« EelmineJätka »
dered it a most formidable subject for any kind of
that silk from which the gum had been removed cultivation.
NOTES ON RECENT SCIENTIFIC DIS- | ook up as much moisture as raw silk. In each In several fields of this farm operations com COVERIES AND THEIR PRACTICAL case, and under equal conditions, 12.5 per cent. of menced on the 9th inst. The first imple APPLICATIONS.
moisture was absorbed. Thus Bolley decides that ments which ventured to the attack
the seat of the hygroscopicity is the fibroin or silk the horse cultivators, and they were signally NEWLY OBSERVED PROPERTIES OF PARAFFIN--THE itsell. and totally defeated, scarcely a tine remaining MELTING AND SOLIDIFYING POINTS OF FATS-SEAT
As a hint to large consumers of salt of tin, wo whole in any of them after an hour or two's work ;
OF THE HYGROSCOPICITY OF SILK-ADULTERA
may mention, in passing, that the chemist we have the horse ploughs fared better, the casualties re
TION OF SALT OF TIN—NEW ALLOYS FOR SPOONS just quoted has examined a specimen of the salt, ported being few, and the work performed gene
which he found to be adulterated with 17 per cent. peting firms were :-—Mossrs. Vickaris candcm., PARAFFIN, generally regarded as one of the of sulphate of magnosia. In appearance this Ball, Boby, Ransomes and Sims, Hunt and Picker
most stable and unchangeable of bodies, has adulterated salt could not be distinguished from
the genuine article. ing, Hornsby, and J. and I. Howards, and the been found by Bolloy to be subject to alterations
The analysis of a few alloys in use in Paris for classes of ploughs experimented with on the 9th, which are worthy of attention. In the first place, spoons and forks, and said to be unusually good 10th, and 11th were the usual deep and general it seems to be liable to oxidation, like ordinary or- in appearance, has been made by a German chemist. purpose wheel ploughs, subsoil wheel ploughs, and ganic fats. For example, Bolley took a specimen of The first, a beautifully yellow alloy es really least, the swing plough, in both the light and paraffin fusing at 53deg. Centigrade, and having of copper and 10-5' parts of aluminium. The second goneral purpose varieties. The work with these the centesimal composition—carbon, 85:61 ; hy- is also a gold-resembling alloy, and has been named implements progressed steadily throughout the drogen, 14:69; and kept it exposed to air, and
"oreide.' This is composed of 79:7 parts of copper, three first days of the trials, and attracted, heated to 150deg. Centigrade for eight days. In 13-05 parts of zinc, 6-09 parts of nickel, with far as could be judged from the number of spec- the course of this time, the paraffin originally last-named are no doubt accidental ingredients. tators who congregated to watch the splendid white became browner and browner, and was at last The third is a beautiful white metal, very hard, teams, and implements, and the handiwork of the changed into a tough, doughy, blackish mass. A and taking a beautiful polish. It is composed of first rank of agricultural labour. It is scarcely good deal of this mass was unaltered paraffin soluble 69-8 parts of copper, 19-8 parts nickel, 5.5 of zino our province to comment on or criticize the in absolute alcohol; but after the removal of this and 4:7 of cadmium. performance of experts in an art which is not our own, and we, therefore, leave to the judges
a dark brown residue was left which consisted in the position to be assigned in point of merit to 100 parts—of carbon, 70-04; hydrogen, 10-25; each of the contending ploughs, and turn to the oxygen, 19.72. Other changes are produced by more thoroughly mechanical apparatus connected the continued action of heat on paraffin. Thus, ON THE RATE AT WHICH CHEMICAL with the steam ploughing trials, which commenced in a specimon which first boiled at 300deg. Centi
ACTIONS TAKE PLACE.* in a somewhat preliminary manner on the 9th, and have continued to the great advancement of our grade, a strong evaporation was afterwards re
BY MR. A. VERNON HARCOURT, M.A. knowledge in this subject, and the great interest marked at 150deg. Centigrade. These facts will THE science of chemistry may be defined as of all present for the last five days. The firms be of interest to those who employ paraffin baths, of the different kinds of matter one to another.
the science which investigates the relations appearing at this year's competition are, first and foremost of course, John Fowler and Company, of and, as Bolley suggests, may have important bear. The conception of different kinds of matter,--Loods, with no less than five traction ploughing ings on the industry of the body. Paraffin is most each of which has its particular character, its engines, about twelve balance ploughs and culti-likely a mixture of various hydrocarbons with own colour and crystalline form, its own hardness vators, two or three disc wheel anchors, one of various boiling and melting points. Those speci
and brittlenoss or the reverse, its own conducting rows, water carts, &c., &c., in all about 300 tons of also the highest melting point, and from this cir- each of which is homogeneous, the smallest particle their new seventeen-tine turning cultivators, har- mons which have the highest boiling point have powers, its own spocific heat and specific gravity, machinery, twenty-five men, a movable house for their accommodation, and, we need hardly say, a cumstance it is fancied that a hard paraffin can be having all these properties equally with the largest competent staff of managers; Messrs. Howard produced at will.
mass,-is the fundamental conception of chemistry. Brothers, of Bedford, with a set of their well The melting and solidifying points of ordinary And the whole world to a chemist is only a known tackle and cultivators, driven by one of fats and fatty bodies have also been studied by mixture of such different kinds of matter, whose Clayton and Shuttleworth’s engines ; Messrs. Avel-Wimmel, whose experiments have revealed some mode of aggregation has been and is being ing and Porter, of Rochester, with one of their curious inconsistencies, if we may call them so determined by physical and vital forces which own traction engines working a Fowler's drum and It is a generally admitted law that among fusible are foreign to his science, but whose resemblances gear on the roundabout system, in which they bodies the point of solidification coincides exactly and differences, and whose changes under changed also employed their own travelling porters, this with the point of fusion. This, however, is by no
conditions or by contact one with another, from year perfected so as to form a real addition to means true in the case of fats.' Fats proper, that the subject of his study. useful steam ploughing machinery; Messrs. Tasker, is, those which have glycerine for their base,
In the study of any chemical change there are working Clayton and Shuttleworth’s traction en- solidify at a much lower temperature than that at two things to be discovered : first, the result of the gine with their own winding drum and Smith's which they become liquid ; and in this respect changewhat kinds of matter have ceased to exist cultivator with roundabout gear ; Messrs. Hayes there is a sharp distinction between fats proper and what have come into existence; and secondly, and Son, of Stoney Stratford, with their own and fatty bodies like spermaceti and bees-wax, the course of the change; as to which such portable drum and apparatus in general, with the which latter solidify immediately below the point inquiries as the following present themselves, -at exception of the cultivator, which, as in Messrs. of fusion. Perhaps the most curious result of what rate does the change occur, and under what Tasker's case, was on Smith's principle.
Wimmel's researches is the fact he has established conditions? Is it simple, or does it consist of several On the 9th, the steam ploughs commenced work that in these cases of retarded solidification there changes ? Are these dependent or independent, rather later than the horse ploughs and cultivators, is always at the moment of solidification a con- successive or simultaneous ?-with many others of and scarcely any regular competitive trial of them siderablo elevation of temperature, in some cases, a more hypothetical kind as to the molecular nature was organized.". At first it was almost thought indeod, almost sufficient to bring the fat back to of the change. A familiar example of this twofold that the competitions and dynanometer tests would the melting point. It is to be observed, however, nature of chemical inquiry may be drawn from the be postponed, but on finding that in general the that the greatest elevation of temperature takes case of a fire, a chemical change which has beon
We know all that tackle was quite equal to the work it had to per- place with the bodies which solidify most rapidly. more watched than any other. form, the judges readily decided on carrying out Oil of mace, for example, Wimmel states, solidi- is to be known as to the result of the change, when the original programme. Throughout the entire fies promptly at 33deg. Centigrado, bat the solidifi- we have discovered that the coals are a mixture of trials of steam machinery the only parts which cation is attended with a rise of the temperature various hydrocarbons with a small quantity of manifested any serious weakness were the shifting to 42dog. Contigrade, the melting point being metallic salts, that the air is a mixture of oxygen anchors of those firms that used the roundabout 45.5deg. Centigrade. In palm oil, which solidifies and nitrogen, and that when the fire has burnt out, system of tackle. These almost invariably gave more slowly, the rige is not so considerable. there exists, instead of so much coal and so much way a little at starting, each furrow sliding over There is anothor curious difference in the appear- air, a quantity of carbonic acid and water, the the hard ground, which they would not bite. In ance of fats and fatty bodies when heated. Some salts, which form the ash, and the nitrogen remainsome cases they broko under the ordeal of a sud- fats-beef and mutton suet, for example-only being mainly as thoy were.
But there is still much den strain, and, with one exhibitor, whose form of come clear and transparent when heated far above besides this to be found out as to the burning of anchor was more angular than any of the others, their melting points, while spermaceti and bees - the fire. How, for example, is the rate at which they scarcely held at all, and were the main cause, wax become transparent long before they melt.
it burns, affected by the draught, or by the density at the great time run on Saturday, of his being Writing of fats, reminds us that Bolley has shown of the air, or by the breaking up of the fuel, or by unable to complete the stipulated quantity of that benzole or light petroleum oils may be used in access of the sun's rays? What are the substances, ploughing. On Thursday, regular competitive the extraction and estimation of unsaponified fats formed from the heated coal, which actually burn ? trials were instituted, but Messrs. Tasker and in soaps. A soap carefully dried at 100deg. is so Does the reduction of the products of combustion Messrs. Howard did some good cultivating, which very slightly soluble in these menstrua that for by carbon play an important part in the phewas timed by the judges, and the other exhibitors practical purposes the amount dissolved may be nomenon? Such questions as those relate to the got into position, and worked a little during the disregarded, and all extracted may be considered course of the chemical change. afternoon. The 10th, so far as steam ploughing as fat.
The two lines of inquiry thus indicated have was concerned, was devoted to a series of experi A great deal was said in England some years
been pursued with very unequal vigour. The ments with Messrs. Fowler's machinery, exhibited ago on the subject of "silk conditioning," or the study of the results of chemical action has engrossed under three different modes of working.
estimation of moisture and other matters in raw silk. the attention of chemists almost to the exclusion It would be impossible, considering the present Silk, as is well known, strongly attracts moisture, of the study of their course. And, indeed, so incipient state of the proceedings, to enter into a and Bolley has recently made some experiments to great is the number of different kinds of matter, critical investigation of the show. We therefore ascertain the seat of this hygroscopic property. all capable of undergoing a multitude of changes defer until our next number a detailed account of It has generally been supposed to reside in the by the action of heat or electricity or by contact those objects possessing an especial interest for our gum with which raw silk is enveloped. Bolley mechanical and agricultural readers.
shows, however, that this is an error, for he found * Read before the Royal Institution of Great Britain,
an oxalate for reducing agent, though the final re- is directly proportional to the quantity of the sub-/ less water power in places where only a limited
results obtained in many series of such experimatter capable of similar changes, that this part tions for 1866,” p. 206. The general conclusion minutes only, when the copper to be refined is not with others, giving rise thus to new kinds of ments are given in the Philosophical Transac- tremely active reaction is produced, and the refining of the science appears absolutely boundless. The direction which chemistry has taken in conseto which they lead is that the total amount of
very impure. The air may be introduced into the quence of this superabundance of materials
change occurring at any moment is directly pro- midst of the copper bath in various ways, but the perhaps, be contrasted with that taken by physical portional, all other conditions being ali ke, to the most practical mode is to pass it through the tube at
the centre of the roof of the furnace. This tube science. If the number of distinct physical forces amount of permanganate in the solution. met with in nature, such as gravity, magnetism,
The last chemical change which has been investi- may be readily raised out of the bath when it is not electricity, heat, light, &c., instead of being gated from this point of view is that which takes required to introduce air, and it always remains at a
sufficiently high temperature to prevent its breaking, quite a small number, had been a large number, place when dilute acid solutions of an iodide and a
as it would do were it subject to sudden variations and these foreos had proved to be convertible not dioxide, such as barium or sodium dioxide, are
of temperature. It is essential that the treatment only one into another but into an infinite variety mixed together. By arranging suitably the dilu- should extend beyond the period of oxidation, and of other distinct forces, physical experimentalists tion, acidity, and temperature of the solution, the when the metal on examination is found to be of a might have occupied themselves wholly with esta- change may be made to proceed at any rate that deep or brick-red colour the refining is complete, blishing the transmutations of one kind of force is most convenient for measurement. One of the after which the metal is treated exactly as in into another and creating new modes of force, products of the change is iodine, a substance for ordinary.
Dr. Le Clerc gives the following as the theory :instead of studying minutely, as they have done, which we have, in its action on starch, a most the conditions under which the existing forces are delicato test. By bringing a small known quan-than at the commencement of the operation, still
The bath of metallic copper, although much purer produced, and the laws which govern their distri- tity of hyposulphite into the liquid, all the iodine contains sulphur, arsenic, antimony, and iron. bution and transformation.
that is formed by the gradual reaction of peroxide Under the influence of the air introduced into the It is, however, not only the vastness of the and iodide is reconverted into iodide, and this bath excessive oxidation takes place, whereby the chemical field, and the particular satisfaction which continues till iodine enough has been formed to sulphurous, arsenious, and antimonious acids are so solid a result as the creation of a new kind of remove all the hyposulphite. As soon as the disengaged, oxides of copper and iron being also matter brings to the mind of the investigator, last particle of hyposulphite has been removed produced in the form of scoria: Combinations of which has led to the neglect of the study of the converted into totrathionate), free iodine ap- tained more or less arseniated. An important point course of chemical changes. This study is beset poars in the solution, and the moment of its ap- to be noted, which is also well known, is that, by exwith peculiar difficulties, and indeed, out of the vast pearance may be noted by carefully watching tending the oxidation, which may be readily done, a number of chemical changes whose results are the colour of the liquid. By adding successive large quantity of oxide of copper may be obtained, known, there are but very few whose course can quantities of hyposulphite, and observing the in- which has the property of giving up its oxygen to readily be observed. The principal reason of this torval which elapses between successive reappear- foreign matters, and in this manner conduces to the is the velocity with which such changes take place, ances of the blue colour of the iodide of starch, it reduction of the copper. The production of the and this velocity is apt to be the greatest in the case is possible accurately to determine the rate at protoxide of copper in superabundant quantity necesof the simple chemical actions which are most which the change is proceeding. An account of a sarily causes a considerable loss of copper, which suitable for investigation. Either, then, we must number of experiments made in this way and of their combine under the form of complex silicate of iron contrive some mode of estimating a very great results is to be found in the “ Philosophical Trans- nical, formed by the influence of the air insuflated velocity, as has been done for the measurement of actions for 1867," p. 117. Each set of observa- into the metallic bath. For this reason, when, after the rate at which light and electricity travel, or we tions determines at what rate the dioxide is reduced having introduced the air, the metal assumes a deep must select a change--and this the variety of under certain definite conditions; and by making brick-red colour, Dr. Le Clerc takes the precaution to chemistry makes possible—which proceeds at a rate different series of experiments, in which the seve- add to the bath a mixture of from two to five per cent. convenient for observations.
ral conditions affecting the rate of change are sys- of charcoal and lime and to well stir them. In this Examples of the different, velocity of chemical tematically varied, it is possible to discover the manner he obtains the complete reduction of the silichanges are furnished by the precipitation of a laws of connection between each of the conditions cate, and all loss of copper is thus entirely prevented. barium and of a calcium salt from their solutions and the amount of change. Having discovered Immediately following the action of this mixture the change is apparently instantaneous. The re- complete, and we can predict with certainty the nary way. upon the addition of a sulphate. With the former, these laws, our knowledge of the change is so far the refining process is proceeded with in the ordisult is known, but the course cannot be observed. time that would be required for any given amount With the latter, the change is gradual, and it would of change under any given circumstances.
A CURIOUS INVENTION. be possible to determine its rato at different temperatures and with different quantities of the two conclusions to which the examination of these cases contemporary:-A new and singular method of
The following propositions embody the principal I MACIOLATIVE persons should by all means read salts in solution. The decomposition of a hypo- of gradual chemical change has led :-1. The rate utilizing the forces of air and water has just been sulphite in an acid solution is anothor example of at which a chemical change proceeds is constant patented in Illinois, and applied to the propulsion of a gradual, observable change. We may compare under constant conditions, and is independent of vessels in Lake Michigan. The invention is founded also the reduction of a chromate by a sulphite and the time that has elapsed since the change com
on the well-known laws of atmospheric pressure, by by an oxalate. The former occupies no appreci- menced. 2. When any substance is undergoing a which a column of water can be sustained at a height able time; the actual time is, doubtless, greater in chemical change, of which no condition varies, ex
of 33ft. The inventor employs steam instead of air, a more dilute solution and at a lower temperature, cepting the diminution of the changing substance, thus gaining a great increase in the force of presbut we cannot discern any difference. But with the amount of change occurring at any moment sure, and his idea was originally to furnish an enda sult of the change is the same, the action takes a stance. 3. When two or more substances act one the same water over and over-the cost of the steam
amount of water can be obtained-that is, by using long time to accomplish itself, and it would be upon another, the amount of action at any moment used in condensation being only one-third the cost quite practicable to observe in what way different is directly proportional to the quantity of each of of attaining equal power by the use of the ordinary circumstances affect its rate.
the substances. 4. When the rate of any chemical steam engine. There is but one of these machines But, in order to discover the laws which govern change is affected by the presence of a substance, in operation at Batavia, Illinois, which makes twenty the rate of any chemical change, some exact mode which itself takes no part in the change, the ac- strokes per minute, raising two barrels of water of measuring the rate is necessary. It remains to celeration or retardation produced is directly pro- into the reservoir at every stroke. From the resershow how this may be accomplished in certain portional to the quantity of the substance. 5. The voir it falls upon an overshot wheel, or may be made a. temperature of about 80deg. C. in a flask pro- curring in a solution and the temperature of the cistern below, from which it is again raised by the vided with a gas delivery tube, gives off a quantity solution is such, that for every additional degree apparatus show a saving of two-thirds of the fuel of nitrogen, which may be collected over the pneu- the number expressing the rate is to be multiplied used in the ordinary application of steam, besides matic trough. By keeping the temperature conby a constant quantity.
doing away entirely with the danger of explosions. stant, and collectiug the gas evolved during successive equal intervals of time in similar cylinders,
The invention, as improved by a Michigan man,
consists in the application of the process to the proit is possible at once to show the regular diminution
pulsion of steamers and propellers–the overshot in the volume of gas which is caused by the con
wheel, with steamboat paddles of the usual sort stant diminution of the quantity of salt in solution.
HE following improved process of refining copper being attached in the former class of vessels and the the quantities of gas with accuracy, it would be 29, Boulevart St. Martin, Paris. Black copper in a the latter. It is claimed by the inventor that he will possible to discover the relation between the more or less impure condition is subjected to the action need to carry in his elevated reservoir no more amount of change going on at any moment and of heat in a reverberatory furnace, as is ordinary, and water than is usually carried in steamboat boilers on the amount of salt in solution, and, also, by making immediately it has reached a sufficiently high tem- the old plan, while he dispenses with the cumbrous the experiment at different temperatures, to dis- perature to begin to soften, water is projected on the and complicated engines entirely—that he can attain cover how the temperature of the solution affects heated metallic mass in the form of very fine jets or any required power--that he can greatly diminish the rate at which the action takes place.
small rain until the complete fusion of the metal is the risks of fire as well as explosions, inasmuch as
obtained, when the supply of water is stayed. Sup- the water carried in the reservoir can be rapidly The reduction of a permanganate by an oxalato posing the cupreous mass subjected to the action of conveyed by means of hose pipes to any part of the in an acid solution furnishes another case of a heat contain copper, iron, sulphur, arsenic, antimony, vessel, and also that he can greatly diminish the gradual measurable change, and has been more lead, or tin under the influence of the high tempera- risks of sinking, because the pumps which raise the fully studied. Here it is possible to start tho ture, the water on coming in contact is decomposed water can instantly be connected with the hold of a change at any moment by adding the measured and forms sulphuretted, arseniated, or antimoniated vessel when a leak is discovered. He claims also to quantity of permanganate to the other ingredients hydrogen, which disengages. The oxygen acts on do away entirely with the jerking motion of the and mixing rapidly. It is also possible to stop it the copper, iron, and other fixed metals, and forms engines now in use, as there is no "dead centre" on at any moment by adding a solution of iodide to oxides which derive silica from the sides of the a water wheel. the mixture; and the iodine which is set free by furnace and pass into the form of scoria. A small
amount of sulphuric, arsenious, and antimonious THE SCIENTIFIC WONDER.—Have you seen it? the action of the residual permanganate corresponds to it in quantity and can readily be esti- acid is produced, which disengages in the form of It magnifies 32,000 times. Price thirty-two stamps
Immediately the copper is completely (post free), with book of full instructions. To be mated.
By making a number of such experi- fused, Dr. Le Clerc places a tube of refractory clay had only from A. McCulloch, Philosophical Instruments, differing from one another only in the in the metallic bath, the diameter of which tube is ment Maker, 18, Blucher-street, Birmingham. time during which the gradual change is allowed proportionate to the quantity of copper forming the N.B.--For further particulars, see Advertisement to proceed, its course may be traced throughout bath. This being done, he projects a large amount in this paper, page i, column 2, headed "Scientifio with any required degree of minuteness. The l of atmospheric air through the tube, when an ex- I Wonder." -LADYT.)
cut off. When the piston of the small cylinder is the press and the exhaust chamber a3, causing the HYDRAULIC PRESS VALVES.
in its advanced position, that part of it of small hydraulic press to maintain a state of rest. The FR. J. B. FENBY, of Birmingham, who is well diameter is in part brought into that portion of the piston g being moved in the direction indicated by invention of a very perfect lock, has recently patented and the cylinder of the press is thus put in commu- chamber a?, and thereby opens communication besome improvements in hydraulic press valves. His nication with the exhaust pips, the communication tween the lug or connection b and the press, the plain invention consists in arranging the parts of valves for between the feed pipe and cylinder of the press end of the plunger g still fitting the cupped leather opening and closing at pleasure the communication be-being cut off.
packing k, and preventing any access to the exhaust tween the feed or exhaust pipes of hydraulic presses Fig. 1 in our engraving represents an end eleva- Chamber a3. When the plunger g is moved in a and the cylinders of the presses, and thereby establish-tion of a small valve for a hydraulic press, con- direction contrary to that indicated by the arrow in ing a communication between the pump and cylinder structed according to Mr. Fenby's invention, fig. 2 fig. 2, the cupped packing h passes into the small when it is wished to raise the ram or plunger of the being a longitudinal section, and fig. 3 a side eleva- part of the cylinder a and cuts off the feed, the valve press, or between the cylinder and the exhaust pipe tion of the same. a is the hollow cylinder of the passing beyond the neutral position represented, and when it is wished to allow the ram or plunger to make valve, and g is the piston or plunger working in the bringing the reduced part of the plunger g through its return motion. Valves constructed according to cylinder. The cylinder a is provided with screwed the packing h, and part into the chamber a3, thus this invention may also be used for the accumulators lugs or connecting pieces b c 'd, and a tapped hole e allowing a free escape of the water from the press. of hydraulic presses, and for various other purposes. for making the necessary joints or connections with Fig. 4 represents in horizontal section a large
We will describe Mr. Fenby's invention with re- the feed and exhaust pipes of the press pumps and valve arranged for working with a secondary valve ference to a hydraulic press. He connects with the accumulator. The piston g in the cylinder a carries of smaller bore; fig. 5 is an end elevation of the cylinder of the press a small or supplementary | the cupped leather or collar h, and in the cylinder same. B is the hollow cylinder provided with the hollow cylinder closed at one end; a piston works a is a cupped leather packing i, which fits the piston required lugs or connecting pieces y, for bolting in this small cylinder. The connection between the in all its positions. The piston g immediately at down, and with passages C, D, and F for feeding, two cylinders is by means of a pipe or opening in the rear of the cupped leather h is reduced in dia- exhausting, and coupling to the press. The plunger the side of the small cylinder and about midway meter, its extreme end being of the full size, as re A is made in three parts for the purpose of fitting between its ends. The feed pipe from the pump presented in fig. 2. In addition to the cupped leather, on leather collars x and w. At either end of the opens into the small cylinder at its side near packing in the cylinder a is furnished with the valve cylinder are leather collars or packings v and its open end, and the exhaust pipe opens into cupped leather packing k. In the gland I is a cylin- u; pieces t of wood, india-rubber, or other material the small cylinder near its closed end. The piston drical chamber 12, in which the collar g? on the are inserted into the recesses in the glands q and s or plunger of the small cylipder is of the piston g works, the collar g acting as a stop to regu- for the ends of the plunger to strike against. The same diameter as the interior of the small cylin- late the range of motion of the piston; the collar smaller valve X is fixed on the large valve in the der, excepting near its middle, where it is made ge is made solid with the piston g.' The mode of manner represented in fig. 5, the smaller valve having of smaller diameter, and where between it and the fixing is as follows :-One of the lugs or connecting communication with the chambers a b and c in the small cylinder is an annular space into which the pieces b d being coupled to the pressure pipe leading cylinder of the large valve, the lugs or connecting communication with the cylinder of the press opens to the tank of the pumps, the other lug b or d is pieces of the small valve being connected for this The parts of the small cylinder into which the feed stopped off or coupled to the corresponding parts of purpose with the chamber a b c. The valve as and exhaust pipes open are of somewhat larger in the next valve where several form one series. The shown in fig. 4 is in a neutral position. The feed ternal diameter than the middle part. The range lug or connecting piece c is coupled to the cylinder water being supplied through the passage C passes of motion of the piston or plunger of the small of the press where the ram moves, and to the ram into the smaller valve X through the pipe d?, and is cylinder is limited by a collar near its top working in if the cylinder moves. The cylinder a is provided exhausted from thence through the pipe d2. The a recess in the gland at the open end of the small cylin- with four flat lugs or connecting pieces m for bolting plunger of the smaller valve X being worked with a der. When the piston of the small cylinder is in its the valve to a base plate or to the press.
lever the water is alternately supplied to and exwithdrawn position that part of it of small diameter In fig. 2 the valve is represented in a neutral posi- hausted from the chamber a, and thus gives the is brought into the portion of the small cylinder into tion, the cupped leather packing h closing the pas- plunger A the necessary reciprocating motion for which the feed pipe opens, and a communication is sage from the chamber as of the cylinder to the admitting the water to the ram of the press from the i hereby established between the feed pump and the opening in the lug or connection c, while at the same feed lug or connection C through the lug or connec. cylinder of the press, the communication between time the end of the piston o fitting the cupped ' tion F, and withdrawing and discharging the water he cylinder of the press and the exhaust pipe being' leather packing k cuts off communication between through the exhaust passage D.
Fig. 6 represents in longitudinal section two be found in the particular locality. The finest
AMÉRICAN IMPORTS. single valves arranged for working together where description is made from burnt clay, sand, and
three months of the year 1868 have amounted on both sides of a piston. The valves are coupled stones sufficiently large to come under the designaend to end, as represented, with distant pieces M tion of rubble work. Every professional man is to 84,067,354 dollars, a decrease of more than 11 per between them, so that when one is open to exhaust aware that rubble work is one of the strongest cent., as compared with the first three months of the other shall be open to feed, as will be understood descriptions of masonry that can be built. It does 180 Deducting gold and silver, the imports of by the previous description ; the valves may also be not depend for its solidity, and inherent strength | merchandize were of the value of 80,468,415 arranged with the ends reversed. Figs. 7 and 8 upon the insistent weight of each stone, similar to dollars, a decrease of nearly 13 per cent. represent on a large scale the gland ? of the valve, dressed ashlar work, but these qualities are imparted articles the decrease is very great; cotton, and fig. 4, fig. 7 being a longitudinal section, and fig. 8 to it by the universality of its cementation—the manufactures thereof, declined from 11,166,544 an end elevation of the inner face of the same; the reticulated nature of its union. The stones do not dollars in the first quarter of the year 1867 to figures exhibit the shape of the recess M formed for adhere to one another solely by the medium of vertical supporting the cupped leather packing marked u, and horizontal joints, but are cemented together by 5,517,302 dollars in the first quarter of 1868; iron in fig. 4.
joints running in every possible direction. Not the and steel, and manufactures thereof, from 6,687,728 least meritorious feature in Mr. Tall's principle is dollars to 3,820,055 dollars ; wool, and manufac
that any kind of stones, the rougher and sharper the tures thereof, from 13,029,161 dollars to 8,392,928 THE ART OF BUILDING IN CONCRETE.- better, bats, old bricks, clinkers, glass, and almost dollars ; fax, and manufactures thereof, from
any kind of hard refuse, can be safely and profitably 5,744,546 dollars to 3,604,154 dollars ; earthen TALL'S APPARATUS.
utilized. Bulk for bulk, the cost of the value of Q' and chinaware, from 1,306,124 dollars to 799,205
in our fundamental equation is evidently much less dollars, fancy goods, from 1,188,313 dollars to FOR some time back much attention has been than that of Q, supposing it to represent an equivalent 640,026 dollars ; hides and skins, from 3,557,221
directed to the application of concrete, beton, amount of brickwork; and since a less quantity of dollars to 2,593,585 dollars ; paper, and manufacand its many varieties, to those constructive purposes concrete will suffice to give the same strength as a for which previously brick and stone were regarded greater quantity of brickwork, the saving in the cost tures of paper, from 614,600 dollars to 301,635 cerned with the employment that has been made of item P1 in our calculation. In the first place, we as the only suitable materials. We are not now con- of material is apparent. We now come to the other dollars ; wines and spirits, from 1,404,832 dollars
to 983,304 dollars. The imports of some articles these substitutes upon a scale of magnitude, om- will briefly describe the method of using the appa- of first necessity-tea and sugar, for instancebracing the construction of sea-walls, harbours, ratus. It consists of a frame composed of uprights greatly increased. jetties and similar works of corresponding dimensions. at the corners, and longitudinal pauels fitting in Our remarks at present are confined to those ex- between, and enclosing a space equal to the thickness amples in which attempts have been made to super- of the intended wall. Where there is a long length sede the use of brick and stone in ordinary dwelling- of wall to be built, it is obvious that the panels,
SALMON FOR NEW ZEALAND. of concreter. The first principle that must be adhered saying, were they not supported at intervals.” This is our corded a few months since the shipment of to in all attempts to supersede any recognized prevented by the introduction of intermediate uprights, salmon and trout ova and live fish to New Zealand. and time-honoured system of construction is that or stiffening pieces, as they might be termed into The Otago Times announces the arrival of the the total cost of the proposed novel method must which the ends of the paneis slide. These stiffening - Celestial Queen" with her piscatorial freight at not exceed that of the old. The total cost obviously uprights act precisely the same part as the T-iron Port Chalmers, on the 2nd of May last. The first consists of two items-one, the price of the material, stiffeners do to the sides of a plate girder. The news was disheartening. The live tish shipped had and the other, that of putting it together, the price frame being set up and truly levelled, the space ceased to be. The gudgeon got bruised and died; of the workmanship: This first principle may be between the panels is filled in with the concrete for the carp succumbed to the heat of the tropics; tho expressed mathematically in very simple terms. If a height of 21in. all round. Wood blocks, slightly tench, by the carelessness of one of the ship's boys, Q represent the quantity of material required in one tapering, are inserted in the material, where joists, mistaking one bucket for another, were thrown into system, the older one for instance, and the cost of sills, and other work is to be placed, and the building the sea ; and only two oysters survived. A few the workmanship attendant upon Q, then P and Q carried up uniformly. So 'soon as the 21in. is boxes of ova wers opened immediately on arrival, represent the total cost of erection by this method. finished the panels are removed and shifted up to before sending them to the ponds. The first box Let Q' equal the quantity of material demanded by their next position upon the uprights, and so on contained seven ova in a satisfactory state, and so the new system, and Pi'its cost, then plxQ' will until about oft. in height is gained, when the uprights were boxes of Tay salmon and brown trout, espemanifestly represent the total cost.
In order to themselves are shifted up, and so on to the comple- cially one of the trout boxes marked with the wellensure a fair trial to any new method of construction, tion of the work. The frame is in separate pieces, known initials “ F. B The boxes were forthwith the maximum value that may be given to Pixe' is and its putting together and taking asunder a very carefully transhipped for their destinations. Ten PIXQ=PXQ. Unless this fundamental principle simple operation. We cannot, however, but consider boxes were reserved for an experiment in the Water be adhered to, there is no practical use in endeavour- that a large portion of the timber in it might be of Leith, to which they were speedily despatched. ing to introduce to the public any proposed new advantageously replaced by iron. By the skilful and Besides the boxes of salmon ova there was one method of construction with the slightest chance of judicious use of anglo iron the whole arrangement containing the ova of a sea trout. It is satisfactory making it pay. Either of the two items; P or Q, I might be rendered lighter and more permanent. It to know that of this quantity there appears to be a may be separately greater or less than P' or QI but is easy to perceive that the apparatus is susceptible very considerable proportion in a healthy state. there must be a collective equality in any case. A of improvement, which will doubtless be given to opening their boxes of salmo umbla by the Acclimaproblem that has been for a long period presented to it as it comes to be more generally adopted. the architect and builder is, What is the minimum
tization Society it was found that they had been
Notwithstanding that one of the items in our packed very closely, or had become adhesive, and price at which dwellings can be erected for working calculation is so much smaller than the corresponding would not separate in the usual way. A few likely men and their families? We do not ourselves con-one having reference to construction in brick, it sider that this is either a fair way of stating the is evident that the other is much greater. In a
ones were separated and kept, but on the whole they
were very bad indeed. They had generally the apquestion or a plan likely to solve the difficulty: We word, it would not pay to employ Mr. Tall's appa- pearance of completo decay, some of the boxes do not believe in what is commonly called "cheap ratus to build one small house, any, more than it smelling quite offensively. The eggs were of a work," although we do believe in a cheap principle would to employ a steam engine to lift one sack of yellow colour, which can be best compared to that of of work, which is a very different affair. The ques- coals, or a locomotive to draw one carriage. The kerosene seen through a white glass. The trout ova, tion, then, resolves itself into the substitution of framework may be regarded as plant which may be however, were in a better condition. About a quarter some material which shall be cheaper than those rendered serviceable for a number of similar jobs, but of the quantity had all the appearance of life. ordinarily used in all similar instances. Concrete which is too expensive to be used upon a very insig- even when those which appeared to be alive were has been employed from very early times in this nificant scale. Any person desiring to erect half a examined through a glass tube there was discovered manner, but its application has been not only hitherto dozen cottages or other small dwellings would find on many a small white streak, which had probably confined to very narrow limits in the building house the first cost of the concrete apparatus more than been communicated to them by contact with the sphere, but it has never received that amount of repay itself. All concrete work in the wails of dead ova, but which is understood to be a fatal sign. investigation and attention which the importance of bouses must be faced with stucco or plaster on the It was observed that where the moss in which they the subject demands. It has never been regarded in outside, and owing to the roughness of the material were packed was green the ova were healthy, but a systematic point of view, and the taking out of a the " bite” obtained by the plaster is so good as to those inclosed in moss which had become brown patent by Mr. Tall is the first indication that success virtually incorporate it with the concrete. There were found to be dead ; and in the majority of the will attend its adoption, and render its utility not would be no danger of it peeling off in patches, as is boxes much of the moss had become dry, withered, questionable, but undoubted—its application not constantly the case when stucco is applied upon and moulded. A result similar to this was observeri transitory and fitful, but steady and permanent. brickwork. On the other hand, there is no absolute by Mr. Ramsbottom and the commissioners appointed
One of the constant and most shallow arguments necessity for plastering brickwork, provided the to conduct the experiment of introducing the salmon urged against concrete walls is that they are bricks are of a quality sufficiently good for facing into the rivers of Tasmania. It was observed also not so strozg as those built of bricks. It is excusable, bricks. All that is really necessary in labourers by the commissioners that the smallest amount of though barely so, for amateurs and outsiders to put dwellings is to strike the joints, and in a house of mortality was invariably found in those boxes in forward such utter nonsense, but when we witness superior description to tuck-point them. It is
which the moss had been most loosely packed and the same statements supported by professional men, alleged as one of the greatest advantages of this the ova subjected to the least amount of pressure. the reply to them becomes a species of absurdity. system that skilled labour may be dispensed with. Great pains have been taken by the Acclimatization There are abundance of statistics with respect to and that a common labourer can build up the walls Society to seruro a cool pure stream ; the society experiments conducted with a view to testing the within the frame. This is a point we do not entirely has done all that art can do to aid Nature. Tino breaking weight of concretes and coments at the concur in, for care and skill are necessary in building will show the result. Among the contents of tho disposal of those who choose to search for them. the walls. They cannot be exactly thrown together icehouse on board the - Celestial Queen was a small We would advise those who are not acquainted with in heaps, and the inaterials left to arrange themselves box containing a dozen of Dorking ones. These them to become so before they ignorantly draw com- in any manner they choose. Skilled labour may be were also intended for the Acclimatization Society, parisons between the two methods of construction. reduced in amount, but it cannot be altogether dis- and have been distributed for hatching. Another Without entering further into this matter, it will be pensed with. We shall be glad to witness the item in the list of articles for acclimatization was a assumed that a concrete wall built upon Mr. Tall's further development of Mr. Tall's principle, as it bundle of heather, which looked as if it lind just principle is much stronger than an ordinary brick appears to possess all the elements requisite within been plucked from the moors, the bloom being still wall built in mortar. It is not, however, taken for the limits we have mentioned to ensure the presence perceptible. granted that it is any stronger than a brick wall built of soundness, solidity, strength, and durability inin Portland cement; they are probably of equal whatever description of building it may be applied strength, and both after the laps of a certain time to. The manner in which houses are run up with FROM a return just publis!ı"), it apars that the participate more in the nature of solid rock than an scarcely a whole or sound brick in their eatira com- expensis of the Irisli dailway Cubesi agglomeration of individual and component parts. position has proved to what ordinary brickwork mny to no less than £22,50 114. 31. Of this stn th: The actual nature and constituency of Mr. Tall's come. Any regular systematic method of utilizing remuneration of three of the commissionery 22: ! the concrete may be said to be of a double kind, fine and concrete as a building material, if scientifically carried secretary was £3,225, the office expens, s, printing, coarse, with many intermediate shades, as it were, out, must attract the attention of both professional and incidental, £2,298 is. 7d., and the travelling exdepending upon the character of the gravel or stone to men and the public.---- Building News.”
ponses, £5,255 7s. 9d.
engines represented in our engravings illustrate are placed the feed pumps, and, when they are BLOWING ENGINE AT THE LANGLOAN their most recent practice, embodying as they do required, tuyere pumps as well. The steam cylin
excellent proportion and design. There are two ders are each 45in. in diameter and 8ft. 6in. stroke, IRON WORKS.
engines coupled at right angles, with a fly-wheel the pistons are each packed with three of RamsTHE pair of blowing engines which we illustrate between them. The condensers are arranged bottom's steel rings, placed in a movable ring by Messrs. J. Aitkin and Co., of Glasgow, who have cylinders, and the air pump is placed on the top required without withdrawing the piston.
The long been known in connection with the manufac- of the condenser. The steam and exhaust valves air pump is 26in. in diameter and 4ft. 3in. stroke; ture of engines of this class. There are upwards are of the Cornish type, and are actuated by the bucket and cover are each provided with four of fifty blowing engines of different sizes at the means of cam gearing driven from the Ay-wheel disc rubber valves; the cams are made to open the various ironworks of Scotland und England which shaft through a counter shaft; the steam valves valves by depressing a lover provided with an antihave been crocted by the same makers, and the cut off at half stroke. Behind the blowing cylinders friction roller ; at the opposite end of the lever is