, and he dodged round after the painter, sanjak of the same name (the ancient Amida), seat of a trying to observe his method of work. After a time Diaz Governor-General, headquarters of a military district, found a way to become friendly with Rousseau, and situated at an altitude of 1950 feet, on a high mass of revealed his anxiety to understand his painting. Rousseau basalt rock on the right bank of the Tigris, which is here was touched with the passionate words of admiration, and crossed by a stone bridge and is fordable in several places finally taught Diaz asl he knew. Diaz exhibited many in winter. Its position at the head of raft navigation on pictures at the Paris Salon, and was decorated in 1851. the Tigris, and with easy roads to Alexandretta on the During the war, twenty years later, he went to Brussels. Mediterranean, Samsún on the Black Sea, Erzerum, Bitlis, After 1871 he became fashionable, his works gradually and Mosul, has always been one of commercial and rose in the estimation of collectors, and he worked strategic importance. Old walls, pierced by four gates,

Old walls, pierced by four gates, constantly and successfully. In 1876 he caught cold at and standing above cliffs from 20 to 40 feet high, sur- his son's grave, and on 18th November of that year he died round the town, and beneath them, on the river side, are at Mentone, whither he had gone to recruit his health. irrigated gardens. At the north-east angle, on the highest Diaz's finest pictures are his forest scenes and storms, and ground, are the ruins of a citadel, in which is the Serai or it is on these, and not on his pretty figures, that his fame Government House. The streets are narrow, badly paved, is likely to rest. There are several fairly good examples and filthy. The houses are low, and built partly of black of the master in the Louvre, and three small figure pictures basalt—whence the ancient name of the town, Kara (black) | in the Wallace Collection, Hertford House. Perhaps the Amid—and partly of dark coloured sun-dried bricks. In most notable of Diaz's works are “La Fée aux Perles” the great mosque, Ulu Jami' and its court are the façades (1857), in the Louvre ; “Sunset in the Forest” (1868); “The Storm,” and “The Forest of Fontainebleau” (1870) | Williamson Artisan School is entirely supported by an at Leeds. Diaz had no well-known pupils, but Léon endowment. There are three printing-presses. Richet followed markedly his methods of tree-painting, and J. F. Millet (7.v.) at one period painted small figures Dictionary.-A dictionary is a book in which the in avowed imitation of Diaz's then popular subjects. words of a language, or words of a special class, are

arranged, generally in alphabetical order, and their meanAUTHORITIES.-A. HUSTIN. Les Artistes Célèbres : Diaz. Paris.-D. CROAL THOMSON. The Barbizon School of Painters.

ing and idiomatic use are explained in the same or in a London, 1890.–J. W. MOLLETT. Diaz. London, 1890.–J. different language. Most modern dictionaries give also the CLARETIE. Peintres et Sculpteurs Contemporains : Diaz. Paris, pronunciation of the words defined and an account of their 1882.—ALBERT WOLFF. La Capitale de l'Art: Narcisse Diaz.

derivation or etymology, and some add information of Paris, 1886.—PH. BURTY. Maitres et Petit-Maitres: N. Diaz. Paris, 1877.

(D. C. T.)

various kinds about the things or processes which certain

words designate. If the latter variety are general (not Diaz, Porfirio (1830- —), President of the

limited to a special class of words) they are commonly Republic of Mexico, was born at Oaxaca 15th September called encyclopædic. · A general dictionary in which the 1830. He was educated for the Church, but upon

information given relates only to the meaning, idiomatic becoming his own master decided to follow the profession use, pronunciation, orthography, derivation, and history of of the law; and, about 1855, the disturbed condition of

words (or to some of these things) is literary, pedagogical, the country, in revolt against Santa Anna, made him a or philological. Special dictionaries are classed as technical soldier. He took a prominent part in the resistance to the

when they include only the terms of one or more of the French invasion in 1863, and so greatly distinguished sciences, arts, or trades. The name is also given to himself as to have become by 1867 commander of the certain works, such as a “rhyming dictionary,” a “dictionarmy of the east, to which the capital surrendered after the ary of biography,” a “dictionary of quotations,” and the execution of the Emperor Maximilian. He then retired like, which are not of a strictly lexicographic character, into private life, but in 1870–72 was in arms against

and to encyclopædias. For a detailed description of President Juarez, and in 1875 placed himself at the

dictionaries of various kinds, and for a list of the more head of an insurrection against the Government of important of them, the reader is referred to the article in President Lerdo de Tejada. After many desperate

the ninth edition of this work, vol. vii. (pp. 179–193). struggles and hairbreadth escapes he entered the city of Here only the more noteworthy recent work in general Mexico in November 16, and was elected President in lexicography will be considered. 1877. His repudiation of all the promises he had made in

At no time has progress in the making of general the programme he had put forward at the beginning of the dictionaries been so rapid as during the second half civil war caused his term of office to be exceedingly stormy,

of the 19th century. It is to be seen in three things : but he suppressed all opposition, and in 1880 peacefully

in the perfecting of the theory of what a general transmitted his power to General Gonzalez, his Secretary dictionary should be; in the elaboration of methods of War. In 1884 he was elected for a second term,

of collecting and editing lexicographic materials; and in and, the provision of the Constitution which for- the magnitude and improved quality of the work which bade the re-election of a President having been repealed,

has been accomplished or planned.

Each of these can he continued to be regularly re-elected; and no disquiet

best be illustrated from English lexicography, in which ing event has since occurred, except an abortive attempt

the process of development has in all directions been to assassinate him in 1897. Under his vigorous rule the

carried farthest. The advance that has been made in most anarchical of Spanish American states has become the

theory began with a radical change of opinion with regard most orderly; military revolts have disappeared; the laws

to the chief end of the general dictionary of a language. are executed without opposition ; industry has been

The older view of the matter was that the lexicographer stimulated, to the great increase of national wealth ; roads

should furnish a standard of usage—should register only and railways have been multiplied ; foreign capital has

those words which are, or at some period of the language been invested and rendered secure; and the financial credit have been, “good” from a literary point of view, with of the country, which had sunk to the lowest ebb, has been their “proper” senses and uses, or should at least furnish entirely re-established. All these benefits are owing to the means of determining what these are. In other words, General Diaz's force of character and administrative his chief duty was conceived to be to sift and refine, to ability, and he has incontestably earned the title of the decide authoritatively questions with regard to good usage, regenerator of Mexico.

and thus to fix the language as completely as might be possible within

the limits determined by the literary taste Dibrugarh, a town of British India, in the


of his time. Thus the Accademia della Crusca, founded Lakhimpur district of Assam, of which it is the head- near the close of the 16th century, was established for quarters, situated on the Dibru river about 4 miles the purpose of purifying in this way the Italian tongue, above its confluence with the Brahamaputra. In 1881 it and in 1612 the Vocabolario degli Accademici della Crusca, had a population of 7153, and in 1891 of 9876. It is long the standard of that language, was published. The the terminus of steamer navigation on the Brahmaputra, Académie Française, the first edition of whose dictionary and also of a railway running to important coal-mines and appeared in 1694, had a similar origin. In England the petroleum wells, which will ultimately be connected with idea of constructing a dictionary upon this principle the Assam-Bengal system. Large quantities of coal and arose during the second quarter of the 18th century. It tea are exported. There are a military cantonment, with 280 was imagined by men of letters—among them Alexander men in 1898 ; the headquarters of the volunteer corps Pope—that the English language had then attained such known as the Assam Valley Light Horse ; a Government perfection that further improvement was hardly possible, high school, with 292 pupils in 1896-97; a training school and it was feared that if it were not fixed by lexicographic for masters; and an aided school for girls. In 1900 a authority deterioration would soon begin. Since there medical school for the province was established, out of a was no English “Academy,” it was necessary that the task bequest of Rs.50,000 left by the late Brigade-Surgeon J. should fall to some one whose judgment would command Berry-White, which will be maintained by the Govern- respect, and the man who undertook it was Samuel Johnment, to train hospital assistants for the tea gardens. The His dictionary, the first edition of which, in two

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