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(15 sp.), Java, Sumatra, and Borneo, with a species in the Ganges, in Siam, and (?) in Amboyna ; Callich rous (10 sp.), Afghanistan to Borneo and Java; Schilbe (5 sp.), Tropical Africa; Eutropius (6 sp.), Tropical Africa and Central India; Hemisilurus (2 sp.), Java and Sumatra; Siluranodon (1 sp.), Nile; Ailia (2 sp.), Bengal; Schilbichthys (1 sp.), Bengal; Lais (1 sp.), Java, Sumatra, Borneo; Pseudeutropius (6 sp.), India and Sumatra; Pangasius (7 sp.), Ganges, Sumatra, Java, Borneo; Helicophagus (2 sp.), Sumatra ; Silondia (1 sp.), Ganges. Sub-family 3 (SILURIDAE ANOMALOPTERAF) is confined to Equatorial America; it consists of the group Hypopthalmina, containing 2 genera: Helogenes (1 sp.), Hypopthalmus (4 sp.), from the country north of the Amazon, Surinam, and the Rio Negro. Sub-family 4 (SILURIDAE PROTEROPTERAE) ranges over all the tropical and most of the temperate parts of the globe, except Europe and Australia. It consists of four groups: Bagrina (16 genera), ranging over most of the Old World and North America; Pimelodina (15 genera), confined to Tropical America, except one genus which is African; Ariina (10 genera), all Tropical regions; and Bagarina (3 genera), Oriental region. The distribution of the genera is as follows:– Bagrus (2 sp.), Nile; Chrysochthys (5 sp.), Tropical Africa; Clarotes (1 sp.), Upper Nile; Macrones (19 sp.), India, Ceylon to Borneo, and one species in Asia Minor; Pseudobagrus (4 sp.), Japan, China, and Cochin China; Liocassis (5 sp.), Japan, China, Java, Sumatra, and Borneo; Bagroides (3 sp.), Sumatra and Borneo; Bagrichthys (1 sp.), Sumatra and Borneo; Rita (5 sp.), Continental India and Manilla; Acrochordonichthys (6 sp.), Java and Sumatra: Akysis (3 sp.), Java and Sumatra ; Olyra (1 sp.), Khasya; Branchiosteus (1 sp.), Khasya; Amiurus (13 sp.), Nearctic region to Guatemala and China; Hopladelus (1 sp.), North America; Noturus (4 sp.), North America; Sorubim (1 sp.), Amazon; Platystoma (11 sp.), Tropical South America;

Hemisorubim (1 sp.) Rio Negro, Brazil; Platostomatichthys

(1 sp.), Rio Branco, Brazil; Phractocephalus (1 sp.), Amazon; Pramutana (2 sp.), Equatorial America; Platynematichthys (1 sp.), northern and southern tributaries of Amazon; Piratinga (3 sp.), Amazon Valley; Sciades (2 sp.), Amazon ; Pimelodus (42 sp.), Mexico to La Plata, single aberrant species from West Africa, Java and the Sandwich Islands; Pirinampus (1 sp.), Brazil; Conorhynchus (1 sp.), Brazil; Notoglamis (1 sp.), Madeira, Amazon Valley; Callophysus (3 sp.), Tropical South America; Auchenaspis (1 sp.), Tropical Africa; Arius (68 sp.), all Tropical regions; Galeichthys (1 sp.), Cape of Good Hope; Genidens (1 sp.), Brazil; Hemipimelodus (3 sp.), India, Sumatra, and Borneo; Ketingus (1 sp.), Sunda Islands; Ælurichthys (4 sp.), Eastern United States to Guiana; Paradiplomysław (1 sp.), Brazil; Diplomysław (1 sp.), Chili; Osteogeniosus (3 sp.), India to Java; Batrachocephalus (1 sp.), Java and Sumatra; Bagarius (1 sp.), India to Java; Euclyptosternum (1 sp.), India; Glyptosternum (8 sp.), Himalayas, Central India, Java, and Sumatra; Hara (3 sp.), Continental India; Amblyceps (3 sp.), Continental India. Sub-family 5 (SILURIDE STENOBRANCHLE) is confined to South America and Africa, with one genus and species in the Ganges. It consists of three groups: Doradina (12 genera), South America and Africa; Rhinoglanina (3 genera), Central Africa and the Ganges; Malapterurina (1 genus), Tropical Africa. The distribution of the genera is as follows:– Ageniosus (4 sp.), Surinam to La Plata; Tetranematichthys (1 sp.), Central Brazil, Rio Guaporé, Evanemus (1 sp.), Surinam and Brazil; Auchenipterus (9 sp.), Equatorial America; Centromochlus (2 sp.), Equatorial America; Trachelyopterus (2 sp.), Equatorial America; Cetopsis (3 sp.), Brazil; Asterophysus (1 sp.), Rio Negro, North Brazil; Doras (13 sp.), Tropical South America east of Andes; Orydoras (7 sp.), Amazon Valley and Guiana; Rhinodoras (3 sp.), Tropical South America east of Andes; Synodontis (12 sp.), Tropical Africa; Rhinoglands (1 sp.), Upper Nile; Mochocus (1 sp.), Nile; Callomystaw (1 sp.), Nile; Malapterurus (3 sp.), Tropical Africa. Sub-family 6 (SILURIDAE PROTEROPODES) inhabits Tropical America and Northern India as far as Tenasserim. It consists of two groups: the Hypostomatina (17 genera), with the same distribution as the sub-family, and the Aspredimina (3 genera),


confined to Equatorial America. The distribution of the genera is as follows:– Arges (2 sp.), Andes of Peru and Ecuador; Stygogenes (2 sp.), Andes; Brontes (1 sp.), Andes; Astroblepus (1 sp.), Popayan; Callichthys (11 sp.), Tropical South America east of Andes, and Trinidad; Plecostomus (15 sp.), Tropical South America east of Andes, and Trinidad; Liposarcus (3 sp.), Surinam and Brazil; Chaetostomus (25 sp.), Tropical America, Trinidad, and Porto Rico; Pterygoplichthys (4 sp.), Brazil; Rhinelepis (1 sp.), Brazil; Acanthicus (2 sp.), Equatorial America; Loricaria (17 sp.), Tropical South America east of Andes; Acestra (4 sp.), Brazil and Guiana; Sisor (1 sp.), Northern Bengal; Erethistes (1 sp.), Assam; Pseudecheneis (1 sp.), Khasya Hills; Exostoma (2 sp.), Assam and Tenasserim ; Bunocephalus (2 sp.), Guiana; Bunocephalichthys (1 sp.), Rio Branco, North Brazil; Aspredo (6 sp.), Guiana. Sub-family 7 (SILURIDE OpisthopterA) consists of two groups: Nematogenyina (2 genera), and Trichomycterina (3 genera), and is confined to South America. The distribution of the genera is as follows:– Heptapterus (2 sp.), South America; Nematogenys (1 sp.), Chili; Trichomycterus (7 sp.), South America to 15,000 feet elevation; Eremophilus (1 sp.), Andes of Bogota; Pariodon (1 sp.), Amazon. Sub-family 8 (SILURIDAE BRANCHICOLE) is confined to Tropical South America. It consists of one group, Stegophilina, and 2 genera: Stegophilus (1 sp.), Brazil; and Vandellia (2 sp.), Amazon Valley.

FAMILY 60, CHARACINIDAE (47 Genera, 230 Species) “Fresh-water fishes, with scaly bodies and without barbels.” DISTRIBUTION.—The Neotropical and Ethiopian regions.

This extensive family is divided by Dr. Günther into 10 groups, viz.: Erythrinina (5 genera), South America; Curumatina (6 genera), South America; Citharinina (1 genus), Tropical Africa; Anostomatina (3 genera), South America; Tetragonopterina (16 genera), South America and Tropical Africa; Hydrocyonina (9 genera), Tropical America and Tropical Africa; Distichodontina (1 genus), Tropical Africa; Icthyborina (1 genus), Africa; Crenuchina (1 genus), Equatorial America; Serrasalmonina (4 genera), South America. The following is the distribution of the genera:Macrodon (4 sp.), Tropical America; Erythrinus (5 sp.), Brazil and Guiana; Lebiasina (1 sp.), West Equatorial America; Pyrrhulina (1 sp.), Guiana; Corynopoma (4 sp.), Trinidad only; Curimatus (15 sp.), Tropical South America and Trinidad; Prochilodus (12 sp.), South America to the La Plata; Contropus (2 sp.), East Equatorial America; Hemiodus (8 sp.), Equatorial America east of Andes; Saccodon (1 sp.), Ecuador; Parodon (1 sp.), Brazil; Citharinus (2 sp.), Tropical Africa; Anostomus (8 sp.), Tropical America; Rhytiodus (2 sp.), Equatorial America; Leporinus (14 sp.), South America East of Andes; Piabucina (2 sp.), Guiana; Alestes (4 sp.), Tropical Africa: Brachyalestes (5 sp.), Tropical Africa; Tetragonopterus (32 sp.), Tropical America; Scissor (1 sp.), South America; Pseudochalceus (1 sp.), West Ecuador; Chirodon (2 sp.), Chili; Chalceus (1 sp.), Guiana; Brycon (10 sp.), South America east of Andes; Chalcinopsis (4 sp.), Central America and Ecuador; Brycomops (2 sp.), Tropical America; Creagrutus (1 sp.), Western Ecuador; Chalcinus (4 sp.), Tropical South America; Gastropelecus (8 sp.), Tropical South America; Piabuca (2 sp.), Equatorial America; Agoniates (1 sp.), Guiana; Anacyrtus (7 sp.), Central and South America; Hystricodon (1 sp.), Equatorial America; Salminus (3 sp.), South America; Hydrocyon (3 sp.), Tropical Africa; Sarcodaces (1 sp.), West Africa; Oligosarcus (1 sp.), Brazil; A phoramphus (7 sp.), South America east of Andes; Xiphostoma (5 sp.), Equatorial America east of Andes; Cynodon (3 sp.), Tropical America East of Andes; Distichodus (7 sp.), Tropical Africa; Ichyborus (3 sp.), Nile; Crenuchus (1 sp.), Guiana; Mylesinus (1 sp.), Equatorial America; Serrasalmo (13 sp.), Tropical South America east of Andes; Myletes (18 sp.), Tropical South America east of Andes; Catoprion (1 sp.), Brazil and Guiana.


FAMILY 61–HAPLOCHITONIDAE (2 Genera, 3 Species.)

“Fresh-water fishes, with naked or scaly bodies and without barbels.”

DISTRIBUTION.—Temperate South America and South Australia.

The genera are, Haplochiton (2 sp.), Tierra del Fuego and the Falkland Islands; Prototroctes (2 sp.), Southern Australia and New Zealand.

FAMILY 62–STERNOPTYCHIDAE. (6 Genera, 12 Species.)

“Marine fishes, with very thin deciduous scales or none, and with a row of phosphorescent spots or organs on the under surface of the body.”

DISTRIBUTION.—Mediterranean and Atlantic.

These are deep-sea fishes found in the Mediterranean sea, and in the deep Atlantic from the coasts of Norway to the Azores and the Tropics.

FAMILY 63—SCOPELIDAE (11 Genera, 47 Species) “Marine fishes, somewhat resembling the fresh-water Siluridae.”

DISTRIBUTION.—Almost universal, but most abundant in warm and tropical seas.

These are deep-sea fishes, abounding in the Mediterranean

and the great oceans, a few extending north to near Greenland and south to Tasmania.

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