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he had saved, in sailing for Flanders met in the Channel some English and Dutch ships, with whom he had a sharp engagement; two of his galleys were sunk, one taken, and with the other three he entered into Sluys. This brave officer was killed the following year in a naval action with the Dutch. Frederic was the younger brother of Ambroise (Admiral of King Philip III. of Spain), born of an ancient and illustrious family settled at Genoa. Frederic entered the same service in 1597, and fur. nished six armed galleys at his own expense, and with them proceeded to the Low Countries to act against the Dutch, and to assist in an attack against Ostend.

On the return of the fleet from the coast of Portugal, Monson was ordered forthwith to take the command of a squadron of six or seven ships to watch the coast of Spain; and finding there no appearance of preparation for Ireland, to the affairs of which he was ordered to give his particular attention, he cruised about for a short time and returned home. His instructions, which are not very clear, are contained in Secrétary Cecil's letter, which follows:


August 29th. After our verie hartie commendacons, we have now receaved intelligences dyrectly shewinge that there is noe great likelyhood of the Spaniards cominge for Ireland, soe as if the jorney of you, Sir William Monson, weare to

beginne agayne, we would peradventure be advised before the Queen should be putt to charge; but because we will not moove to sodaynly uppon this advertisment, though for my owne part I, the Secretarye, hold it trew; and because it may fall out that yet before wynter he may transport some nombers thether, the rather when he shall fynde that the Quéene hath noe fleete at sea, addinge allsoe that a great part of Her Majestie's charge is [provided ?], Her Majesty is contented the same shall goe on, if in any convenyent tyme the wynde shall serve : wherein we have thought good to dyrect you thus farr in your proceedinges : That you, Sir William Monson, accordinge to your former instructions, doe repaire to the coast and visite the Groyne and Lisbone, where if you shall fynde that your owne intelligence concurre with this inclosed, and that there be noe preparation for Ireland, then doth her Majesty committ it to your discretion in what height to lye and how to governe your self, for interceptinge of any such matter as may countervayle her Majesty's charge. In which kynde, because you shall uppon the coaste best gather knowledge whether the fleets be come in or noe, her Majesty leaveth it to your discreation to send hoame or retayne such and soe many of the shippes as you shall thinke fitteste for all considerations of Her Majesty's service: and soe for this tyme we committ you to God's proteccon. ffrom the Court at Oatlands, the 29 of August.

Your verie lovinge freinds,

Ro. CECYLL.* Monson gives in his · Tracts' a long account of his cruise, which turned out a barren one. He had an action with a galleon off Cape St. Vincent, and says, “ The fight was not long, but sharp and dangerous.

MS., State Paper Office.

The Castle played her part, and rent his ship, so that a team of oxen might have crept through her, under the half-deck; and one shot killed seven


This was the last of his employment under Elizabeth; and he pronounces it “no profit at all :" but Lewson and Monson continued, under James, watching the Narrow Seas. In 1614, he was appointed Admiral in the Narrow Seas about England, Scotland, and Ireland; and we find him still employed under Admiral Lindsey as second in command in the year 1635. But, in the year 1616, King James sent him a prisoner to the Tower, from whence, however, he was soon released, after an examination by Coke and Winwood. “I must confess," he says, “my folly and misfortune: the one made me too forward in complaining, and wishing a reformation of his Majesty's navy, which has purchased me much envy; the other procured me as much hate in taking the Lady Arabella : and then perhaps the cause of my imprisonment may appear.” If this lady had anything to do with his imprisonment, it was his suffering her to escape, and not retaking and bringing her back, as he was ordered to do. He mentions a more probable cause than either: a pinnace of his shot at a Dutch man-of-war, having an agent or ambassador on board, for not striking his topsail, of which a grievous complaint was made.

* Monson's Tracts.

But Sir William, throughout the whole of his Tracts, is constantly speaking of himself, his services, and his grievances. “Since the death of Queen Elizabeth,” he says,

“who was both gracious and bountiful to him, he never tasted or received either recompence or preferment, more than his ordinary entertainment, according to the services he was employed in; for he began the wars with ten shillings per month pay; then with two shillings and sixpence per day; after with five shillings, with ten shillings, with fifteen shillings, with twenty shillings, and sixteen


allowed him for his retinue; after which thirty shillings per day, and lastly with forty shillings per day. He had served as a soldier, a private captain, a rear-admiral, a vice-admiral, a captain under the general; and lastly, an absolute general. Such pay

and advancement at this period were much more than equal to what his services would have given him now; but Sir William would have been unhappy without a grievance real or imaginary; and in poring over these, and finding fault with the conduct of almost every other officer and services, he passed the latter part of his days in retirement at Kinnersley, in Surrey, employing his time in digesting and preparing his volume of · Naval Tracts' for publication. He died in 1643, in the seventy-third year of his age. * Monson's Tracts.


1591 To 1602.

THESE two sea-captains, in the year 1591, fitted out three ships for a voyage to the East Indies the Penelope, the Merchant Royal, and the Edward Bonaventure; Raymond (or, as Camden calls him, Riman) being admiral and Lancaster vice-admiral. It appears somewhat

strange that while Spain, and Portugal, and Holland should employ their feets yearly on voyages round the Cape of Good Hope for the East Indies, England, not the least adventurous in naval pursuits, should, for the first time, in the year 1591, resolve on a voyage round the Cabo dos Tormentos; and the more so, as Drake had passed it eleven years before, on his return from a voyage round the world.

The present expedition left Plymouth on the 10th of April, and having crossed the line in August, the crew became sickly, so as to oblige them to put into Saldanha Bay, where they traded with the natives (Hottentots) for cattle, which they obtained in abundance, in exchange for mere trifles and useless trinkets. They bought fat bullocks, and oxen,

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