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Hypophthalmichthys (2 sp.), China; Abramis (16 sp.), North America, Central Europe, and Western Asia (1 sp. is British); Aspius (3 sp.), East Europe, Western Asia, China ; Alburnus (15 sp.), Europe and Western Asia (1 British sp.); Rasborichthys (1 sp.), Borneo; Elopichthys (1 sp.), China ; Pelotrophus (2 sp.), East Africa; Acanthobrama (3 sp.), Western Asia; Osteobrama (5 sp.), Continental India; Chanodichthys (6 sp.), China and Formosa ; Smiliogaster (1 sp.), Bengal; Culter (2 sp.), China ; Pelecus (1 sp.), Eastern Europe ; Eustira (1 sp.), Ceylon; Chela (16 sp.), India to Siam, Java and Borneo; Pseudolabuca (1 sp.), China; Cachius (1 sp.), Continental India; Homaloptera (8 sp.), India to Cochin China, Java, and Sumatra ; Psilorhynchus (2 sp.), North-eastern India; Misgurnus (5 sp.), Europe to India, China, and Japan; Nemachilus (37 sp.), Europe and Asia ; Cobitis (3 sp.), Europe, India, Japan ; Lepidocepalichthys (3 sp.), India, Ceylon, and Java; Acanthopsis (2 sp.), Tenasserim, Sumatra, Java, and Borneo; Botio (7 sp.), India to Japan and Sunda Isles; Oreonectes (1 sp.), China ; Lepidocephalus (1 sp.), Java and Sumatra ; Acanthopthalmus (2 sp.), Java and Sumatra ; Apua (1 sp.), Tenasserinı ; Kneria (2 sp.), Tropical Africa.

FAMILY 76.-GONORHYNCHIDÆ. (1 Genus, 1 Species.)

"A marine fish with spiny scales, mouth with barbels, and with short dorsal fin opposite the ventrals."

DISTRIBUTION.—Temperate parts of Southern Oceans, and Japan.

FAMILY 77.—HYODONTIDÆ (1 Genus, 1 Species.)

'A fresh-water fish with cycloid scales and posterior dorsal fin."

DISTRIBUTION.- Fresh waters of North America.

FAMILY 78.-OSTEOGLOSSIDÆ. (3 Genera, 5 Species.)

“Fresh-water fishes, with large hard scales, and dorsal fin opposite and equal to the anal fin."

DISTRIBUTION.—Tropical rivers.

The genera are Osteoglossum (3 sp.), Eastern South America, Sunda Islands, and Queensland; Arapaima (1 sp.), Eastern South America—the “Pirarucú” of the Amazon ; Heterotis (1 sp.), Tropical Africa.

FAMILY 79.-CLUPEIDÆ (18 Genera, 161 Species.)

“ Marine scaly fishes, without barbels, and with the abdomen often compressed and serrated."

DISTRIBUTION.-Seas of the whole globe, many species entering rivers. They are most abundant in the Indian seas, less so in America, scarce in Africa, while they are almost absent from Australia. The Herring, Sprat, Shad, and Pilchard, are British species of Clupea, a genus which contains 61 species and ranges all over the world.

FAMILY 80.—CHIROCENTRIDÆ. (1 Genus, 1 Species.)

“A marine fish, with thin deciduous scales, no barbels, and posterior dorsal fin.”

DISTRIBUTION.—The Eastern seas from Africa to China.

FAMILY 81.—ALEPOCEPHALIDÆ. (1 Genus, 1 Species.)

“A marine fish, covered with thin cycloid scales, no barbels, and posterior dorsal fin."

DISTRIBUTION.—Deep waters of the Mediterranean.

FAMILY 82.—NOTOPTERIDÆ. (1 Genus, 5 Species.) “Fresh-water fishes, without barbels, head and body scaly, long tapering tail, and short posterior dorsal fin.”

DISTRIBUTION.-Rivers of India, Siam, the Sunda Islands, and West Africa.

FAMILY 83.-HALOSAURIDÆ. (1 Genus, 1 Species.) "Marine fishes, with cycloid scales, a short median dorsal fin, and no barbels.”

DISTRIBUTION.—Deep waters of the Atlantic, Madeira.

FAMILY 84.—GYMNOTIDÆ. (5 Genera, 20 Species.) “Fresh-water fishes, with elongate bodies, pointed tail, and no dorsal fin."

DISTRIBUTION.—Tropical America from Trinidad to the River Parana.

The genera are distributed as follows :

Sternarchus (8 sp.), Guiana and Brazil ; Rhamphichthys (6 sp.), Guiana and Brazil ; Sternophygus (4 sp.), Tropical America; Carapus (1 sp.), Trinidad to Brazil ; Gymnotus, (1 sp. -the Electric eel), Tropical South America.

FAMILY 85.-SYMBRANCHIDÆ. (4 Genera, 6 Species.)

“ Marine and fresh-water fishes, having elongate bodies without fins, and very minute scales or none."

DISTRIBUTION.Fresh waters and coasts of Western Australia and Tasmania.

The genera are :

Amphipnous (1 sp.), Bengal; Monopterus (1 sp.), Siam to Northern China and Sunda Islands ; Symbranchus (3 sp.), Tropical

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America, and India to Australia ; Chilobranchus (1 sp.), Australia and Tasmania.

FAMILY 86.-MURÆNIDÆ. (26 Genera, 230 Species.)

“ Marine or fresh-water fishes, with cylindrical or band-like bodies and no ventral fins."

DISTRIBUTION.—The seas and fresh waters of temperate and tropical regions. This family is divided by Dr. Günther into two sub-families and nine sections. The genus Anguilla, comprising our common Eel and a number of species from all parts of the world, is the only one which is found in fresh water, though even here most of the species are marine. Anguilla and Conger are the only British genera.

FAMILY 87.—PEGASIDÆ. (1 Genus, 4 Species.)

“Small marine fishes, covered with bony plates, and short opposite dorsal and anal fins.”

DISTRIBUTION.- Indian Ocean and seas of China and Australia,


“Fish with a segmented bony covering, long snout, and small toothless mouth.”

FAMILY 88.—SOLENOSTOMIDÆ. (1 Genus, 3 Species.)

"Marine Lophobranchii, with wide gill openings and two dorsal fins.”

DISTRIBUTION.- Indian Ocean, from Zanzibar to China and the Moluccas.

FAMILY 89.-SYNGNATHIDÆ (15 Genera, 112 Species.)

“ Marine Lophobranchii, with very small gill opening and one soft dorsal fin.”

DISTRIBUTION.—All the tropical and temperate seas. Some species of Syngnathus, Doryichthys, and Cielonotus enter fresh water, and a few live in it exclusively. Siphonostoma, Syngnathus, Nerophis, and Hippocampus are British genera.

The Hippocampina (5 genera, 25 sp.), or Sea-horses, are peculiar to the Indian and Pacific Oceans, except three or four species of Hippocampus in the Atlantic and Mediterranean.


“Fishes covered with rough scales or shields, having a narrow mouth, and soft posterior dorsal fin.”

FAMILY 90.—SCLERODERMI. (7 Genera, 95 Species.) “Marine Plectognathi, with toothed jaws."

DISTRIBUTION.—Temperate and Tropical seas, but much more abundant in the Tropics.

FAMILY 91.—GYMNODONTES. (10 Genera, 82 Species.)

“Marine or fresh-water Plectognathi, with jaws modified into a beak.”

DISTRIBUTION.—Temperate and tropical regions.

Some species of Tetrodon are found in the rivers of Tropical America, Africa, and Asia. Species of Tetrodon and Orthagoriscus have been found on the British coasts.

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