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HOLLY IN FLOWER. — I observed a holly-tree
(Ilex aquifolium) in flower last month, at PickersPRIMROSES.-While shooting at East Hothley, leigh, near Malvern. It still continues in flower, at in Sussex, on Saturday, the 8th of December, I a very unusual time of the year, when other trees picked a fine bunch of Primroses; and on the fol- are bearing ripe fruit.- Arthur D. Melvin, Dec., 1866. lowing day, one of my little boys found a bunch of the ripe fruit of the Wild Strawberry (Fragaria
THE MOSS-ROSE.—Madame de Genlis tells us Desca) in this parish.W.N., Uckfield.
that, during her first visit to England, she saw moss
roses for the first time, and that she took to Paris a PROLIFEROUS HART's-TONGUE.-During the end
moss rose-tree, which was the first that had been of last summer, a plant of the curly-leaved variety seen in that city; and she says, in 1810, “the culof the hart's-tongue fern (Scolopendrium vulgare), tivation of this superb flower is not yet known in which I had frequent opportunities of seeing, put France."-Sylva Florifera. out on the surface of an oldish frond two little
THE JORDAN ALMOND-TREE was first planted in brown specks, which grew and developed just as the
England in the reign of Henry VIII., 1548 (Hortus similar outshoots of the Asplenium bulbiferum do.
Kewensis). Dr. Turner notices it in the year 1645, In a little time, the mother frond began to wither, was cut off and planted in soil; the two young ones
and says, “Almond-trees growe muche in hyghe
Germany beside Sypre in a cytie called Newstat, flourished, put out roots, and are now healthy grow
and great plentye in Italye, and some growe in ing plants.-Leonard W. Sedgwick, M.D.
England, but I have hearde of no greate store of THE TRUE PAPYRUS.—The Rev. H. B. Tristram the fruyte of them that growe in England.” has communicated to the Linnean Society that he
THE MYRTLE.-It was upon a memorable occasion found the true Cyperus Papyrus L. in Palestine, by the shores of the Lake of Galilee, sometimes grow
that the myrtle was introduced into this country,
as it is said to have been brought from Spain by Sir ing to the length of sixteen feet. He afterwards
Walter Raleigh and Sir Francis Carew, in 1585, found, in the almost inaccessible marshes of Huleh (the ancient Merom), many acres of the same plant.
when they resided in Spain, and discovered the pre
parations for the Spanish Armada against us.-Sylva The stems are cut down by the Bedouins for thatch
Florifera. ing their huts and for mats. This plant was only known to occur in the marshes of the White Nile, THE SWEET-PEA, the emblem of delicate pleasures, in Nubia, prior to this discovery, it having dis- was unknown in the British gardens until the first appeared from Egypt.-See Journ. Linn. Soc., year of the eighteenth century, when it blossomed in No. 38.
the garden of Dr. Uvedale, at Enfield, in Essex (sic), COCOA-NUT MILK.-A tropical sun soon makes
who is supposed to have been the first cultivator of one thirsty. I wanted “ a drink," and, for the first
this favourite flower in England, which has now time in my life, tasted iced cocoa-nut milk. Never spread itself over the whole of Europe,-entering in my life have I drunk anything half as delicious.
every garden where the florist is disposed to Do not imagine that in the least degree it resembles
-"Lend a staff to the still gadding pea.” the small teacupful of sweet insipid stuff dribbled
Flora Historica. out from the cocoa-nut as we buy it here in England.
HOLY-GHOST PLANT.-The Orchid described in What we eat as kernel is liquid in the young nut, and the outer busk soft enough to push your thumb
your last number under the foregoing title is the Perithrough. Surely the cocoa-nut palm must have
steria elata of our stoves. It may be seen in flower been specially designed for the dwellers in the
during the months of July and August, at Messrs. tropical world. It supplies everything uncivilized
Veitch & Son's, Royal Exotic Nursery, or at any man can possibly need, to build his ships, rig, padale,
other nursery of eminence in the vicinity of London.
-W.J. D. A. and sail them ; from its products too, he can make his houses, and obtain food, drink, clothing, and DOVE-PLANT.— It may be interesting to some of culinary utensils. Strictly littoral in its habits, the
your readers to know that the “ Flor del Espirito cocoa-palm loves to loll over the sea, and let the
Santo," or Dove-plant, Peristeria elata * (Hooker), frothy ripple wash its rootlets. This also looks like
is in cultivation in this country. It was introduced another link in the chain of Divine intentions. The
as early as 1826, and flowered for the first time in nuts necessarily fall into the sea-winds and currents
1830, and a figure and description of it appeared in carry them to coral reefs, or strand them on desert
the Botanical Magazine, vol. lviii., p. 3116. shores, there to grow, and, by a sequence of won
W.B. H. drously ordered events, in time make it habitable for man.-J. K. Lord's “The Naturalist in Vancouver
* From TEPLOTEpa, a dove, from the resemblance in the Island.”
shape and colour to that bird.
POLARISCOPIC OBJECTS.-I desire to direct attention to a beautiful series of polariscopic objects which may easily be obtained from prawns, and possibly from shrimps and other crustaceans. Underneath the shell of these may be found, at certain times, a very slight, incomplete, and fragmentary deposit of crystals not much unlike the scales on some fish. The crystals are of irregular forms and various sizes, and are probably carbonate or oxalate of lime, and when united they appear to form the new shell of the prawn which is ready for use when the older shell has been cast away. On mounting the crystals or scales on balsam, and placing them under a polariscope, they will be found to exhibit the most beautiful iridescent colours; and so thoroughly and essentially polariscopic are the crystals, that even without a selenite plate their colours are gorgeous.-T. P. Barkas, Newcastleon-Tyne.
HARDENING CANADA BALSAM.–At the December meeting of the Quekett Microscopical Club, during a discussion on this subject, Mr. Hislop described the following simple and effective plan wbich he had adopted with great success. He had two plates of brass, 21 inches wide by 5 or 6 inches long, and ta of an inch thick, which were placed on a tripod over a gas flame turned down to the blue, so as to keep the plates hot enough to be unpleasant to the hand. After mounting the objects, he places the slides on the brass plates; and on taking them off again in an hour's time, he finds the balsam in nine cases out of ten to be hard enough to scrape off and finish. No difficulty is found to arise from air-bubbles, and those which form of themselves disappear as the balsam becomes hard.
ASPHALT CEMENT. - The number of communications you have on the subject of making asphalt cement from Mr. Davies's receipt, shows that many fail in their attempts to dissolve the asphaltum in naphtha, and are driven to other expedients, such as dissolving it in benzoli, turpentine, &c. Having myself at once succeeded in this, I have since made some experiments, with the view of finding out the cause of disappointment. Procuring naphtha from four different places, I found that two of the samples dissolved the asphaltum readily, after its being broken up, allowed to remain in the naphtha 24 hours, and then heated to about 190°; the other two had no more effect upon it than is described by Mr. Rowley in SCIENCE-Gossip, vol. ii., page 263 ; clearly showing that the only difficulty is to get the right quality of mineral naphtha, when it is very easy to dissolve the asphaltum in it. I may say the same with regard to the india-rubber : if the sheet or any other kind is used which has been previously dissolved, two or three days, occasionally shaking the bottle, will generally effect a solution; the thick lumps sold for erasing pencil-marks are not suitable for this purpose, being very difficult to dissolve. Before making the quantity required, it is better to put a spoonful of the naphtha in a small bottle, with a few bits of asphaltum as a test, which will soon show its dissolving power. Mineral naphtha and pure indiarubber can be procured of Mr. Woolley, 69, Market Street, Manchester, with which the operation may be begun and finished in two days, with the application of heat, or in four days without it.-E. Greenhough, Matlock.
BRICKS OF DASHOUR.-A celebrated botanist and paleontologist of Vienna has recently published some remarks on the bricks of the pyramids of Dashour, which was built about 3,400 years before
One of them being examined through the microscope by the Professor, he discovered that the mud of the Nile, out of which it was made, contained not only a quantity of animal and vegetable matter, but also fragments of many manufactured substances; whence we may conclude that Egypt must have enjoyed a high degree of civilization upwards of 5,000 years ago. Professor Unger has been enabled by the aid of the microscope to discover in these bricks a vast number of plants which at that time grew in Egypt, - Boston Post, U.S., Dec. 8, 1866. SEPARATION OF VEGETABLE CELLS AND Cu
5.-The quickest and easiest method for obtaining isolated cells is the plan devised by Schultz, viz., boiling in a mixture of nitric acid and chlorate of potash. After being thus treated, boil in alcohol, and afterwards in distilled water. Cuticles of leaves separate readily, even if they have been dried for many years. Mount in glycerine, chloride of calcium, or weak spirit.- Fredk. Kitton, Norwich.
THE QUEKETT SOIRÉE.—The first soirée of the Quekett Microscopical Club was held at University College on the 4th of January, and, notwithstanding the inclemency of the weather, about 400 persons were present. Amongst the “attractions” of the evening were Dr. Mary Walker, a living Stephanoceros, Quekett's own microscope, and a curious microscope exhibited by Mr. Burgess, which gave a field of apparently eighteen inches. These divided a lion's share of attention amongst them. A large number of microscopes were exhibited by the members, including the principal makers.
ACARI.-- Any correspondents willing to aid in the investigation of British Acari, with a view to the publication of a work on the subject, are invited to send specimens of mites, water-mites, or ticks, inclosed in quills, addressed to “Acarus,” care of the Editor, 192, Piccadilly, London, W.
pensable; for the copper nothing is better than a GEOLOGY.
wire-sieve. For bones too large for the vessel used,
the treatment will have to be varied. For long PRESERVATION OF Fossils.-Owing to the loose
limb-bones, strong enough to bear their own weight mineral character of the Tertiary deposits, in which when saturated, it is only necessary to place one most of the Mammalian and other vertebrate
end in the vessel, and ladle the solution over the remains are found, consisting as these deposits
other end for a short time, and then reverse their chiefly do of sands, gravels, clay, or peat, their fossils
position. But for bones which will not bear such are necessarily in a more or less friable condition,
treatment, the only plan is to securely fix them to a difficult to preserve entire, or to bandle for scientific
board, and place them in a slanting position in the examination with safety. The substances generally
solution, and well saturate them with it by ladling. used are glue or gelatine. For the bones of the
For these, and for long portions of tusks of the larger Mammalia there is nothing better than the
Mammoth, and horn-cores of the large species of best glue; whilst for the more delicate bones of the
Bos, a special vessel, about three feet long, one foot smaller Mammals, Birds and Fishes, gelatine is the
wide at the top, nine or ten inches wide at the best, being purer, dissolving more easily, and im
bottom, and nine inches deep, made of stout tin or parting but little, if any, colour to the fossil. The
galvanized iron, with a handle at each end, will be consistency of these substances when used will have
found most useful. Occasionally fossils are found to be varied according to the structure of the bone;
which are either too large or too friable (as skulls and as they also differ greatly in quality, it is and tusks from their natural construction frequently impossible to lay down any definite rule as to the
are) to be placed in the solution : for these a different exact proportions to be used with a given quantity
method must be adopted to preserve them entire. of water; this must be left to the judgment of the
Cover the fossil with thin paper, over which-on operator. As a general rule, however, all bones
the sides and underneath if possible-put a coating which have a coarse cellular structure, as the ends
of plaster of Paris, just thick and strong enough to of large limb-bones, deer-antlers, &c., and also
keep together; when firmly set, gently pour the specimens from some deposits-for example, the
solution boiling-hot over the fossil as long as it peat-bed near Colchester, the fossils from which
continues to absorb, to assist which it may be have their internal cellular structure either totally
necessary to remove in a few places some of the or partially destroyed-require the glue-solution to
surface-bone, which can be carefully replaced; in be of a consistency which will form a stiff jelly when
two or three days the plaster may be partly cold; whilst for bones of a compact structure a
removed by sawing and in small pieces, taking care much thinner solution, about the consistency of
not to injure the fossil by jarring it; the paper will ordinary size, will suffice; if the solution is too
prevent the plaster adhering to it. But this
process thick, it clogs the absorbing power at the surface, is never so effective as submersion in the solution, and prevents its penetrating to all parts of the bone.
and may require to be repeated. Some bones are The fossils should be thoroughly dried and cleaned
better for being dipped a second time, but not from as much of the matrix as can be removed with
allowed to remain long enough in the solution to safety; and if it can be managed, warmed before
melt the glue they had previously imbibed. Delicate being placed in the solution. When the glue is all
shells from the same kind of deposits may be treated, dissolved, and the liquid nearly at boiling heat
with care, in a similar manner with advantage.(ebullition should be avoided, if possible), it is ready
W. Davies, Brit. Museum, in Geological Magazine. for the immersion of the fossils, and they should remain in it as long as air-bubbles rise to the sur
PETROLEUM. - During the past six years the face; when these cease they will be sufficiently
United States of America have produced about 450 soaked. When taken out, they should not be
millions of gallons of petroleum. The average drained, but laid in a position to retain as much as
daily yield for 1866 has been at least 12,000 barrels. possible of the imbibed solution, until they are cold,
The business of collecting, transporting, and refining when the glue will have set. Their position must
it, employs as many hands as either the coal or the then be shifted, to prevent their adhering to the
iron trade.-Professor Hitchcock. board on which they may be laid. Any glue that FOSSILS OF THE LIAS.- Mr. Ralph Tate, Curator may have drained from thein may be then removed of the Geological Society, Somerset House, London, with a wet sponge. The vessels required are of the being engaged in the preparation of a monograph of simplest kind. The common domestic utensils the gasteropoda of the lias, for the Palæontowill answer for most purposes. The ordinary house- graphical Society, begs to request the kind assistcopper, saucepan, or, better still, a large-sized fish- ance of private collectors by the loan of specimens kettle with its strainer. But whatever the vessel for examination and description. He would be used, a strainer of some kind, on which to place pleased to exchange fossils of various formations the bones for immersion and withdrawal, is indis- for those of the lias.
skeleton of the frog and the stones, also, are open NOTES AND QUERIES. for inspection. It is natural to exclaim, how could RELATIONS AT SEA.-A very interesting paper
a helpless frog penetrate solid stone? It is not dif
ficult, however, to imagine a live frog first enveloped was recently read by Dr. Günther, at the 200
in mere mud, which afterwards hardens into solid logical Society, on the Fishes of Central America, in which he brought zoological research to bear
store, ever remaining sufficiently porous to admit
air and moisture enough to maintain torpid existupon the history of earth-changes. It had been
ence; and which, like seed of natural vegetation supposed that the existing fauna of the Atlantic was quite distinct from that of the Pacific; but
buried immensely deep in the outer crust of the Dr. Günther finds in a collection recently made by
earth, from its first formation, remains dormant,
until some accident brings it within the influence of Mr. Salvin), of the total number of species taken on both sides of the Isthmus of Panama, 30 per
the sun to re-animate or develope, and ultimately
exhaust its vitality. As to the age of the animal, I cent. to be specifically identical. Nay, they do not
offer no theory. --Simon Hutchinson, Manthorpe even appear to vary enough for Dr. Günther to be
Lodge. able to tell whether any given individual came from the Atlantic or the Pacific side. There was, there. THE APPLE.-The English name of this valuable fore, no doubt, a communication between the two fruit is evidently derived from the Saxon word oceans, since the existing species of fish came into appel; and from wbich circumstance we may safely being; and the land across the isthmus near conclude that the fruit was cultivated in this country Panama is nowhere more than 400 feet high; while under the Saxon government, if not previously by to the north, through Lake Nicaragua, there is the Romans.-Phillips's “ Fruits of Great Britain." another tract, nowbere more than 150 feet above the sea-level. That these low tracts of land mark LAST AND Next NOVEMBER STAR SHOWERS. — the site of former sea-channels, is rendered_still A comparison of the whole number of meteors more probable from the fact that in the Lake observed, with the numerical results of previous Nicaragua a sea-fish still exists, the ancestors of showers, shows that this shower was far less signifiwhich were probably imprisoned by the land's cant than some of its predecessors. Whether other ppheaval. Dr. Günther believes that there has parts of the world witnessed a grander phase in the been no such interoceanic communication since the display than we in England did, we cannot say, for latter part of the Pliocene period; in which case, the there is at present no authentic information on the persistence of these piscine specific forms would be point. M. Coulvier Gravier, who ought to be an very remarkable. It is well known that, in ancient authority, at a recent sitting of the French Academy Miocene times, one fauna extended on both sides of Sciences, suggested that the maximum display of of what is now the separating land; but the specific the epoch might be expected in November, 1867; identity of so many existing forms is quite a new
because, he said, the really great showers are thirtyfact. - British Medical Journal.
four years apart instead of thirty-three, and the last
of these was that of 1833. Moreover, be called INSECTS IN CABINETS.-S. L. B. remarks, having attention to the fact that every very grand shower is read that camphor by its evaporation obscured and preceded by one not so grand in the year before it. injured specimens in cabinets, and should never be This was the case in 1832-33; whether it will be so used, desires a substitute. The caution originated this time we must wait till next November to learn. in a “mare's nest,” for the volatility of camphor, — The Gentleman's Magazine. wbich causes it to evaporate and deposit again on insects, will also cause it in turn to evaporate from
IS IT PODURA ?—. While searching for poduras them until no trace is left. Let S. L. B. try a lump
very lately, a black individual made its appearance of camphor under a tumbler, and after it is all
which 1 immediately recognized as a species new to evaporated, report to us how much residue he finds
me. Its motions were far more rapid than those of anywhere. He may try“ benzole” for a change, poduras generally, and its antennæ, which were but will without doubt return again to camphor.
longer than usual, extended out straight instead of
curved over, as is mostly the case. On microscopic FROG IN QOLITE. I beg to submit the following
examination I found it had twelve eyes, while all the certificate and observations to those who are inte
poduras I have met with have, I think, sixteen; rested in natural history :
but it possessed the curious forked tail, and was in
other respects a good deal like the black podura “I, William Munton, of Waltham, in the county (Macrotoma nigra). I killed it with chloroform, and of Leicester, quarryman, hereby certify that I was on examining the scales, found to my surprise they witness to the discovery of the stone and frog, now were not like podura scales at all, but were more before me (in possession of Mr. Simon Hutchinson, like lepisma scales, pleated like those of Lepisma of Manthorpe Lodge, Grantham), in the stone saccharina and cross-striated like those of the seaquarry, at Waltham, from ten to twelve feet below
side species, Petrobius maritimus,- both of which the natural surface of the ground, in solid rock. are figured in SCIENCE Gossip, vol. ii., p. 56. The When the stone was split, the frog appeared alive; scales are minute and very finely marked; many of in size equal to the cavity therein. It continued to them are pentagonal, more or less regular, and live about ten days after its release, and was after- many of the form of those of Lepisma saccharina. wards preserved spirit by the late Mr. Stow, of I have some recollection of having seen for sale, Waltham. Before the stone was broken, no crack
slides of Lepisma-like scales labelled Podura or crevice was anywhere visible. As witness my scales,” but I thought this an error on the part of hand this Ist day of December, 1866.
the mounter. Is the insect known, and what is its WILLIAM MUNTON."
name?--J. McIntire. This discovery is familiar to persons now living [In the genus Orchesella, the individnals are at Waltham, besides Mr. Munton; therefore, per- characterized as particularly agile, and with six eyes sonal inquiry can be made by the sceptical, or on each side. See Templeton in Transactions silence, in future, will be most becoming. The Entom. Soc., vol. i., p. 93, Pl. xi.-Ed.]
MOVEMENTS IN DIATOMS.-On the forenoon of BLACKBIRDS.-Whilst my children were feeding December 25, 1866, I took a small gathering of the birds yesterday morning, our cat came down diatoms, comprising, Campylodiscus spiralis and upon and devoured a fine cock blackbird. Three Pinnularia viridis. In several specimens of the hen black birds (I believe of the same brood) witlatter, I noticed an unmistakable movement of large nessed the circumstance from neighbouring trees. oily-looking globules, or granules, of which I As soon as Tom had finished his meal and departed, counted from two to six in each half of the several they gathered up the scattered feathers of their individuals I examined. This movement was of a brother, and carried every one of them away trembling and oscillating character, not unlike the amongst the trees of the garden. Was this done granular movement which may be seen going on in from sisterly affection, or from an instinctive feeling the ends of Closterium lunula, except that in the of reverence for the dead ?--Ben, Snow. diatoms in question the granules did not retain the grouping and rapid motion which distinguish them Halo OF A SHADOW.-Permit me to corroborate in the former, but passed at slow intervals through the statement of the Rev. J. S. Tute, as to the halo about one-fifth the length of half the cell. This of a shadow. I experienced a remarkable instance of granular activity could not, I think, be an error of this, one fine spring morning in 1865. Two friends observation; for I noticed it in many specimens, and myself had started at five o'clock for a walk, some of which were watched by me very closely for just as the sun rose above a hill on our right, casting a considerable length of time. Nor could it be our shadows on to the slope to the left below, some occasioned by the diatom's proper movement through fifty yards off. Our gigantic figures seemed to be the water, because some of the forms in which I surrounded by a nimbus of brilliant light, observed it were not moving, but were perfectly extending at least a foot and a half all round. The stationary at the time. I shall be glad to know if young wheat on which our shadows were projected any other readers of SCIENCE Gossip have observed was drenched with dew, and the reflection from the this movement ?-B. Taylor.
drops, each sparkling like a diamond, no doubt
produced the appearance described. I have freDaisy ANEMONE (Sagartia bellis).- I have quently
seen it since, but never to equal this occahad two very curious specimens of Daisy Anemone,
sion.- Daydon Jackson. born in one of my aquariums lately, one having three distinct heads, each with its proper amount of HALO OF A SHADOW.- This curious phenomenon tentacles, which I have named Cerberus, and another two. Is this an unusual circumstance? I
(SCIENCE Gossip, p. 23) is quoted also in “Kæmtz's
Meteorology,"chap. xix., under the name of Anthelie; think it must be, as Mr. Gosse does not mention it
and J. S. T. is quite right in attributing it to in any of his books.-E. J.J.
diffraction:- When the sun is near the horizon," LOPPING TREES.-Can any of your readers tell
“and the shadow of a person falls on grass, me if the following lines in Tusser's “ Five Hundred
a field of corn, or any surface covered with dew, an Points of Good Husbandry are founded upon fact;
aureola is observed around this shadow, the light of and if so, what is the scientific explanation ?
which is the strongest at the head ; this light is
owing to the reflexion by the stalks or straws, the “ In lopping old locham, for fear of mishap, One bough stay unlopp'd, to cherish the sap;
dew-drops, or the vesicules of a mist lying in low The second year after then boldly ye may,
strata on the sea. It is the brightest around the For dripping his fellows that bough cut away."
head, because the stalks situated in the proximity of And again,
that part of the shadow show all their enlightened “ For sap, as ye know,
sides, while other stalks that are farther show enLet one bough grow;
lightened parts and others that are not; the stalks Next year ye may That bough cut away."
being cylindrical, the aureola is somewhat larger in
the vertical sense.” Fraunhofer attributed all this Also the reason for the following assertion :
to diffraction, and observations confirmed his theory. “ Pluck broom, broom still;
When reflected beams pass through other vesicules, Cut broom, broom kill."
these beams are also diffracted, and coloured rings F. A. A.
are the result. Anthelies were observed in the
Polar seas by Captain Scoresby, &c. (more partiCat AND COCKROACHES.–Our house was per- culars vide Kæmtz).-B. Melle. fectly free from cockroaches till June last, when we got a kitten, and immediately the cockroaches ap- DOUBLE SHELL Of Eggs. – A gentleman in peared. The cat showed peculiar enmity to them, Cumberland had a hatching of the eggs of the and used to hunt and eat them by the dozen every Moscovy duck sent him; one, from its very large size day; and always after being fed, she would go (it weighed over five ounces), was supposed to under the grate to hunt for them. Some weeks contain a double yolk, and was therefore broken for back she, having been ill for a long time, was taken domestic purposes, when a second shell was disaway; and from that very day the cockroaches dis- covered inside. The enclosed egg was of the appeared also, one solitary individual having been
ordinary size and appearance. The interval between seen on one occasion since; and since he came to the shells was filled with a fluid resembling the grief, not one has appeared. Can there be any con- ordinary white of egg, but rather thinner.-W. Gain, nection between their disappearance and the removal Tuxford, Notts. of the cat? It seems more than a coincidence, and her enmity to them makes it remarkable.-M. A. CORDON BLEU.-In answer to a query, SCIENCE
Gossip, vol. ii., p. 262, I said, p. 283, Ampelis CATS AND RAIN.-“Cats sitting with their backs cotinga was cordon bleu; I found since, another to the fire an indication of rain.” Can you inform bird has also that name, viz. the Sucrier gamtocin, me in your next number if the above statement is
Cynniris collaris, Vieil.--cordon bleu of Levaillant but vulgar gossip, or whether it is a scientific (vide Lev., “Hist. des Ois. d'Afrique,” Pl. ccxcix., truth? If the latter, on what grounds ?-W. B. B. pp. 1, 2).-B. Melle.