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only so far perceptible as to act as a check simultaneously attacked, if not from the sense on vain bragging, is worth the risks involved that their interests are likely to become idenin a conscription, an expenditure of a hun- tified ? The prejudice that everywhere exists dred millions a year, and at least two desper- between one inferior grade of society and anate campaigns. The North went to war other derives intensity in America from the avowedly to forbid the extension of slavery, jealousies of race and competition. The mean the single end for which Mr. Lincoln was whites in the South are warm supporters of elected, and the stern perseverance which has slavery because they feel that slavery is the underlain its changes of surface opinion and only barrier between themselves and the neits ridiculous brag has placed it in a position groes; the mob Irish in the North dread the to secure that well defined end. It may be increase and elevation of a class likely to doubtful, even amidst the present torrent of compete successfully with them in the lower good fortune, whether it is worth while to forms of labor. risk the success which is certain for the sake The Times, no longer able to discredit the of a future which if not doubtful is at best capture of Vicksburg, or to claim for Lee the extremely distant.

honor of a strategic victory at Gettysburg, again seeks aid of its oracle, and resummons

Mr. Spence to make more false prophecies ; From The Spectator, 8 Aug.

but the organs of Confederate opinion have

publicly taken from that gentleman his hardly “T. C." AND THE SLAVES.

earned diploma as their representative. Mr. Plot, murder, and conflagration,” writes Spence's opinions must henceforth be rethe Richmond Enquirer,“ have begun in New garded as those of a private individual about York. It is a world's wonder that this good which the mass of Englishmen need trouble work did not commence long ago; and this themselves very little. The cause of the excellent outhreak may be the opening scene South has found a more formidable as well as of the inevitable revolution which ... is to a more consistent champion in the person of leave the Northern half of the old American a writer whose greatness gives consequence Union a desert of blood-soaked ashes. We even to his random words. T. C.'s" dealbid it good speed! An outbreak of singu- ings with the “ Nigger Question ” have not lar brutality, though suppressed in three been fortunate. Some years have passed since days, and “carried on principally by thieves” he favored us with a pamphlet under that while it lasted, has been enough to call forth title, in which the most defective side of his from Southern chivalry, and refinement those philosophy came uppermost, asserting, under philanthropic hopes and aspirations. cover of questionable facts and theories, the

When her arınies are being beaten back, inherent right of the white man to force and every mail tells of another fortress fallen, from the black man an amount of work satis the South is ready to mistake a fire in her factory to the white man's mind. He now neighbor's chimney for a universal conflagra- professes to give in a nutshell the gist of the tion. The Richmond Enquirer exults over war which has for three years been rending the the New York riots in the strain of a Red In- Western continent, and, according to his ao dian who anticipates the pleasure of wearing count, the gist of the whole matter is slavery. a fresh girdle of scalps. Our own Times re- Peter of the North, who hires his servants ceives the news of this good work” in a by the week or the day, wishes forcibly to spirit of more temperate but scarcely less de- prevent Paul of the South from hiring them for cided complacency, and draws from it, in life, which“ T. C.” evidently thinks the pre more civilized terms, the same conclusions ; ferable method. It seems to us, too, as it adding to these, however, another favorite seems to the leaders of the Southern Confedconclusion, which is peculiar to the advocates eracy, that, making allowance for a verbal of Southern independence on this side of the fallacy which lurks in the form of statement, Atlantic. The Richmond press does not vent- this is the gist of the question ; that whature to tell us that, because the acts of the ever may be the various motives inspiring the Northern Government have excited a riot Northern armies the tendency of their victoagainst that class which those acts have been ries is to incline the balance towards the one, supposed to befriend, the North is, therefore, the tendency of their defeats to incline the a friend of slavery. It is a waste of time and balance towards the other, of two opposed patience to argue with men whose reasonings civilizations. But we differ from “ T. 0." and assertions are daily refuted and disavowed and the South in preferring freedom to slavery, by those most closely concerned in the issue in preferring a society which is in the main of the great conflict, and who are likely to be " for freedom of discussion;" to a society well informed regarding its motives. Why which " represses freedom of discussion with have the Government and the free negroes, the tar-brush and the pine faggot.” We prefer and the respectable citizens of New York been the clamor of a badly organized democracy, to

the silence of a well-organized despotism, ar- | The excuse of ancient is no excuse for modguments in bad grammar to the argument of ern times, when other forms of labor more nobowie-knives and loaded canes, a national ble and more lastingly productive have been palaver” to bonfires of human beings; the discovered, and Christianity has taught that things that the South hate to the things that púoel doûaòs the Greek does not exist in the huthe South love.

man family, that every man has been born to When “ T. C.” published his nigger pam- know and to think as well as to toil, that being phlet, the question of slavery seemed far from as well as doing is a part of his destiny, and us, the West Indian struggle was fast becom- that no race has been brought upon the earth ing a tradition of an earlier generation; de- solely to minister to the luxury or to increase nunciations which had to travel 3,000 miles to the wealth of another race. These are the find an object were naturally regarded as out- fundamental facts which the Southern plantlets for a cheap and somewhat tiresome phi- ers and “ T. C.” in his sullen moods seem lanthropy ; everybody condemned that which to ignore, and which convert their speculanobody felt to be personally profitable. We tions into anachronisms as glaring as the inprided ourselves on being a superabund-stitution which they practically or theoretiantly anti-slavery nation ; but our convic-cally uphold. In an age of the world which tions passed, like old coins, without scrutiny, implicitly believed in slavery, Aristotle had The crisis of the last three years has made it the honor of being the first to rest its defence necessary to rub the rust off their surfaces. on what seemed to him philosophic grounds ; Even in politics those who can give no reason let us hope that no Englishman will be its for their faith cannot carry it safely through last defender in an age which believes in a storm. Were it possible to accept “1. freedom. C.'8" last 6 authentic utterance”

as altogether serious, we should be driven to conclude that there were some amongst us who had never very clearly realized the nature of

From The Economist, 8 Aug. the institution of which they are the modified apologists. It may be questioned whether THE FEDERAL PUBLIC DEBT AND THE

COST OF THE WAR. hiring for life is in many cases to be recommended, whether the possibility of changing The following is a statement of the public their relations is not generally desirable as a debt of the Federal Government as it stood check and incentive to master and servant. on 1st July last (charged at 48. the dolBut slavery is not hiring for life,—the first objection to it being that while the laborer lar) :is worthy of his hire the slave has no hire. In all cases of free service there is a compact 4 per cent temp. loan—coin, £1,007,207 voluntarily entered into on both sides, work

4 per cent temp. loan-coin, 4,604,652 to be performed and wages to be received.

£5,611,859 Now in slavery there is no voluntary compact, 5 per cent temp. loan-coin, 14,161,637 nor any wages to be received ; the slave is 5 per cent temp. loan-coin, 1,290

692,200 merely kept in existence to perform the work, 5 per cent bonds, due 1865, the amount and nature of which are defined 5 per cent bonds, due 1871, 1,401,400

5 per cent bonds, due 1874, 4,000,000 solely by the master's will and the slave's

20,259,527 physical powers. Waiving for the present 6 per cent bonds, due 1868, 3,664,718 all'ideas of morality irrespective of results, 6 per cent bonds, due 1881, 13,909,560 all theories of inalienable rights, we are con- 6 per cent bonds, due 1882, 37,136,828 tent to rest our condemnation of slavery on 6 per cent Treasury note, 143,420 the ground that those two methods have been 6 per cent certificates of in

debtedness, .

31,418,648 tried and the superiority of the former es

6,273,174 tablished by history. Slavery, only tolerable 7.30 per cent bonds, duo as a transition from barbarism, played out Aug. 19, 1864,

10,582,200 its true part in that old age which was the 7.30 per cent bonds, due youth of the world; like other blots of civil Oct. 1, 1864,


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17,397,900 ization it has been compelled either to pass

27,984,100 away by degrees or to assume at every stage a more repulsive form. American slavery is worse than classic slavery in almost the same

Treasury notes past due, £7,820

U. S. notes, £77,529,317 measure as the slavery of Greece and Rome

Less am't in Trs'y, 2,231,417 was worse than the mild and guarded form

75,297,900 of slavery which existed among the Jews ; Fractional currency, 4,038,491 and for this among other reasons, that an

- £79,344,211 evil which is out of date is doubly an evil.



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Total debt July 1, 1863, as exhibit

to a sixth magnitude, or just visible, it is ed by the books of the Treasury

clear that as the star has undergone a redepartment,

219,454,873 Total debt July 1, 1863, as estimated

duction of ten diameters, it would be visible by the Sec'y in report of Dec. 1862, 224,459,480 to the natural vision if removed in space to

ten times its present distance, supposing no Actual debt less than the estimated debt, 5,004,607

absorbing or extinguishing medium to exist RECAPITULATION.

there. A concave lens can be used for such Aggregate debt at 4 per cent. interest, £5,611,859 experiments, the measurement commencing Aggregate debt at 5 per cent. interest, 20,259,527 then at the lens itself. Reductions have been Aggregate debt at 6 per cent. interest, 86,255,174 Aggregate debt at 7.30 per cent. int., 27,984,100 obtained in these ways of well-known stars, Aggregate debt without interest, 75,384,211 and give Castor as visible when reduced 10.3

times, Pollux eleven times, Procyon twelve, Total debt July 1, 1863, as exhibited by the books of the Treasury de

Sirius twenty times, the full moon three thoupartment,

219,454,873 sand, and the sun one million two hundred Total debt as estimated by the Sec

thousand times. Mr. Alvan Clark has acturetary in report of Dec., 1862. 224,459,480

ally seen the sun under such a reduction, atActual debt less than the estimated debt 5,004,601 tended by circumstances which lead him to

believe that to be about the limit at which Several facts of great interest appear

in this

the human eye could ever perceive our great table. First. As the amount of the Federal debt ber, two hundred and thirty feet in length,

luminary. He has an underground dark chamon the 4th March, 1861, the date of Mr. Lin- communicating at one end with the surface of coln's inauguration, was only 74,985,299 the ground by an opening five feet deep, in dollars, or less than fifteen millions sterling which a lens of any required focal distance can at the same rate of exchange as that used in be inserted,—one of a twentieth of an inch fothe table, it may be broadly stated that the

cus, with its flat side cemented to one face of a increase of debt caused by the civil war is

prism, has been employed by Mr. Clark. No more than £200,000,000, independently of

light whatever can enter the chamber, except any minor amounts which may have been

through the little lens. A common silvered raised by taxation.

mirror over the opening receives the direct Secondly. Mír. Chase has been able to bor

rays of the sun, and sends them down the row about £125,000,000 from sources other

opening into the prism, by which they are than the currency, which is much more than most persons in Europe believed he would ber. An observer at the opposite end of the

directed through the little lens into the chambe able to borrow. Thirdly. Mr. Chase has issued £79,344,- 55,200 times, and its light, then, in amount,

cellar sees the sun reduced in apparent size 000 of paper currency, which, considering varies but little from that of Sirius. Upon the paper circulation of the Union at the

a car moveable in either direction is mounted same rate of exchange was little more than another lens, with a focal distance of six £40,000,000, is one of the most surprising inches. The eye of the observer being brought facts ever added to our economical experi- in a line with the lenses, he sends the car by

a cord into the chamber to the greatest distance that he can see the light through the

six-inch lens. From The London Review.

At noon, with a perfectly clear sky, the APPARENT SIZE OF THE CELESTIAL

sun is thus visible at twelve feet away from BODIES.


The distance between the two lenses The new experiments of Mr. Alvan Clark, being two hundred and eighteen feet, the reon the photometrical comparison of the sun duction by the small lens, if viewed from the and stars, are very curious and interesting. point occupied by the car-lens, would be If we place a convex lens of the known focal 52,320 times, and that again is reduced by distance of one foot between the eye and a the six-inch lens twenty-three times, making star of the first magnitude, and find, when the total reduction 1,203,360 times. There the lens is removed to a distance of eleven 'seems then no reason to doubt-setting aside feet, that the star is reduced in appearance the idea of an extinguishing medium in space


--that our sun would be only just visible to understanding thus enlightened, more than a human eye at 120,000 times the present ever must the heavens declare the glory of distance; or at 100,000 times away it would God.” rank only as a pretty bright star of the first magnitude, although its parallax would be

From The London Review. double that imputed to any star in the whole heavens, or only half as far away as the near

HABITS OF THE MOLE. est. Because the sun's intrinsic splendor

66 RECREATIVE SCIENCE” for this month proves to be less than that of those stars contains a short but entertaining account of whose distances have been measured, Mr. the captivity and death of a mole. Professor Clarke does not think it necessarily follows Owen, at the British Association the year bethat its light or size is less than the average fore last, showed, in an admirable paper on of existing stars ; for, in the case of there the anatomy of that animal, how much was being a diversity in size or brilliancy amongst yet to be learnt of the structures of our inthe stars in space—as is most likely—those digenous animals, and these “ Notes on the that would be visible would, of course, be the Mole,” by the Rev. J. G. Wood, in Messrs. largest and brightest, while, by the laws of Groombridge's entertaining magazine, show perspective, the smaller ones would be lost to how well worthy, too, of accurate study by view. Such would be the case equally with the naturalist our native animals are.. Some telescopic stars as well as those evident to the young friends captured a mole, and brought naked eye. The number of stars visible within it to that naturalist, secured in a large box. a given area of space, by the aid of the more It ran about with great agility, thrusting its powerful telescopes, is far less in proportion long and flexible snout into every crevice. A to the power of the instruments than those little earth was placed in the box, when the visible in like areas to the unassisted eye or mole pushed its way through the loose soil, with smaller telescopes ; and this fact has entering and re-entering the heap, and in a given rise to the idea of an extinguishing few moments scattering the earth tolerably medium to light in space; but upon the above evenly over the box, every now and then hypothesis, the result might equally arise twitching with a quick, convulsive shaking from the diminution in perspective, as in this the loose earth from its fur. Atone moment way we should see the whole, both great and the mole was grubbing away, hardly to be small, of the stars in the nearer distances distinguished from the surrounding soil

, comwith moderate powers; while, though great pletely covered with dust; the next instant and small did exist in the far off regions the moving dust-heap had vanished, and in bounding the remotest reach of our most its place was a soft, velvety coat. The creatpowerful telescopes, it would be only the ure was unremitting in its attempts to get great stars that we could see, and those only through the box, but the wood was too tough as the most minute specks of light. A vast for it to make any impression, and after satnumber of smaller or more moderate lights isfying itself it could not get through a deal may then exist amongst those whose extraor- board, it took to attempts to scramble over the dinary splendor reaches us through the aid sides, ever slipping sideways, and coming on of our best instruments. Were all the stars its forefeet. The rapid mobility of its snout in existence of one pattern and one uniform was astonishing, but its senses of sight and brightness, and scattered broadcast in space, smell seem to be practically obsolete, for a our great telescopes would count up more worm placed in its track within the tenth of nearly the numbers belonging theoretically to an inch of its nose was not detected, although their magnifying powers than they now do, no sooner did its nose or foot touch one, than as will be readily understood by considering in a moment it flung itself upon the ratio in which an increase of radius in- shook the worm backwards and forwards and creases the cubic contents of a sphere. If scratched it about until it got one end or the distances imputed to several of our stars other into its mouth, when it devoured it from parallax be true, these photometrical re- greedily, the crunching sound of its teeth besearches show our glorious luminary to be a hind audible two yards away. Worms it ate very small star indeed; "and to the human as fast as supplied — devouring fourteen in


prey and

thirteen minutes, after which it was supplied | with an easy conscience; but it happened, with a second batch of ten. It was then tried the following morning, that the rain fell in a with millipedes, but invariably rejected them. perfect torrent, and, hoping for some remis

Having heard from popular report that a sion, he waited until.nine o'clock before he twelve hours' fast would kill a mole, Mr. opened the box. Twelve hours had just Wood determined to give his captive a good elapsed since the mole had received its supsupper at eight and an early breakfast the ply, and as it had taken probably another next morning at five or six. So he dug per-hour in hunting about the box before it had severingly a large handful of worms and put devoured them all, not more than eleven them in the box. As the mole went back- hours had probably elapsed since the last wards and forwards it happened to touch one worm was consumed. But the mole was of the worms and immediately flew at it, and dead. "I forgot,” Mr. Wood says, “to while trying to get it into his mouth the weigh the worms which he devoured, but as mole came upon the mass of worms and flung they would have filled my two hands held cup itself upon them in a paroxysm of excite-wise, I may infer that they weighed very little ment, pulling them about, too overjoyed with less than the animal who ate them.” The the treasure to settle on any individual in extrme voracity and restless movements of particular. At last, it caught one of them the little creature here recorded, show its and began crunching, the rest making their value to the agriculturist “as a subsoil escape in all directions and burrowing into drainer who works without wages," and its the loose mould. Thinking the animal had great usefulness in keeping the prolific race now a good supply, two dozen worms having of worms-themselves useful in their way as been put into the box, Mr. Wood shut it up forming in the main, the fertile soil itself.

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GREAT excitement prevails in Rome on account lections. There are especially to be mentioned a
of an extempore visit paid by the Pope to Dr. head of Juno, in silver, of exquisite workman-
Liszt, the composer. The latter, it seems, left ship—the body, likewise of silver, being broken ;
town in the middle of last month, and went to a lantern of bronze, with its coverings, suspen-
reside at the now deserted Dominican Convent, sion-chains and extinguisher; a patera, a beau,
near the church of the Madonna del Rosario, on tiful large vase with handles, ending in a winged
the Monte Mario, from which there is a magnifi- genius with a cornucopia ; several other small
cent view of Rome below. He there lived her- bronze vases, and bronze seal, bearing the name
mit-like, entirely devoted to his art. Some prel- of the proprietor of the house where these objects
ates informed the Pope of his residence and mode were found. But the most magnificent of all
of life ; and on Sunday the 18th of July, he went, these remnants is a grand crater in bronze-used
only accompanied by Mgr. de Merode, a Camer- for mixing wine and water, and handed round to
arie segreto, and some Guardi nobili, to the Ma- the guests—with handles ending in a Medusa
donna del Rosario, where he first said his prayers, head, with silver eyes, and resting upon a mov-
and then suddenly appeared before the modern able foot, formed by three lions' paws.
anachorite. Franz Liszt played him two sacred
compositions, one on the harmonium, the other The following is the programme for the Inter-
on the piano. When he had finished, his Holi- national Statistical Congress to be held at Berlin
ness expressed his thanks in the most amiable from the 6th to the 12th of September : Section
manner, and concluded with the words, “ It is a I. Questions of organization. Section II. Statis-
noble gift which has been bestowed upon you, to tics of Landed Property. Section III. Statistics
reproduce the songs of higher spheres — the of Emoluments, Prices, and the Transport of
finest harmonies, it is true, we shall only hear on Goods on Railways. Section IV. Comparative

Statistics of Health and Mortality in the Civil
and Military Classes. Section V. The Task of

Statistics in the System of Social Self-Help; StaThe National Museum at Naples has, within tistics of Insurances. Section VI. On the Unithe last few days, been considerably enriched by formity of Coins, Weights and Measures, as the dew objects found in Pompeii, which are now, most important aid for comparative International according to the recent regulations, publicly ex- Statistics. All communications are to be ad. hibited in the Greek and Roman Fresco-Rooms, dressed beforehand to the Director of the Royal before being placed among their respective col- Statistical Bureau Engel, at Berlin.

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